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BENDING OF RADIO

WAVE/REFRACTION
& FRESNEL ZONE
CLEARANCE
REFRACTION

Referred to as bending of radio wave path


Caused by abrupt change in the velocity of the upper part of
the radio wave as it enters a new medium.
The amount of refraction depends on 3 main factors:
Density of the layer, Frequency of radio wave & Angle of
incidence and refraction
DENSITY OF THE LAYER
Increasing ionization-
wave will be bent back
rapidly to the Earth
Maximum ionization-
wave bents slowly
because the density is
almost uniform
Decreasing ionization-
wave will be refracted
away from the Earth.
FREQUENCY OF RADIO WAVE
 Critical Frequency- maximum frequency at which radio waves
can be transmitted vertically and refracted back to earth.
 The lower the frequency of the wave, the more rapidly the
wave is refracted.
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE & REFRACTION
 Angle of Incidence- The angle formed between the incident
ray and the normal
 Angle of Refraction- The angle formed between the
refracted ray and the normal
FRESNEL ZONE
The area around the visual line of sight that radio
waves spread out into after leaving the antenna
A cylindrical ellipse drawn between the transmitter
and receiver
The size of the ellipse is determined by the
frequency of operation and the distance between
the transmitter and receiver
R=17.32√D/4F
D in km, F in GHz, r is in meters
There are infinite numbers of Fresnel zones but
only 3 have any real effect on radio propagation
WHY IS FRESNEL ZONE IMPORTANT

The receiver cannot differentiate between a main and reflected signal.


They are both on the same frequency so it receives both signal.
If the two signals are 360 degrees shifted, there is no issue, however
if the signals are 180 degrees apart(opposite phase), they will cancel
and the receiver will receive nothing.
FRESNEL ZONES
 Zone 1- calculated so that the difference in path length between the main signal and reflected
signal from the FZ1 radius distance is 180 degrees.
 Zone 2- calculated so that the difference in path length between the main signal and reflected
signal from the FZ1 radius distance is 360 degrees.
 Zone 3- calculated so that the difference in path length between the main signal and reflected
signal from the FZ1 radius distance is 540 degrees.
FRESNEL ZONE CLEARANCE
 The clearance between Fresnel zone and the surface of
the earth
 If the ratio of the fresnel zone earth clearance/fresnel
zone radius is greater than 60%, then the radio path is
considered ‘clear, line of sight’
WAVEGUIDES
ACIDILLO, LIZLIE GEN D.
BS ECE
A waveguide is a special form of transmission
line consisting of a hollow, metal tube.
• Waveguides are practical only for signals of extremely high frequency.
• the only dielectric in a waveguide is air
• conduits for electromagnetic energy, the waveguide itself acting as nothing more
than a “director” of the energy rather than as a signal conductor in the normal sense
of the word.
• Waveguides are restricted to frequencies above 1 GHz
• EM propagates down a waveguide by reflecting back and forth in a zigzag pattern
• All electromagnetic waves
consist of electric and magnetic
fields propagating in the same
direction of travel, but
perpendicular to each other.
Along the length of a normal
transmission line, both electric
and magnetic fields are
perpendicular (transverse) to
the direction of wave travel. This
is known as the principal mode,
or TEM (Transverse Electric
and Magnetic) mode. This mode
of wave propagation can exist
only where there are two
conductors, and it is the
dominant mode of wave
propagation where the cross-
sectional dimensions of the
transmission line are small
compared to the wavelength of
the signal.
• When an electromagnetic wave
propagates down a hollow tube,
only one of the fields—either
electric or magnetic—will
actually be transverse to the
wave’s direction of travel. The
other field will “loop”
longitudinally to the direction of
travel, but still be perpendicular
to the other field. Whichever
field remains transverse to the
direction of travel determines
whether the wave propagates
in TE mode (Transverse Electric)
or TM (Transverse Magnetic)
mode.
2 kinds of velocity:

Phase velocity: is the apparent velocity of a particular phase of the wave. It is the
velocity with which a wave changes phase in a direction parallel to a conducting
surface.
Vph=f λ
Vph= phase velocity(m/s)
F=frequency(Hz)
λ=wavelength(meters/cycle)
Group veloctity: Velocity of a group of waves. Is ithe velocity at which information
signals of any kind are propagated
VphVg=c^2
Vg=group velocity ; c= 3 x 10^8 m/2
Cut-off frequency= is the absolute limiting frequency; frequencies above the cut-off
frequency will not be propagated by the waveguide

Fc= C/2a = c/ λc
A=x-s

Cutoff wavelength= defined as the smallest free-space wavelength that is just


unable to propagate in the waveguide. In other words, only frequencies with
wavelength less than the cut-off wavelength can propagate down a waveguide

λc=2a
Vph=c/ sqrt (1- (fc/f)^2)
For a rectangular waveguide with a wall separation of 3cm and a desired frequency
of operation of 6GHz, determine fc, λc, Vg, Vph
A: 5GHz
B:6cm
C:5.43 x 10^8 m/s (Vph)
D: 1.66 x 10^8 m/s (Vg)
ADVANTAGES:

TYPICALLY HANDLES VERY LARGE POWER

IT CAN HAVE VERY LOW LOSS


COAXIAL
CABLES
ACIDILLO, LIZLIE GEN D.
BS ECE
Often used for high data transmission rates to
reduce losses and isolate transmission
PARTS:
• The ‘centre core’ is what carries the
signal.
• The ‘dielectric insulator’ not only
separates the core from the shield,
but provides the core with a
consistent impedance (mostly
capacitance) between core and
shield.
• The ‘metallic shield’ serves multiple
purposes: one already mentioned
above (known & consistent
capacitance between core & shield),
as well as preventing signal from
escaping from the core conductor
• ‘plastic jacket’ protects the overall
coaxial cable from its environment.
BASIC TYPES:
• RIGID AIR FILLED
• SOLID FLEXIBLE
RIGID AIR FILLED
Tabular outer conductor surrounds the center
conductor coaxially and that the insulating
material is air. The outer conductor is
physically isolated and separated from the
center conductor by space, which is generally
filled with Pyrex, polystyrene or some other
nonductive material
FLEXIBLE
The outer conductor is braided,
flexible and coaxial to the center
conductor. The insulating material is
a solid nonconductive polyethylene
material that provides both support
and electrical isolation between the
inner and outer conductors.
COAXIAL CABLE
CONNECTORS
1. STANDARD BNC CONNECTORS- sometimes referred as “bayonet
mount” as they can be easily twisted on or off. It is easy to connect
and disconnect.

2. TYPE N CONNECTORS- threaded, weather proof, medium-sized RF


connector. This type is a good choice to withdstand abuse.
BNC TYPE N
End
Add a Slide Title - 4
Add a Slide Title - 5
Standing-Wave Ratio
VOLTAGE STANDING-WAVE RATIO
- define as the ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum voltage
or the maximum current to the minimum current of a standing wave
on a transmission line.

𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑆𝑊𝑅 =
𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛
- Vmax occur when the incident and reflected waves are in phase
while Vmin occur when the incident and reflected wave are 180 deg.
out of phase
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥= 𝐸𝑖 + 𝐸𝑟

𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛= 𝐸𝑖 − 𝐸𝑟

𝐸𝑖 + 𝐸𝑟
𝑆𝑊𝑅 =
𝐸𝑖 − 𝐸𝑟
Disadvantages of not having a matched transmission line:
◦ One hundred percent of the source incident power is not absorbed by
the load.
◦ The dielectric separating the two conductors can break down and cause
corona as a result of high-voltage SWR.
◦ Reflections and re-reflections cause more power loss.
◦ Reflection cause ghost images.
◦ Mismatches causes noise interference.
Microwave Signal
Propagations and Factors
Affecting the Signal
Free-space Loss
- define as the loss incurred by an electromagnetic wave as it
propagates in a straight line through a vacuum with no absorption or
reflection of energy form nearby objects.
-free-space path loss assumes ideal atmospheric conditions so that
no electromagnetic energy is actually lost or dissipated – it merely
spreads out as it propagates away from the source, resulting in a
lower relative power densities--(Spreading Loss)

4𝜋𝑓𝐷 2
𝐿𝑝 = ( )
𝑐
MICROWAVE
TRANSMISSION LINES
Lezil C. Kuan
BS in Electronics Engineering 5
[ECE 516-A] Wireless Communications
09-13-17
Microwaves are a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Conventional definition for the microwave frequency range is from 300MHz − 300GHz.

