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1

FIRE FIGHTING COURSE


Prepared by Eng/ Magid elithy
revised by Eng / Sayed Abd el Hamied

2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Overview of Firefighting
 Single Line Diagram
 Pumps & Pump Room
 Sprinklers Systems

3
OVERVIEW OF FIREFIGHTING

Fire Triangle parameters :-

1. Air ( Oxygen )
2. Fuel ( Flammable Material )
3. Heat ( sufficient heat to raise
the material to its ignition
temperature )

4
OVERVIEW OF FIREFIGHTING

 Fire Fighting methods :-

 , by creating a barrier using foam


for instance and prevent oxygen getting to
the fire
 By applying water you can lower the
temperature below the ignition
temperature

5
OVERVIEW OF FIREFIGHTING

Fire Fighting
Systems

Manual Automatic

Manual Siamese
Cabinet Fire hydrant
extinguisher connection
Sprinklers
SYS

6
OVERVIEW OF FIREFIGHTING

Materials ( Manual &


Automatic )

Water FM200 Co2 Halon Dry Foam


Chemical
powder

7
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

Single Line Digram 2.dwg


Second
Water
First Water source
source Manual
Cabinet
Systems
Manual
Cabinet
Systems

Pump
Pump
Tank
Tank Siamese
Siamese
Room
Room connection
connection

Automatic
Automatic
Sprinklers
Sprinklers
systems
systems

8
Pump
Room

9
PUMP ROOM
 Delivered water from tank to firefighting
systems
Cabinet
Cabinet

Tank
Pump
Pump
Tank
Room
Room

Sprinklers
Sprinklers

10
PUMP ROOM

11
PUMP ROOM
 Horizontal Centrifugal Pump
 Vertical centrifugal pump

12
Centrifugal
Centrifugal pump
pump

Impeller
Impeller
Overhung
Overhung between
between
bearing
bearing

13
 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Working
Workingmechanism
mechanismof
ofcentrifugal
centrifugalpump
pump

The main purpose is to convert energy of a mover


(Electric motor ) first to velocity (kinetic energy ) and
then into pressure energy ( Static energy )

Energy chance occur by two main parts


1-Impeller ( Rotating part that convert driver energy
into kinetic energy )
2-The Volute or Diffuser ( Stationary part that convert
the kinetic energy to static energy (Pressure energy))

14
GENERATION OF CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

As liquid leaves the eye of the


impeller a low –pressure area is
created causing more liquid to
flow towards the inlet

First
The liquid Step
enter
First :
the suction
nozzle and thenStep
Conversion into : of
eye
Motor
Conversion
impeller Motor
Energy Into
Energy Into
Kinetic
When the Energy
impeller rotates it
Kinetic Energy
spins the liquid sitting in the
cavities between the vanes
outward and provides centrifugal
acceleration

15
GENERATION OF CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

Resistance to the flow : the first


resistance to the flow is created
by the pump casing ( Volute )
that catches the liquid and slow
it down
Second
Second
……….. Step
Step ::
Its velocity converted to
Conversion
Conversion
pressure according
Kinetic Energy to
Kineticequation
Bernoulli's Energy
Into Pressure
Into Pressure
Energy
Energy

16
FORMULA :-

This
Thishead
headcan
canalso
alsobe
becalculated
calculatedfrom
fromthe
the
readings
readingson
onthe
thepressure
pressuregauges
gauges
attached
attachedto
tothe
thesuction
suctionand
anddischarge
dischargelines
lines

17
FACT
One fact that must always be
remembered: A pump does
not create pressure, it only
provides flow. Pressure is a
just an indication of the
amount of resistance to flow.
18
11-Rotating components comprised of an
-Rotating components comprised of an
impeller and the shaft
impeller and the shaft

Centrifugal pump has two main


component

22-Stationary components comprised of a


-Stationary components comprised of a
casing and bearing
casing and bearing
19
STATIONARY COMPONENTS
CASING

Volute casing Circular casing

Volute casing increase the area to the discharge


port , as the area of the cross section increase
Have
the a
volute
stationary
reduce diffusions
the speedvanes
of thesurroundings
liquid and
the impellerincrease
peripherythethat
pressure
convert velocity
Volute energy
casing :into
build
pressure
HIGH head
energy
, Circular
casing are used for LOW head and HIGH
capacity
casing

