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Fundamentals of GPS

GPS answers…
• Where are we?
– Latitude, Longitude, Elevation or height at given
time
• Where are we heading to
– Tracking a moving entity
• Rapidly complementing alternate positioning
approaches
• Source of GPS
About GPS
• Satellite is the reference to determine position
• GPS – a worldwide navigation system
• A constellation of 24 satellites provide the
reference
• Ground stations to maintain these satellites
• GPS receiver in the hands of user( 3D position,
24 hr)
• Accuracy of meter(s)/ sub meter level
Requirements to be satisfied by the system

• It should allow multitudes of users…


– Unlimited users simultaneously receiving signals, one way
passive user equipment, large coverage
• Provide real time positioning & Navigation
– Single user can observe signals from multiple satellites,
distinguish them, satellite range, satellite position info in
RT,
• Serving both military and civilian users
• Resistance to jamming
• Possibilities for precise positioning
How GPS works
• Satellites position is known
• range = time difference X speed of light
• Triangulation
• Position fix in 2D plane
• Position fix in 3D plane

D2
D1

Reference 1 Reference 2
Fixing position in 3D
• There are two common points of intersection
for all 3 spheres, the centres of which are the 3
satellites and ranges measured are radius. One
of those two points is on the earth.

D2
D1
D3
GPS Components

• GPS

GPS

GPS
Space Control User
segment segment segment
SPACE SEGMENT
• Earth orbiting satellite
constellation
• 6 orbital planes - @55deg to
equator
• Orbit height ~12000 miles
• Each satellite has 4 atomic clocks
(Rubidium, Cesium standards)
• Microprocessor onboard
– Limited data processing and self
monitoring
• Thruster control for satellite
• There are at least four satellites
"visible" in the sky at any time,
anywhere on Earth
Spatial Coverage of GPS beam
GPS Main
• beam signal
21.30 (for L1)
13.9 Deg 23.40 (for L2)

EARTH SHADOW
EARTH

GPS Satellite
GPS Main
beam signal
Control Segment
• Under DoD, USA
• Tracks all GPS signals for determining satellite
orbit and for using in control of the satellites
• 5 monitoring stations
– Colorado springs
– Ascension island
– Diego Garcia
– Hawaii
– Kwajalein island
Communication from satellite to ground
The Coarse Acquisition Code

• Each satellite uses a unique Pseudo Random Noise (PRN)


code for BPSK /spread spectrum modulation.
• The C/A code is 1024 bits in length, and is sent on a signal at
1.023 MHz rate. Each binary bit is one micro second.
Repetition rate is 1 ms.
• The noise like code modulates the L1 carrier signal at
1575.42 MHz The signal is spread over a 1 MHz bandwidth.
• Accuracy is ~ 1% of code chip length, that is ~ 3 meter
• Expected min signal strength at user receiver: -160 dBW
GPS Carrier waves modulation
Bi phase shift key modulation

CARRIER WAVE

DATA

DATA MODULATED
CARRIER WAVE
The Coarse Acquisition Code
• GPS receiver syncs with each satellite by
shifting the timing of the start of an
internally generated PRN code. Code from
GPS
Satellite

Code replica
generated
inside receiver

dt Pseudo range = c * dt
PRECISION POSITIONING CODE P(Y)

• Contains binary sequence of 2.3547x 1014 bits


• Two carrier frequencies L1(1575.42 MHz) and L2 (1227.6 MHz)
carry the signals
• Transmit power 19.7 dBW
• Frequency of signal 10.23 MHz , generated ten times faster
than C/A code, bit length ~ 29.3 m
• Pattern repeats only after 266 days (37 segments of 1 week
each)
• Each binary bit duration 0.1 ms,
• Jam resistant, and resistant to mutual interference of signals
from different satellites
Navigation message
• 50 bps
• L1, L2 carriers
• Content: Satellite health status, time,
ephemeris data, various correction terms;
hand over word which tells receiver where to
start the search for P(Y) code. Total
transmission time 30s
GPS Signal Frequencies
f/204600
Basic Frequency
Atomic Oscillator f
f=10.23 MHz

154f f/10

L1: 1575.42 C/A P(Y) Navigation


MHz 1.023 MHz 10.23 MHz Message
Wavelength: F=50Hz
19cm
L2: 1227.6 P(Y) Code Navigation
120f MHz 10.23 MHz Message
WL: 24.4 cm F=50Hz
Carrier phase measurements

Carrier phase measurement from to to epoch ti gives only


ambiguous range since N is not known
Source : Manual of Geospatial science and
technology, Ed by John D Bossier
Unambiguous carrier range
N should be
determined.

