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Principles and Organisation of

Training

Rob Thickpenny BA (Hons), UKA 3, MSMA


National Coach Mentor
Physical Preparation

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Aims
Principles of training
Fitness versus fatigue and recovery
Planning and periodisation
UKA Exercise Classification Hierarchy –
GPE and SPE
Integration of Physical Preparation

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Principles of Training
• Overload
- Progressively placing greater than normal demands
on the exercising musculature
• Adaptation
- The result of systematic well executed exercise is
improvement of the athlete’s fitness, particularly
strength, as the body adapts to physical load
• Specificity
- The concept of specificity holds that training is most
effective when strength exercises (or other types of
training) are similar to the sport activity in which
improvement is sought

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Principles of Training
• Recovery
- Rest is required in order for the body to recover from the
training and to allow adaptation to take place.
- There are also significant psychological benefits to
resting
- Rest is not the opposite of work!

• Accommodation
- If athletes employ the same exercises with the same
training load over a period of time, performance
improvement (gain) decreases

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Principles of training

• Individualization
- All athletes are different therefore the same
exercises or training methods elicit a greater or
smaller effect in various athletes

• Reversibility
- If the body is not provided with a stimulus then
the training effect will cease

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Detraining
The rate of de-training is relative to the training history of
the athlete. Coaches may consider that after 8-12 weeks
of no maximum strength training it is likely that activation
levels will return to pre-training levels (Andersen et al.,
2005).
Detraining of the aerobic system occurs with 6-8 weeks
following training. As a result, endurance athletes need to
maintain high frequency and regular intensity of training to
maintain aerobic adaptation, even if training volume is
reduced.

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Principle of Overload

Homeostasis

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General Adaptation Syndrome

Proposed by the chemist Hans Selye (1956)


Alarm phase – when first encountering stress
Resistance phase of increased resistance when repeatedly
exposed to stress
Exhaustion phase – when the ability to cope with the stress is
reduced after over-exposure
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Fitness-Fatigue “2 Factor Theory”

Fitness-Fatigue Model, adapted from Chui & Barnes (2003). The blue line
represents performance following training (orange block) and is the net
result of changing fitness (green line) and fatigue (red line).

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Fitness vs. Fatigue
Opposing forces
Rate of fatigue in proportion to intensity
Quantity of fatigue is primarily in proportion
to volume and then intensity
• Max sprinting against endurance running
• Fatigue affects body’s systems differently –
muscle, energy, nervous
• ‘Ready to train’ – all systems go or ready to rest

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Young Athlete
Improve general fitness level
Novices tend to respond to any training
General adaptations occur without
substantial fatigue
Novices cannot train with sufficient load,
intensity or volume to elicit fatigue after
effects

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Periodisation
Periodisation is the process of structuring training into
phases where each phase has its specific aims for the
development of the athlete
Athletics coaches generally use linear (beginners), non-
linear (undulating) and block models. The model used is
not so important as how you manipulate the training
variables and plan recovery to ultimately improve
performance
Periodising an athlete’s year is a skill in itself and requires
experience and some trial and error!
Consider UKA Exercise Classification Hierarchy and how
this informs the exercises and training modalities you
employ – adapted from Dr A Bondarchuk
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Training Cycles
Macrocycle:
– the time available for preparation up to a
major goal or competition
Mesocycle:
– usually 3-6 weeks and has a specific
purpose

Microcycle:
– shorter training cycle (usually 7 days)
sequencing several training sessions

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Planning Training
MACROCYCLE

MESOCYCLE

MICROCYCLE

SESSION

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Single Periodised Year

Double Periodised Year

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Single vs. Double Periodisation
Single Periodisation

Advantages Disadvantages

• Significantly more time • Boredom through lack of


to develop basic variety
performance capacities • Potential lack of
• Plenty of time available competitions
for training and recovery

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Single vs. Double Periodisation
Double Periodisation
Advantages Disadvantages
Greater choice of • There is limited time to
competitions acquire basic abilities
Higher specific training
load • The second preparation
More competitions means period is often subject to
increased motivation for time pressures
the athlete
More intensive technique • There is little time for
training possible recovery?
• Coaches can overcome
this!

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Training Content
Mesocycles and Microcycles
• The content of the Mesocycle and Microcycle
is dependent on how far or how close to
competition it is.
In general, the further from competition the
higher the volume and the lower the intensity
and the lower the specificity
The closer to competition the lower the
volume and the higher the intensity and the
higher the specificity, modelling peak
performance

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The Training Year (Macrocycle) -
Planning Peak Performance

Volume
Intensity
Athletic Shape

General Specific Pre-


Preparation Preparation Competition
Phase Phase Phase

Main Competitions

Preparation Period Competition Period

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Designing the Annual Plan
• Evaluation – how effective was the previous year’s
planning? Did the athlete achieve their goals?
• Decide whether a single, double or triple periodised year
is optimum and draft the plan
• S.M.A.R.T.E.R goals
• Decide the duration of the periods and phases
• Mesocycle and Microcycle planning
• Quantification of Training Loads: volume, intensity,
density, effort, recovery and tapering for competition
• Monitoring and Evaluation throughout the year –
physical qualities as well as technical performance