Solid Casing Spilt casing

Two or more parts are fastened together. When the


casing
A design
partsinare
which
divided
the entire
by horizontal
casing plane, the
casing
including
is described
the discharge
as horizontally
nozzle issplit or axially split
casing.
all contained
When the insplit
one casting
is in a vertical
or plane
perpendicular
fabricated piece
to the rotation axis, the casing is
described as vertically split or radially split casing. 21
SUCTION AND DISCHARGE
NOZZLE

End suction Top suction Side suction


Top Discharge Top Discharge Side Discharge

The
Thesuction
suctionand nozzle
and discharge
nozzle is
islocated
discharge nozzles
located at
atthe
theare
nozzles end
are
endlocated
of,
of,and
andat
located at
the
concentric
the sides
top
topof
concentric
sidesofof
the
of to,
the
the
to,
thecase
the
case
case
the
caseshaft
perpendicular
perpendicular
shaft while
whilethe
perpendicular theto
perpendicular discharge
to
to the
theshaft
discharge
tothe
the shaft.
nozzle
shaft
shaft.
nozzle
This
is
always
islocated
This
alwayspump
aaradially
located
pump at
can the
radially
at
can have
the top
split
have
top of
either
split
of case
the
thecase
either
case an
pump
axially
case
an
pumpperpendicular
axially or
orradially
perpendicular to
radially
to
split
the
theshaft
split case
casetype.
shaft type.
22
ROTATING COMPONENTS

Impeller
direction of mechanical
suction type construction
flow

Radial
Mixed
Axial Double-
Single- Closed
Open
flow suction
23
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PARAMETERS
 Capacity :-
D e fi n i t i o n : -
C a p a c i t y m e a n s t h e fl o w r a t e w i t h w h i c h l i q u i d
is moved or pushed by the pump to the desired
point in the process.
It is commonly measured in either gallons per
minute (gpm) or cubic meters per hour
(m3/hr). The capacity usually changes with the
changes in operation of the process.

1 ( m3/Hr ) = 3.66 (GPM)


24
 T h e ca p a c i t y d e p e n d s o n a n u m b e r o f
fa c to r s l i ke :

 1 - P ro ce ss l i q u i d ch a ra c te r i s t i c s i . e .
d e n s i t y, v i s co s i t y
 2 - S i ze o f th e p u m p a n d i t s i n l e t a n d
o u tl e t s e c t i o n s
 3 - Im p el l e r s i ze
 4 - Im p el l e r ro ta t i o n a l s p e e d R P M
 5 - S i ze a n d s h a p e o f ca v i t i e s b e t we e n th e
va n e s
 6 - P u m p s u c t i o n a n d d i s ch a rg e
te m p e ra t u re a n d p re ss u re co n d i t i o n s
25
FORMULA :-

26
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PARAMETERS (HEAD)
 HEAD:-
 S i g n i fi c a n c e o f u s i n g t h e “ h e a d ” t e r m
i n s t e a d o f t h e “ p r e s s u r e” t e r m

The pressure at any point in a liquid can be


thought of as being caused by a vertical
column of the liquid due to its weight.
T h e h e i g h t o f t h i s c o l u m n i s c a l l e d t h e s ta t i c
head and is expressed in terms of feet of
liquid.

27
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PARAMETERS (HEAD)
The same head term is used to measure the
k i n e t i c e n e r g y c r e a t e d b y t h e p u m p.
In other words, head is a measurement of the
height of a liquid column that the pump
could create from the kinetic energy imparted
to the liquid

28
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PARAMETERS (HEAD)
The main reason for using head instead of
pressure to measure a centrifugal pump's
energy is that the pressure from a pump will
c h a n g e i f t h e s p e c i fi c g r a v i t y ( w e i g h t ) o f t h e
liquid changes, but the head will not change.
Since any given centrifugal pump can move a
l o t o f d i ff e r e n t fl u i d s , w i t h d i ff e r e n t s p e c i fi c
gravities, it is simpler to discuss the pump's
head and forget about the pressure.

29
FACT
 A given pump with a given
impeller diameter and
speed will raise a liquid to a
certain height regardless of
the weight of the liquid.

30
FORMULA :-

 liquids have specific gravities typically ranging from 0.5


(light) to 1.8 (heavy).
 Water is a benchmark, having a
specific gravity of 1.0.