Continuous lock
facilitates the
differential
range
determination
precisely

Source : Manual of
Geospatial science
and technology, Ed
by John D Bossier
GPS Errors
• Satellite errors
– Minute inaccuracies in time keeping
– Satellite orbit drifts as compared to predicted
• Atmospheric errors
– Signal travel through charged particles and water vapor in atmosphere
– Causes delays of transmissions
– Ionosphere varies dynamically with time and place
(50-2000km) Ionosphere delays the code but advances the phase. Slant
range error can be upto 100m. (Upper estimate of rate of change of
propagation delay for L1 is 19cm/s). L2 experiences losses of locks.

– Troposphere (about 10 km thick)delays both code and phase, delay


effects 2- 25 m, with minimum when satellite is overhead
GPS errors (continued)
• Multipath error
– When signals arrive at earth’s surface it may be reflected by tall
buildings, vegetation before they are acquired by antenna.
(signal reaches antenna by multiple paths) For pseudo ranges,
this error can be upto many tens of meters.
• Receiver error
– Errors caused by Receiver clocks or internal noise
• Selective Availability
– Internal error introduced by DoD( to thwart use by inimical
forces)
– Erroneous orbit data, transmitted as part of satellite status data
– Discontinuation of SA (2000+)
– Users can get 10 times more accurate data
Differential positioning
• Elimination of some errors
• For a reference point(with accurately known position)
measure with GPS and derive error in position
• For a point of interest, perform GPS measurement
and correct for error.
• Error correction– in real time or post processing
• Potentially 90% errors can be eliminated.
• Differencing between receivers, satellites & epochs.
Single and double differencing
User Segment
• Earth based GPS receivers (many varieties)
Radio
Data
signal Control &
Antenna Preamplifier
microproc Display
Decoding
essor Unit

Power Supply
• Receiver decodes timing signals from at least three
to four satellites that are visible from a location
• It computes its own position
•Second by second update •Tracking loops
•Displays values •Multi channel architecture
• data capture & storage extra feature
Signal processing functions
• Pre correlation sampling, filtering and AGC
• Signal splitting into multiple signal proc. channels
• Doppler frequency shift removal
• Generation of reference PRN codes
• Satellite signal acquisition
• Code and carrier tracking from multiple satellites
• System data demodulation from satellite signals
• Pseudo range measurements from PRN codes
• Making carrier frequency measurements
• Extracting signal to noise information
• Estimating relation to GPS system time
GPS uses
• Cars/ land transport vehicle
• Ships/ boats
• Aircraft
• Laptops
• Mobiles/ smart phones
• Survey and Mapping
• Precise positioning in GIS data collection
• Adventure
• Railways
Examples of Higher Precision Applications

Fleet Management Intelligent Vehicle
Systems

Mineral & Resource
Exploration

Positive Train Public Safety
Control & Services
New Navigation Capabilities

Aviation

Maritime

Space Transportation
GPS Accuracies
PHASE CODE
MEASUREMENTS MEASUREMENTS
Point Standard Positioning Service 30-100m (SA on)
positi (SPS) 5-15m (No SA, now)
ons
Precision Position service 2- 10 m

PPP (Precise point position 2-10 cm

Relati Differential Survey 50cm- 2m…


ve
Positi
ons Kinematic Survey 5mm- 2cm….

