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TO SEA

CLARIFIED TREATED
AERATION TANK
WATER WATER
TANK TANK

DMF ACF

AB-1 AB-2
OIL
AND
FOOD
SECONDARY GREASE
CLARIFIER EQUALIZATION TANK
TRAP

SEWAGE
BSC
• First step in sewage treatment
• Sewage is passed through metal
screens
• Filters out the large floating objects
like wood, rags, dead animals, etc
• Screens may be fixed or moving
type
• In JIPMER, it is fixed type
• Screenings are removed manually
from time to time
• Sewage is then sent to Grit Chamber
• Constant velocity of 1 foot per second with
detention period of 30 second to 1 min
• Function is to settle heavier solids like sand and
gravel
• Organic solids are allowed to pass through
• Grit removed manually from time to time
• Sewage is made to flow very slowly
with velocity 1-2 feet per minute
• Sewage remains in the tank for 6-8
hours
• Sedimentation of suspended matter
takes place
• Coliform organisms are reduced by
30-40%
• The organic sediment is called sludge
• Scum, a bit of fat and grease that rises
to the surface, is cleared time to time
• Effluent from primary sedimentation tank is sent to
aeration tank
• Sludge from secondary tank is added to the effluent,
the sludge is called “activated sludge”
• Aeration occurs for 6-8 hours by mechanical agitation
or forcing compressed air from the bottom of the tank
• The organic matter is oxidised to CO2 , nitrates, water
by aerobic bacteria
• The oxidised sewage then goes to secondary sedimentation
tank
• It is left here for 2-3 hours
• The sediment of this tank is called activated or aerated
sludge
• The sludge is rich in bacteria, nitrogen and phosphates and is
of valuable manure if dehydrated
• The effluent from secondary sedimentation tank still needs more
purification
• It is then passed through the Dual Media Filter and Activated
Carbon Filter for additional purification
• The effluent then is passed on to the next tank
• The final effluent after all purification is sent to the
Treated Water Tank
• Some chemicals like sodium hypochlorite is added for
disinfection
• From here the effluent is then discharged into sea
• The final effluent is not toxic to contaminate the water
body
UNTREATED SEWAGE:

BOD -200-350 mg/L


COD- 900 mg/L
Total suspended solids- 150-350mg/L
POLLUTION CONTROL RECOMMENDATION:
Oil and Grease- 50mg/L
pH- 6.5 – 9.0
BOD-20 mg/L
COD-250 mg/L
Total suspended solids-20 mg/L
Oil and Grease-10 mg/L
pH-6.5 – 7.5
TREATED SEWAGE:

BOD-7.1 mg/L
COD-46 mg/L
Total suspended solids-11.3 mg/L
Oil and Grease-1.9 mg/L
pH-7.3
• Sludge digestion-
If the sludge is incubated under favourable conditions of
temperature and pH, it undergoes aerobic auto-
digestion in which complex solids are broken down into
water, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia.

• It takes 3-4 weeks or longer.


• The resulting sludge forms excellent manure.
• Methane gas used for heating, lighting.
• Oxidation ponds as a method of sewage disposal.
• Effluent can be used for land irrigation.