31
DEFINITION :-
 1-Static Suction Head, hS
 2-Static Discharge Head, hd
 Total Static Head
 3-Friction Head, hf
 4-Vapor pressure Head, hvp
 5-Velocity Head, hv
 6-pressure head hp
 7-Total Suction Head HS
 8-Total Discharge Head Hd
 9-Total Differential Head HT
 10-Net Positive Suction Head Required NPSHr
 11-Net Positive Suction Head Available NPSHa

32
DEFINITION :-
 1-STATIC SUCTION HEAD, HS

 Head resulting from elevation of the liquid


relative to the pump center line. If the liquid
level is above pump centerline, hS is
positive. If the liquid level is below pump
centerline, hS is negative
 . Negative hS condition is commonly denoted
as a “suction lift” condition

33
DEFINITION :-
 2-STATIC DISCHARGE HEAD, HD

 the vertical distance between the pump


centerline and the surface of the liquid in
the destination tank .

34
DEFINITION :-
 What is Static Head?
 In a pumping system, this head represents
the energy required to raise the liquid from
the pump centerline to the point in the pipe
that the liquid needs to be raised

35
DEFINITION :-
 3-FRICTION HEAD, HF

 This is the loss needed to overcome that is


c a u s e d b y t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o fl o w i n t h e p i p e
a n d fi t t i n g s . I t i s d e p e n d e n t o n s i z e ,
condition and type of pipe, number and type
o f p i p e fi t t i n g s , fl o w r a t e , a n d n a t u r e o f t h e
liquid.

36
37
DEFINITION :-

 4-VAPOR PRESSURE HEAD, HVP

38
DEFINITION :-
 5-VELOCITY HEAD, HV

 It i s th e e qu i va l e n t h e a d i n fe e t th ro u gh
wh i ch th e wa te r wo u l d h a ve to fa l l to
a c qu i re th e s a m e vel o c i t y,

39
DEFINITION :-
 6 - PR ES S U R E H EA D H P

S u c t i o n P re s s u re He a d e x i s t s
b e c a u s e th e s u c t i o n ta n k i s u n d e r
a p re s s u re o th e r th a n a t m o s p h e r i c.
It i s th e p re s s u re a c t i n g o n th e s u r f a c e
o f th e l i q u i d i n th e s u c t i o n ta n k .
T h i s p re s s u re c a n b e p o s i t i ve ( a b ove
a t m o s ph e r i c ) o r n e g a t i ve ( va c u u m ) .

40
DEFINITION :-
7-TOTAL SUCTION HEAD HS
T h i s i s c a l l e d To t a l S y s t e m S u c t i o n H e a d . T h i s i s
a l s o s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d To t a l D y n a m i c S u c t i o n
Head.
T h e e q u a t i o n t o c a l c u l a t e t h i s h e a d r e q u i r e m e n t
. S u c t i o n s t a t i c h e a d i s p o s i t i v e w h e n t h e r e i s a
fl o o d e d s u c t i o n a n d n e g a t i v e w h e n t h e r e i s a
suction lift.
 Pressure head is zero if the tank is atmospheric.
It is added when above zero gauge pressure and
subtracted when under vacuum.
 Ve l o c i t y h e a d t h e o r e t i c a l l y i s p a r t o f t h e S y s t e m
Suction Head equation. In practical application,
it is rarely considered as its value is minimal
41
DEFINITION
 8-TOTAL DISCHARGE HEAD HD

42
DEFINITION :-
 9-TOTAL DIFFERENTIAL HEAD HT
TOTAL HEAD SYSTEM
TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD

 HT=HD-HS

43
PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE
Total dynamic Head

Increasing capacity
decreasing Head

Capacity 44
10-NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD REQUIRED (NPSHR)

 As liquid enters the pump, there is a reduction of pressure


and subsequent head. This head reduction is a function of
the specific pump and is determined by laboratory testing
to be stated by the pump manufacturer on a pump curve.
 Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR) is the
measurement of this head reduction to determine the
minimum suction head condition required to prevent the
liquid from vaporizing in the pump.

45
10-NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD REQUIRED (NPSHR)

 Notice on the NPSHR curve below, as the pump


capacity increases and head decreases, more NPSHR
is required to prevent cavitation from occurring.