Static survey +1 to 0.1 ppm


Datum for GPS
• Satellite position/ orbit information (ephemeris) in GPS
broadcasts are as per WGS84 geodetic reference system.
(ref ellipsoid semi major axis 6378.137km, semi minor
axis 6356.752314km, flattening1/298.257223563)
• Alternate ref is International Terrestrial Ref System (ITRS)
• A datum is a set of constants specifying coordinate
system used for geodetic control, that is for calculating
coordinates of points on earth.
• Geodetic reference system defines geodetic coordinates
with respect to a rectangular coordinate system with
geocentric (centre of mass) as origin– this facilitates
derivation of geodetic latitude, longitude and height
above (earth) ellipsoid.
Choosing GPS Receivers
• 500 models, more than 60 manufacturers
• Anti spoofing policy, encrypted P(Y) code for L2
• Lower end hand held single- point frequency <10m
accuracy
• Mapping/ GIS data collection req. sub meter to few
meters.. single frequency models
• Geodetic surveys..dual freq/data storage
• RTK techniques use when reference to rover Rx data
communication is available
• Requirement- function matrix to help choice
Performance criteria
• Susceptibility to fade or interference
• Time to first fix
• Reacquisition time after signal loss
• Measurement data rate
• Power consumption
• Multi path rejection
• Accuracy in actual observing conditions
• “Ionosphere-free” observation:
International GNSS Service (IGS)
International GNSS Service (IGS)
• IGS has a global network of over 300 continuously
operating Geodetic quality stations spread over 80
countries.
• IGS provides several data products such as, GPS orbits,
satellite clock, station clock, earth rotation parameters, etc.
which can be accessed through their website
http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/components/products.html
• There are 2 IGS stations in India – one at Hyderabad and
the second in Bangalore
• Indian contact is through Centre for Mathematical
Modeling And Computer Simulation (CMMACS), CSIR
or NGRI.
IGS Key Functions
• Key activities of IGS include implementation of
International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF),
participation in international earth rotation service
etc.
• The IGS together with BIPM has a chain of 40
Hydrogen masers, 25 Cesium & 15 Rubidium clocks
around the world. They generate inputs for
Consultative Committee for Time and Frequencies
(CCTF)
• IGS has initiated several pilot projects with
European Reference (EUREF), GLONASS Reference
Time, International Laser Ranging Service
(ILRS),African Continental Reference Frame (AFREF),
Other International Organisations

• International Association of Geodesy (IAG)


- Over 400 Global Observation Stations
• Services:
- Geodetic space technique
- Atmospheric sounding (CHAMP)
- International Earth Rotation and Reference
System Service (IERS)
- International VLBI Service
- International Laser Ranging Service
Comparison of SATNAV Systems
System GPS GLONASS GALILEO GAGAN / IRNSS
Similarities
No. of satellites 24 14 now, 24 reqd 30 2/7
Altitude 20,000 Km 19,000 Km 24,000 Km 36,000 Km
Frequency of L-band L-band L-band L1,L5 / L5 & S-
operation band
Absolute position 10 meters 10 meters 8 meters < 8 meters with
accuracy GAGAN & < 20
meters with IRNSS
Divergences
Multiple access CDMA FDMA/CDMA CDMA CDMA
Spacecraft life 7.5 years 5 years >7 years 10 years
Controlled by Dept. of Defence, Min. of Defence - India
US Airforce
Access to Military Not possible Being negotiated May not be Access to all
Signals possible signals
Coordinate system WGS-84, ECEF PZ-90, ECEF - WGS-84
Indian Satellite Navigation Programme
• ISRO and AAI implement GAGAN .
• Implement IRNSS – an independent 7 satellite constellation
built and operated by India with indigenous capability
• Cooperate with other international systems such as, GPS,
GLONASS and Galileo.
• Keep track of development of other regional systems such
as, BEIDOU and COMPASS by China, Regional
augmentations to GPS such as, WAAS, EGNOS, MSAS,
Nigcomsat etc.
• Maintain interoperability between GAGAN and other
regional augmentations to GPS for global navigation
• Maintain synergy between augmentation systems and
IRNSS in terms of user receivers
• Develop indigenous capability in user receivers and
terrestrial infrastructure
IRNSS COVERAGE FROM 82DEG


GPS Augmentation systems in the World

WAAS EGNOS MSAS


GAGAN
2004 2005 ?
2009
Suggested Ref

• Manual of Geospatial• Science And


Technology
Edited by John D Bossier (Taylor & Francis)
THANK YOU