For proper wireless transmission and reception, every device requires a transmission/reception
antenna, tuned to the frequency of operation, and the antenna size is usually determined by the
wavelength λ.

9/4/2017 43
Properties of Microwaves
• Microwaves are the waves that radiate electromagnetic energy with shorter wavelength.

• Microwaves are not reflected by Ionosphere.

• Microwaves travel in a straight line and are reflected by the conducting surfaces.

• Microwaves are easily attenuated within shorter distances.

• Microwave currents can flow through a thin layer of a cable.

9/4/2017 44
Applications of Microwaves in Wireless Communications
•For long distance telephone calls
•Bluetooth
•WIMAX operations
•Outdoor broadcasting transmissions
•Broadcast auxiliary services
•Remote pickup unit
•Studio/transmitter link
•Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS)
•Personal Communication Systems (PCSs)
•Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)
•Cellular Video (CV) systems
•Automobile collision avoidance system
9/4/2017 45
Transmission Line
A transmission line is a connector which transmits energy from one point to
another. The study of transmission line theory is helpful in the effective usage of
power and equipment.
There are basically four types of transmission lines −
▪ Two-wire parallel transmission lines
▪ Coaxial lines
▪ Strip type substrate transmission lines
▪ Waveguides

▪ While transmitting or while receiving, the energy transfer has to be done


effectively, without the wastage of power. To achieve this, there are certain
important parameters which has to be considered.

9/4/2017 46
Main Parameters of a Transmission Line
The important parameters of a transmission line are
• Resistance
• Inductance
• Capacitance
• Conductance.
Resistance and inductance together are called as transmission line impedance.
Capacitance and conductance together are called as admittance.

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Resistance

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Inductance

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Conductance
There will be a leakage current between the transmission line and the ground, and
also between the phase conductors. This small amount of leakage current generally flows
through the surface of the insulator. Inverse of this leakage current is termed
as Conductance. It is denoted by "G".

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Capacitance
The voltage difference between the Phase conductors gives rise to an electric field
between the conductors. The two conductors are just like parallel plates and the air in
between them becomes dielectric. This pattern gives rise to the capacitance effect between
the conductors.

9/4/2017 51
▪ Common rule is that the cable or wire should be treated as a transmission line if the
length is greater than 1/10 of the wavelength.

▪ At this length the phase delay and the interference on the line become important and can
lead to unpredictable behavior in systems.

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Impedance Matching
▪ To achieve maximum power transfer to the load, impedance matching has to be done.

▪ The following conditions should be met:

RL=RS , the resistance of the load should be equal to that of the source.

XL=-XS, the reactance of the load should be equal to that of the source but opposite
in sign. Which means, if the source is inductive, the load should be
capacitive and vice versa.

9/4/2017 53
Efficiency of Transmission Lines
▪ The efficiency of transmission lines is defined as the ratio of the output power to
the input power.

𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑡 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛


ŋ= x 100
𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑛𝑑

9/4/2017 54
Voltage Regulation
▪ Voltage regulation is defined as the change in the magnitude of the voltage
between the sending and receiving ends of the transmission line

𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑛𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒−𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑒𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑛𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒


%voltage regulation = x 100
𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑒𝑛𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒

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Losses due to Impedance Mismatch
Attenuation Loss- the loss that occurs due to the absorption of the signal in the
transmission line.

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Reflection Loss- the loss that occurs due to the reflection of the signal due to impedance
mismatch of the transmission line.