46
DEFINITION
 Efficiency

 Efficiency is power output of a mechanical


device, such as a pump, divided by power
input to the device. Pump efficiency is the
ratio of liquid power (also known as water
power) divided by the power input to the
pump shaft,(also known as brake power

47
DEFINITION Best Efficiency point

48
DEFINITION
 Power Requirements

49
50
 PUMP SELECTION

 pss.jnlp

51
PUMP OPERATIONS
 Pumps operates by : -

Electric Engines

Diesel Engines

52
PUMP ROOM CONTENTS

53
PUMP ROOM OPERATIONS

54
PUMP ROOM SPECIFICATIONS
Any pump can be used to be Firefighting pumps as
long as matching :-
1. NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)
2.LPC (Loss Prevention Council )
Manufacturing of pumps should be according to
1. American specs ANSI (American National Standards
Institute )
2. British specs BS (British Standard )
3. Germany specs DIN (Diameter Nominal )

55
PUMP ROOM SPECIFICATIONS
 It should delivered with pumps test
certification from manufacturer states about
testing the pumps with its control panels

 If the pump according American specs it


should be UL or FM certification states about
testing the pump according American specs

56
NFPA (NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION )

 NFPA 20 (Installation of Stationary


Pumps for Fire Protection )

 1.3.1 This standard shall apply to centrifugal


single-stage and multistage pumps of the
horizontal or vertical shaft design and positive
displacement pumps of the horizontal or
vertical shaft design.
57
NFPA (NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION
ASSOCIATION )

 5.1.2 Other Pumps shall be limited to


capacities of less than 1892 L/min (500 gpm).

The
Themeaning
meaningof of(SHALL)
(SHALL)in in
nfpa
nfpacode
code: :Indicates
Indicatesaa
mandatory
mandatoryrequirement
requirement

58
NFPA 20
 The pump is required to demonstrate its
ability to achieve 65% of rated pressure when
flowing at 150% of rated capacity

 Shut-off head will range from a minimum of


101% to a maximum of 140% of head

59
60
NFPA20
 Gallon per minute according to NFPA20

61
INSTALLATION OF PUMP

Pump Room Components

62
INSTALLATION OF PUMP ROOM

 1-Pump & Engine

63
INSTALLATION OF PUMP ROOM

 Suction Line
 Discharge Line
 Check Line

64
INSTALLATION OF PUMP ROOM

Pump Room Connection

65
66
67
INSTALLATION OF PUMP ROOM

 pump room.dwg
 Pump Room 2.dwg
 AutoCAD Drawings
 Pump Room (Electric ).dwg
 pump Room (Diesel ).dwg
 Pump Room 3d.dwg

68
GALLERY

Gallery

69
Concentric reducer

70
Check Valve

71
Diesel pump fuel tank

72
Air Vent on discharge line

73
Concentric & eccentric reducers

74
 Sprinklers

Systems

75
 There are 4 main types of systems :-

 Wet Pipe
 Dry Pipe
 Pre-Action
 Deluge

76
WET PIPES SYSTEM
 Wet pipe sprinkler systems contain water in the
riser and piping at all times. As soon as a
sprinkler head activates due to the heat of a fire,
water is immediately discharged through the
open head .

77
78
WET PIPE SYSTEM COMPONENTS
 MAIN CONTROL VALVE

Butterfly Valve
OBJECTIVE :-
Shut down
system for
service
79
WET PIPE SYSTEM COMPONENTS
 CONTROL VALVE

80
When
Whenthe thefire
fire
protection
protectionsystem
systemis is
initially
initiallybeing
being
pressurized,
pressurized,water
water
will
willflow
flow
into
intothe
thesystem
systemuntil
until
the
thewater
watersupply
supplyandand
system
systempressure
pressure
become
becomeequalized,
equalized,
and
andthe
thetorsion
torsion
Spring
Springcloses
closesthe
the
Clapper
Clapperin inthe
theAlarm
Alarm
Check
CheckValve.
Valve.Once
Once
the
thepressures
pressureshavehave
stabilized
stabilized
81
2
Leakage
Leakageinin
System
System
Restriction
INLET
Assembly

OUTLET
Flow Inlet < Flow Outlet
(1)
Flow Inlet > Flow Outlet
1 (2)

82
FIRE,FIRE
ALARM
ALARM

83
84
 CHECK VALVE SYMBOL
 CHECK VALVE

 CHECK VALVE BLOCK


 Check Valve Block.dwg

85
WET PIPE SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Friction Loss Chart ( Check Valve )

86
87
88
89
90
91
92
DRY PIPES SYSTEM
 Dry pipe sprinkler systems contain air (or
sometimes nitrogen) in the riser and piping at
all times. The air (or nitrogen) is under pressure
and this pressure maintains a "differential dry
pipe valve" in the closed position

93
DRY PIPES SYSTEM

 . When a sprinkler head activates, the air (or


nitrogen) is exhausted through the open head,
thus allowing the differential dry pipe valve to
open and water to be admitted to the riser and
piping.