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Structuring of the Mesocycle
With young or inexperienced athletes a ratio of 2:1 or even
1:1 should be used
i.e. two microcycles with high load followed by one with
reduced load (2:1), or high and low are alternated (1:1)
For more experienced athletes it is possible to use a
system of greater variation in the loading, examples below
-

Mesocycle Mesocycle Mesocycle Mesocycle


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High Intensity • Explosive triple extension throws
Throws • High intensity throwing

• Throws with steps & shuffles


Throws with Pre- • Throws with jumps
and Post-
• Throws with sprints
Movements
• Throws with bounds

• Partner throws
Multiple Throws (Force • Wall throws
Absorbtion & Generation) • Slams, chops
• Multi-directional & rotational

• Standing throws
Stability Throws (Trunk & Joint • Single leg throws
Conditioning) • Kneeling, half-kneeling, seated throws
• Specific shoulder conditioning

• Shoulder stability & control


• Squat patterns
• Lunge paterns
Underpinning Movements
• Rotational & diagonal
movements of trunk
• Proprioceptive work & drills

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UKA Exercise Classification Hierarchy
Physical Preparation comprises of activities that cross
both SPE and GPE classifications
For long-term development of athlete it is very
important to have both SPE and GPE activities as a
large emphasis of training – i.e. not just SDE and CE
(the actual event) focused training.

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UKA Exercise Classification Hierarchy
Key thing is getting the balance right for the type of athlete
that you have – Physical Preparation is not just about back
squat, squat clean or bench press
Amounts of GPE activities should be the largest
component of training throughout the week – young
athletes
Levels of SPE should be slowly increased as athlete
develops
Remember the 10 year 10,000 hour training rule

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UKA Exercise Classification Hierarchy
GPE Activities SPE Activities
• Mobility – Joint by Joint • Maximal Strength Activities:
approach Squat, Bench Press, Deadlift
• Stability & Inverted Leg Press
• Flexibility • Power Activities:
• Balance Olympic lifting, throwing
• Muscle Recruitment Work (MB’s or Powerbags) and
jumping
• Movement Pattern
Development Elastic Development
activities
• General jump & throw
development Multiple jumps/bounds
• General Strength Work

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...
Mobility/Stability
MOVEMENT:
Joint Primary Training Need
Ankle Mobility (Sagital)
Knee Stability
Hip Mobility
Lumbar Spine Stability
Thoracic Spine Mobility
Gleno – humeral Stability

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Integration of PP – Yearly
Be very aware of volumes
of high intensity event
based activities and plan
levels of SPE and GPE
work accordingly
Physically give your
athletes the tools they
need to run fast, jump far
and throw long when they
need to – have a plan!

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Integration of PP – Weekly
Correctly sequence around event based high intensity work
– throwing the hammer, sprinting 100m & LJ are high
intensity activities that train many systems
Order should enhance event specific high intensity work
not compromise it
Fatigue of CNS and event specific muscle groups could
lead to injury

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Integration of PP – Weekly
Example for a Sprinter
MON TUESDAY WED THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY

CE & SDE
ACCELERATIONS SPEED SPEED ENDURANCE
WORK

MULTI-THROWS
SPE WORK MULTI-JUMPS LIFTING DEVELOPMENT
(MED BALL)

GPE – WARM- GENERAL CIRCUIT –


HURDLE MOBILITY SKIPPING WITH ROPE
UP BODYWEIGHT

TRUNK CONDITIONING + POSTERIOR CHAIN


GPE – WARM- GYMNASTICS ACTIVITIES +SAND
FOAM ROLL (MYOFASCIAL MASSAGE CONDITIONING + MASSAGE
DOWN PIT WALKING
RELEASE) STRETCHING

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Integration of PP – Warm-up
Work on mobility Structure of warm-up
– Joint by joint approach – Mobility exercise
Work on Recruitment – Recruitment exercise
– Key muscle groups – Movement skill Exercise
Work on athleticism
Move on to Event
Work on raising conditioning
and capacity levels - in a
Specific Warm-Up
good way! Slow – dynamic –
Good opportunity to conduct explosive
pre-track checks – a chance
for the coach to screen

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Integration of PP –
Warm-Down
Structure of warm-down
• Conditioning element
• Mobility element
• Warm-down element – possibly developmental
stretching/PNF

Work on Conditioning of key areas (joint by joint


approach) – trunk, hip, lower leg , foot & shoulder
Work on Mobility – hurdle walks
Target the key injury hotspots

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Task
In your event groups plan a week during
general preparation 1. Consider the order of
the training units and the impact one session
has on the next. Consider the focus on the
technical, physical and tactical elements (if
appropriate).
Select someone to present back to the
group and justify why you have selected the
sessions.

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Final thought

“Failing to prepare is preparing to


fail”

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QUESTIONS?

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Recommended Reading
1) Bompa, T.O. (1999). Periodization: Theory and
Methodology. Human Kinetics
2) Bompa, T.O. (2005). Periodization Training for Sports.
Human Kinetics
3) Baechle T.R., and Earle R.W. (2000). Essentials of
Strength Training and Conditioning. Human Kinetics
4) Zatsiorsky, V.M., and Kraemer, W.J. (2006). Science and
Practice of Strength Training. Human Kinetics
5) Radcliffe, J. (1999). High Powered Plyometrics. Human
Kinetics.
6) Cook, G. (2003). Athletic Body in Balance. Human Kinetics

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