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Transmission Loss- the loss that occurs while transmission trough the transmission line.

9/4/2017 58
Return Loss- the measure of power reflected by the transmission line.

9/4/2017 59
▪ Insertion Loss- the loss that occurs due to the energy transfer using a transmission line.

9/4/2017 60
Path Calculations and
Group 2
Link Budget
Inocencio, Kirsteine Mhea
Nemaria, Daniel
Saguing, Tom Frances
Torino, Jowena
Path Profiling
Path Profile

is a graphic representation of the physical features of


a propagation path in the vertical plane containing both
endpoints of the path, showing the surface of the Earth and
including trees, buildings, and other features that may obstruct
the radio signal.
RF Path Profiles-A path profile is a point to point RF analysis to estimate the RF path from site to site. Path
profiles are invaluable to determine the viability of a RF path and estimate the antenna height requirements.
In addition, the path profile will provide the optimum azimuth angle for antenna pointing.
A path profile can also help to optimize the height requirements of the antenna, which will translate to cost
savings on your project. In the figure below, we can see that after 80 feet, the impact of additional antenna
height is minimal, and the placement of the antenna at a higher elevation would not be significantly
beneficial.

:
Path Study Process
Area Maps
Area maps are plotted to show an overview of the study area. These are usually presented
as overlays on satellite imagery showing site locations with major roads and terrain
Terrain Maps
Terrain maps show the elevation difference of the area, and are useful in identifying low/high spots to assist in
selection of repeater sites.
Coverage Maps
Coverage maps show the expected signal quality based on the equipment being used for the application. For
the coverage maps above, the top shows cell signal quality, while the bottom three show the signal
quality of licensed radio. The first two out of the set of three show the differences in varying antenna
heights, and the third shows the results of selecting a different location for the main tower.
 :
Path Studies Comparisons
Examples of Cellular, Licensed and License-free communications coverage maps are shown below. Coverage
maps are used to compare various RF solutions and to select the optimum one. Telco coverage maps give a
idea of cellular coverage in the study area. Bentek Systems performs cellular coverage and RF path profiles to
provide a more accurate estimate of RF coverage for selected sites.
Coverage Maps
Cellular Coverage Map

 :
Licensed Radio Coverage Map
Unlicensed Radio Coverage Map

:
Onsite Path Testing
Onsite path testing is performed to verify calculated signal
levels for the selected RF technology. If signal level is
better than estimated, the extra cost of radio towers may
be avoided. If the signal levels are much worse than
expected, the path testing may prevent unreliable
paths. For cellular networks, path testing is often
necessary as radio tower information may not be available
or fully up to date.

Path testing and onsite site inspection is recommended in


design of critical paths and RF paths with an estimated
marginal signal. During the onsite path testing, alternative
RF technology may be tested if the proposed RF
frequency band proves to provide inadequate fade
margin.

Path testing is performed using RF test equipment and the


actual proposed communications equipment.
How To Conduct a Detailed Microwave Path Survey

Locate the Tower Sites

Plot the Sites and Map the Path Profile

Locate All Potential Path Obstructions

Determine the Antennae Heights


Reflection Points
Free Space Propagation

• Microwaves are reflected over

- Smooth Surfaces

- Water Bodiess

• Reflected Signals are 180° out of Phase

• Reflection can be a major cause of outages

• Link needs to be planned carefully to avoid reflections


Reflection Point Calculation
Reflection Point Calculation
Reflection Point Calculation
The Reflected wave from the ground surfaces is the major
factor that affects the received level.

Smooth ground or water surface can reflect the part of the


signal of the signal energy transmitted by the antenna to the
receiving antenna and cause interference to the main wave (
direct wave). The vector sum of the reflected wave and main
wave increases or decreases the composite wave. As the
result, the transmission becomes unstable. Therefore, when
doing microwave link design, avoid reflected waves as much
as possible. If reflection is inevitable, make us of the terrain
ups and downs to block the reflected waves.
PENALTY FOR NOT MEETING OBSTACLE
CLEARANCE CRITERIA
PENALTY FOR NOT MEETING OBSTACLE
CLEARANCE CRITERIA

• If a radiolink path does not meet the obstacle clearance criteria


established, there is a penalty of excess attenuation due to
diffraction loss.