94
DRY PIPES SYSTEM

 Some dry pipe systems are equipped with quick


opening devices (QOD's) which assist in
exhausting the air or nitrogen from the system
thus allowing water to reach the open head more
quickly. Dry pipe systems are installed where
there is a danger of freezing.

95
96
97
PROCEDURE
 When one or more automatic sprinklers operate in response
to a fire, air pressure within the system piping is relieved
through the open sprinklers.
 When the air pressure is sufficiently reduced, the water
pressure overcomes the differential holding the Clapper
Assembly closed and the Clapper Assembly swings clear of the
water seat,
 This action permits water flow into the system piping and
subsequently to be discharged from any open sprinklers. Also,
with the Clapper Assembly open, the intermediate chamber is
pressurized and water flows through the alarm port.

98
PROCEDURE
 After a valve actuation and upon subsequent closing of a
system main control valve to stop water flow, the Clapper
Assembly will latch open Latching open of the DPV-1 will
permit complete draining of the system through the main
drain port. During the valve resetting procedure and after
the system is completely drained, the external reset knob
can be easily depressed to externally unlatch the Clapper
Assembly
 . As such, the Clapper Assembly is returned to its normal
set position to facilitate setting of the dry pipe sprinkler
system, without having to remove the Hand hole Cover.

99
100
101
PREACTION PIPES SYSTEM
 A Preaction System is a sprinkler system
employing closed automatic sprinklers
connected to a piping system that contains air
or nitrogen that may or may not be
pressurized. A supplemental detection system
(release line) is installed in the same area as
the sprinklers

102
NFPA 13 DEFINES THREE BASIC TYPES OF
PREACTION SYSTEMS:
 Single Interlocked: Admits water to sprinkler
piping upon operation of detection devices
only.
 Double Interlocked: Admits water to
sprinkler piping upon operation of both the
detection devices and automatic sprinklers

103
PREACTION SYSTEMS:
 Non-Interlocked: Admits water to sprinkler
piping upon either operation of detection
devices or automatic sprinklers.

104
PREACTION SYSTEMS:

 The supplemental detection system is commonly


electric or pneumatic or a combination of both.
Detection systems used with electric release systems
are commonly actuated by manual pull stations, fixed-
temperature heat detectors, rate-of-rise heat detectors,
smoke detectors or other means determined

105
PREACTION SYSTEMS:
 In accordance with NFPA 13,
 the preaction sprinkler system piping and fire
detection devices shall be automatically supervised
where there are more than 20 sprinklers on the systems.
This is accomplished with air or nitrogen gas under
pressure within the sprinkler piping. If the integrity of
the sprinkler piping is compromised, the pressure will
be reduced activating a supervisory pressure switch
that transmits the signal to the release control panel
and/or fire alarm panel.

106
PREACTION SYSTEMS:
 Single Interlocked

107
PREACTION SYSTEMS:
 Double Interlocked

114
PREACTION SYSTEMS:
 . The double interlock preaction system
utilizes a detector system and pressurized air
or nitrogen in the sprinkler system piping.
This system is arranged so that the deluge
valve will open only when both pressure is
reduced in the sprinkler piping and the
detection system operates.

115
PREACTION SYSTEMS:
 If the detection system operates due to damage
or malfunction, the valve will not open, but an
alarm will sound. If the sprinkler piping is
damaged or sprinkler is broken, the valve will
not open but a supervisory alarm will sound.
The operation of both a sprinkler and a
detector (or release) is required before the
valve will open, allowing water to enter the
system piping.
116
DELUGE SYSTEMS:
 A deluge system is similar to a pre-action system except the
sprinkler heads are open and the pipe is not pressurized with
air. Deluge systems are connected to a water supply through a
deluge valve that is opened by the operation of a smoke or
heat detection system. The detection system is installed in
the same area as the sprinklers. When the detection system is
activated water discharges through all of the sprinkler heads
in the system. Deluge systems are used in places that are
considered high hazard areas such as power plants, aircraft
hangars and chemical storage or processing facilities. Deluge
systems are needed where high velocity suppression is
necessary to prevent fire spread

126
DELUGE SYSTEMS:
 Deluge System with Electric actuated

127
DELUGE SYSTEMS:
 Deluge System with wet pilot actuated

134
DELUGE SYSTEMS:
 Deluge System with Dry pilot actuated

141
ZONE CONTROL VALVE ( FLOOR C V )

148