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HAJAMOINUDEEN HASSAN KANNU

F P I S – P I D C I V I L I N S P E C TO R
Introduction:

“What are Chemicals”

Chemical Substances are often defined as “any material with a definite


chemical composition “. According to this definition a chemical can either be
pure “chemical element or a pure “chemical compound”.
CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EXISTS AS:
1. SOLID CHEMICALS
2. LIQUID CHEMICALS
3. GAS

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Example of solid chemicals

Phosphate rocks

Sodium Bisulphate

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Example of Liquid chemicals

Ammonium Sulfite

Potassium sulfite

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Gas Chemical

A GAS is a sample of matter that conforms to the shape of a container in which it is held and
acquires a uniform density inside the container, even in the presence of gravity and regardless of
the amount of substance into the container. Distinguished from the solid and liquid states by
relatively low density and viscosity, relatively great expansion and contraction with changes in
pressure and temperature, the ability to diffuse readily, and the spontaneous tendency to become
distributed uniformly throughout any container. Gas is one of the Four fundamental states of
matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Example of Gas – Gaseous Chemicals

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

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Acetylene

Helium

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HOW DO CHEMICALS EFFECT OUR BODY?

There are 4 major routes that effects our body from chemicals;
1. Inhalation hazards – Chemical that could be inhaled include:
Gases
The vapors of volatile Liquid
Mists and sprays of both volatile and non-volatile liquid substances
Solid Chemicals In the form of particles, fibers, and dusts

2. Direct (skin/eye) contact hazards – Direct contact effects and absorption of chemicals through
the skin depend on a number of factors, including:
Chemical concentration
Chemical reactivity
The condition of the skin
The duration of contact

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3. Ingestion hazards – Ingestion of chemicals is a less common route of entry onto the body.
However, persons using chemicals can easily ingest chemicals onto the body via contaminated
hands.

4. Injection hazards - This route is the least likely for chemical exposures. Accidental injection of
chemicals through needless is unlikely.
Symptoms of Possible Overexposure
Eye discomfort
Breathing difficulty
Dizziness
Headache
Nausea
Vomiting
Skin irritation

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CONTROLLING CHEMICAL EXPOSURE
Controlling techniques fall into three (3) broad classes:
1. Engineering Controls: Are controls that work passively once they are established.

Glove box
Fume Hood

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2. Administrative controls: Are controls require that worker take active steps.

Examples of administrative controls are posting hazard sign on laboratory door, minimizing exposure time
when working with hazardous chemical.

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3. Personal protective Equipment includes items such as glove, eye protection, Suitable clothing,
and respirators.

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BASIC CHEMICAL SAFETY PRACTICES
FIVE (5) FUNDAMENTAL STEPS IN USING CHEMICAL SAFELY:
1. Develop & follow written safety plan.
2. Know where the material safety data sheets (MSDS) and other information sources for the
chemicals you work with can be found.
3. Make sure all your chemical containers are labelled
4. Maintain good house keeping
5. Document training of employees.

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Agencies That Regulate Hazardous Chemical Storage

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

Environmental protection Agency (EPA)

Department of transportation (DOT)

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General Safety Tips

1. Never eat, Drink, or Smoke while using


Hazardous Chemicals.

1. Use personal Protective equipment as required.

2. Make sure all chemical containers are


properly labelled.

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4. Always wash up after using chemicals.

5. Never smell or taste a chemical to identify it.

6. Always read labels MSDSs prior to use.

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7. Store all hazardous chemicals properly.

8. Always use hazardous chemicals as intended.

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PROPER HANDLING OF COMPRESSED GAS:
1. Cylinders must not be dropped or allowed to come into
violent contact with each other.
2. They must be stored and used in an upright position,
thus preventing the liquid form passing through the relief
valve regulator and into the equipment
3. They must not be placed in or near excavations or any
low level area.
4. They must be placed on level ground and secured to
prevent accident over.
5. Care should be taken that the valve assemblies are not damaged. The main valve
should be closed and the valve cap in position when the cylinder is not in use.
6. Smoking is not permitted when handling cylinders.

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