• Diffraction loss depends on the type of terrain and vegetation.

• The diffraction loss will vary from a minimum value for a single knife-
edge obstruction to a maximum value for a spherical smooth earth.
Different Types of Propagation Obstacle:

• Average Obstacle

• Knife Edge Obstacle

• Rounded Obstacle
Knife Edge

 In electromagnetic wave propagation, the knife-edge effect or edge diffraction is a


redirection by diffraction of a portion of the incident radiation that strikes a well-
defined obstacle such as a mountain range or the edge of a building.
Rounded Obstacle

 RF propagation will frequently involve diffraction over multiple rooftops or other


obstacles, many of which don't resemble knife edges. The path losses will generally be
substantially greater in these cases than predicted by the single knife edge model. One
common scenario is diffraction over a single obstacle which is too rounded to be
considered a knife edge
Methods for Calculating Diffraction Loss

 Average Terrain Loss

The diffraction loss over average terrain can be approximated for


losses greater than about 15 dB by the formula:

 Where:
h = height in meters of the most significant path blockage
F1 = radius of the first Fresnel zone
Methods for Calculating Diffraction Loss

 Knife Edge Loss

A good approximation to the knife-edge diffraction loss in dB can


then be calculated from:
Methods for Calculating Diffraction Loss

 The diffraction parameter v can be calculated from the formula:


Methods for Calculating Diffraction Loss

 Rounded Obstacle Loss

To calculate the loss, you need to plot the profile of the actual object, and then draw straight
lines from the link endpoints such that they just graze the highest part of the object as seen
from their individual perspectives. Then the parameters Ds, d1, d2 and are estimated, and an
estimate of the radius r can then be calculated from
Methods for Calculating Diffraction Loss

 The procedure then is to calculate the knife edge diffraction loss for this
path as outlined above, and then add to it an excess loss factor Lex,
calculated from:
PENALTY FOR NOT MEETING OBSTACLE
CLEARANCE CRITERIA

• If a radiolink path does not meet the obstacle clearance criteria


established, there is a penalty of excess attenuation due to
diffraction loss.

• Diffraction loss depends on the type of terrain and vegetation.

• The diffraction loss will vary from a minimum value for a single knife-
edge obstruction to a maximum value for a spherical smooth earth.
Diffraction loss for obstructed LOS microwave paths

 B = theoretical knife – edge loss curve


 D = theoretical smooth spherical loss curve
 Ad = diffraction loss for average terrain curve
 h = radio path vertical clearance
 F1 = radius of the first fresnel zone
DIVERSITY scheme
Diversity Scheme
• refers to a method for improving the reliability of a
message signal by using two or more communication
channels with different characteristics.

• is a common technique for combatting fading and co-


channel interference and avoiding error bursts.
Diversity suggests that:

 There is more than one transmission path.


 There is more than one method of transmission
available between a transmitter and a receiver
Purpose of Diversity

The purpose of using diversity is to


increase the reliability of the system by
increasing its availability.
Fading
• a loss of signal strength at a radio receiver

• fading may either be due to multipath propagation,


referred to as multipath induced fading, weather
(particularly rain), or shadowing from obstacles
affecting the wave propagation, sometimes referred
to as shadow fading.
Deep Fade

• Strong destructive interference

• may result in temporary failure of communication


due to a severe drop in the channel signal-to-
noise ratio.
Multipath Fading

• Caused due to reflected and refracted signals


arriving at receiver.

• Result in degradation of intended signal.


Frequency Selective Fading

• Due to atmospheric anomalies different


frequencies undergo different attenuation levels
• the coherence bandwidth of the channel is smaller than the
bandwidth of the signal.
Diversity Techniques

Time Diversity

Multipath/ Frequency Diversity

Spatial/ Space Diversity

Polarization Diversity
Time Diversity
• Multiple versions of the same signal are transmitted over
same channel at different time instants.
• Repeatedly transmits information at time spacing that
exceeds the coherence time of the channel
• Involves the use of rake receiver
*Rake receiver

• Radio receiver designed to counter the effects of


multipath fading by using several “sub-receivers”
called fingers
Frequency Diversity
• Is implemented by transmitting same information on more than one carrier
frequency

• To make carrier frequency uncorrelated to each other, so that it will not


experience the same fades.

• Often employed in microwave line-of-sight links

• Uses Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)

• Used to counter Frequency Selective Fading


Space Diversity
• uses multiple of antennas at the transmitting and reception side.

• The fading is less correlated as the separation between antennas increases.

• can be employed to combat both frequency selective fading and time


selective fading.
Single-Input Single-Output
(No spatial diversity)

Single-Input Multiple-Output
(Receive Diversity)

Multiple-Input Single-Output
(Transmit Diversity)

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output
(Transmit and Receive Diversity)
Polarization Diversity
• Uses antenna with different polarization.

• Polarization of the signal changes when it is reflected or diffracted.

• A DIVERSITY COMBINING technique is applied on the receiver side.

• The ADVANTAGE of polarization diversity is that we don’t need spatial separation


between antennas.

• It is usually accomplished through the use of separate vertically and horizontally


polarized receiving antennas.
Repeaters of Analog LOS
Microwave System
Repeater

• is an electronic device that receives


a signal and retransmits it.

• are used to extend transmissions so that the


signal can cover longer distances or be
received on the other side of an obstruction.
Radio repeater

• used to extend the range of coverage of a radio signal.

• usually consists of a radio receiver connected to a radio


transmitter.

• Usage of a duplexer can allow the repeater to use one


antenna for both receive and transmit at the same time.
Microwave Relay

• is a technology for transmitting digital and analog signals, such as


long-distance telephone calls, television programs, and computer
data, between two locations on a line of sight radio path.

• microwaves are transmitted between the two locations


with directional antennas, forming a fixed radio connection
between the two points.
Passive repeater
• is a reflective or sometimes refractive panel or other object that
assists in closing a radio or microwave link, in places where an
obstacle in the signal path blocks any direct, line of
sight communication.

• consists of a flat metal surface to reflect the microwave beam in


another direction. It is used to get microwave relay signals over
hills and mountains when it is not necessary to amplify the signal.
Operation Principle
Passive Repeater
A typical microwave repeater link setup
LINK BUDGET

• An accounting of all gains and losses in transmission system.


• Is a way of quantifying the link performance.
• Looks at the elements that will determine the signal strength
arriving at the recievers.
• This includes:
1.Transmitter Power
2. Antenna Gains (Reciever and Transmitter)
3. Antenna Feeder Losses (Reciever and
Transmitter)
4. Path Losses
5. Reciever Sensitivity
#TransmitterPower

The actual amount of power (in watts) of


radio frequency energy that a
transmitter produces at its output.
#AntennaGains (Reciever and Transmitter)

As a transmitting antenna, the gain describes how


well the antenna converts input power into radio
waves headed in a specific direction.

As a receiving antenna, the gain describes how


well the antenna converts radio waves arriving
from a specified direction into electrical power.
#AntennaFeederLosses
the signal loss caused by various devices that are located on the
path of the antenna to the receiver. Any device using an external
antenna for service provision at either the base station side or
terminal side must consider feeder loss. If a USB dongle, an indoor
CPE, or an outdoor CPE integrated with an antenna is used, feeder
loss can be ignored at the terminal side, but not at the base station
side.
#AntennaFeederLosses
Example of Typical Feeder System
#AntennaFeederLosses
The formula for calculating the feeder loss according to
the feeder type and length is as follows:

Feeder loss (dB) = Feeder loss per 100 m (dB/100 m) ×


feeder length (m)/100

The feeder loss per 100 meters is related to the frequency


band.
#PathLosses

Path Loss (also called path attenuation) is the


reduction in power density (attenuation) of
an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through
space. Path loss is a major component in the
analysis and design of the link budget of a
telecommunication system.
#PathLosses
Path loss may be due to many effects such as:
 Free- space loss
 Refraction
 Diffraction
 Reflection
 Absorption
Path loss is also influenced by:
 terrain contours
 environment (urban or rural, vegetation and foliage)
 propagation medium
 distance between the transmitter and the receiver
 height and location of antennas
#PathLosses
Path loss is usually expressed in dB. In its simplest form, the path loss can
be calculated using the formula

Where:
L= path loss in db
n= path loss exponent
d= distance between tx and rx in meters
C= constants which accounts for system losses
#PathLosses
#FreeSpacePathLosses

 FSPL is an essential basic parameter for many RF calculations. It


can often be used as a first approximation for many short range
calculations. Alternatively it can be used as a first approximation
for a number of areas where there are few obstructions. As such it
is a valuable tool for many people dealing with radio
communications systems.
 alternatively it can be used as a first approximation for a number
of areas where there are a few obstructions. Such as it is a
valuable tool for many people dealing with radio communications
systems.
#PathLosses
#FreeSpacePathLosses

Free Space Path Losses


#PathLosses
#FreeSpacePathLosses

Free Space Path Losses Formula


where:
FSPL= Free space path loss
d= distance of the receiver
from the transmitter (metres)
λ= signal w avelength (metres)
f is the signal frequency (Hertz)
c is the speed of light in a vacuum
(metres per second)
#PathLosses
#FSPLFormulaFrequencyDependency

The reason for the frequency dependence is that the equation


contains two effects:
1. The first results from the spreading out of the energy
as the sphere over which the energy is spread increases in
area. This is described by the inverse square law.

2. The second effect results from the antenna aperture


change. This affects the way in which any antenna can pick up
signals and this term is frequency dependent.
#PathLosses
#Decibel version of free space path loss equation

Most RF comparison and measurements are performed in decibels.


This gives an easy and consistent method to compare the signal
levels present at various points

Where:
d= distance of the receiver
from the transmitter (km)
f= signal frequency (MHz)
#PathLosses
#EffectOfAntennaGainOnPathLossEquation

Where:
Gtx= gain of the transmitter
antenna relative to an
isotropic source (dBi)
Grx= gain of the receiver
antenna relative to an
isotropic source (dBi)
#ReceiverSensitivity
 RF Sensitivity is one of the key specifications of any
radio receiver whether it is used for Wi-Fi, cellular
telecommunications broadcast or any other form of
wireless communications.
 The ability of the radio receiver to pick up the required
level of radio signals will enable it to operate more
effectively within its application.
#ReceiverSensitivity
The two main requirements of any radio receiver are:

 Selectivity- It should be able to separate one station from


another

Amplification- Signals should be amplified so that they can be


brought to a sufficient level to be heard. As a result receivers
designers battle with many elements to make sure that these
requirements is fulfilled.
#ReceiverSensitivity

Methods of specifying sensitivity performance

Signal to noise ratio: This is a straightforward comparison ratio


of a given signal level to the noise within the system.
SINAD: This receiver sensitivity measurement is slightly more
formalised, and it also includes distortion as well as the noise.
Noise factor : This RF receiver measurement compares the noise
added by a unit - this could be an amplifier or other unit within
the system or it could be a complete receiver.
Noise figure: The noise figure, or NF of a unit or system is the
logarithmic version of the noise factor. It is widely used for
specifications of sensitivity and noise performance of a receiver,
element within a system, or the whole system.
Carrier to noise ratio, CNR: The carrier-to-noise ratio is the
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a modulated signal. This term is less
widely used than SNR, but may be used when there is a need to
distinguish between the performance with regards to the radio
frequency pass-band signal and the analogue base band message
signal after demodulation.
#ReceiverSensitivity
Minimum discernable signal, MDS: The Minimum detectable or
minimum discernable signal is the smallest signal level that can be
detected by a radio receiver,
Error vector magnitude, EVM:
Bit error rate, BER: