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CS2252

MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS

By
R.HARINI

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND


COMMUNICATION
AIM

To have an in depth knowledge of the architecture and programming of 8-bit


and 16-bit Microprocessors, Microcontrollers and to study how to interface
various peripheral devices with them.
OBJECTIVE

 To study the architecture and Instruction set of 8085 and 8086

 To develop assembly language programs in 8085 and 8086.

 To design and understand multiprocessor configurations

 To study different peripheral devices and their interfacing to 8085/8086.

 To study the architecture and programming of 8051 microcontroller.


UNIT I THE 8085 AND 8086 MICROPROCESSORS
8085 Microprocessor architecture-Addressing modes- Instruction set-Programming
the 8085
UNIT II 8086 SOFTWARE ASPECTS
Intel 8086 microprocessor - Architecture - Signals- Instruction Set-Addressing Modes-
Assembler Directives- Assembly Language Programming-Procedures-Macros-
Interrupts And Interrupt Service Routines-BIOS function calls.
UNIT III MULTIPROCESSOR CONFIGURATIONS
Coprocessor Configuration – Closely Coupled Configuration – Loosely Coupled
Configuration –8087 Numeric Data Processor – Data Types – Architecture –8089 I/O
Processor –Architecture –Communication between CPU and IOP.
UNIT IV I/O INTERFACING
Memory interfacing and I/O interfacing with 8085 – parallel communication interface –
serial communication interface – timer-keyboard/display controller – interrupt
controller – DMA controller (8237) – applications – stepper motor – temperature
control.
UNIT V MICROCONTROLLERS
Architecture of 8051 Microcontroller – signals – I/O ports – memory – counters and
timers – serial data I/O – interrupts-
Interfacing -keyboard, LCD,ADC & DAC
UNIT I

THE 8085 MICROPROCESSOR

 1.1 Introduction to 8085


 1.2 Microprocessor architecture
 1.3 Instruction set
 1.4 Addressing modes
 1.5 Programming the 8085.
1.1 8085 PROCESSOR

•The first microprocessor was introduced in 1970 by Intel (named 4004).


• It ran at the speed of 108KHz.
• Four years later, Intel created the 8080 running at just over 2 Mhz.
•This microprocessor was used on the world's firs personal computer, named Altair.
•Also at this time, IBM started researching for their microprocessor, called POWER
(Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC).
1.2 Microprocessor architecture

 Control Unit
 Arithmetic Logic Unit
 Registers
 Accumulator
 Flags
 Program Counter (PC)
 Stack Pointer (SP)
 Instruction Register/Decoder
 Memory Address Register
 General Purpose Registers
 Control Generator
 Register Selector
 Microprogramming
8085 ARCHITECTURE
CONTD..
1.3 INSTRUCTION SET

BASED ON FUNCTIONS
 Data Transfer Instructions
 Arithmetic Instructions
 Logical Instructions
 Branch Instructions
 Machine Control
BASED ON LENGTH
 One-word or 1-byte instructions
 Two-word or 2-byte instructions
 Three-word or 3-byte instructions
8085 Instruction Set

 The 8085 instructions can be classified as follows:

 Data transfer operations


 Between Registers
 Between Memory location and a Registers
 Direct write to a Register/Memory
 Between I/O device and Accumulator

 Arithmetic operations (ADD, SUB, INR, DCR)

 Logic operations

 Branching operations (JMP, CALL, RET)


8085 Instruction Types
8085 Instruction Types
8085 Instruction Types
PIN DIAGRAM
1.5 ADDRESSING MODES

 Implied Addressing:
The addressing mode of certain instructions is implied by the instruction’s function.
For example, the STC (set carry flag) instruction deals only with the carry flag, the
DAA (decimal adjust accumulator) instruction deals with the accumulator.
 Register Addressing:
Quite a large set of instructions call for register addressing. With these instructions,
specify one of the registers A through E, H or L as well as the operation code. With
these instructions, the accumulator is implied as a second operand. For example,
the instruction CMP E may be interpreted as 'compare the contents of the E register
with the contents of the accumulator.
Most of the instructions that use register addressing deal with 8-bit values.
However, a few of these instructions deal with 16-bit register pairs. For example, the
PCHL instruction exchanges the contents of the program counter with the contents
of the H and L registers.
 Immediate Addressing:
Instructions that use immediate addressing have data assembled as a part of the
instruction itself. For example, the instruction CPI 'C' may be interpreted as
‘compare the contents of the accumulator with the letter C. When assembled, this
instruction has the hexadecimal value FE43. Hexadecimal 43 is the internal
representation for the letter C. When this instruction is executed, the processor
fetches the first instruction byte and determines that it must fetch one more byte.
The processor fetches the next byte into one of its internal registers and then
performs the compare operation.
ADDRESSING MODES
CONTD…
 Direct Addressing:
Jump instructions include a 16-bit address as part of the instruction. For example,
the instruction JMP 1000H causes a jump to the hexadecimal address 1000 by
replacing the current contents of the program counter with the new value 1000H.
Instructions that include a direct address require three bytes of storage: one for the
instruction code, and two for the 16-bit address
 Register Indirect Addressing:
Register indirect instructions reference memory via a register pair. Thus, the
instruction MOV M,C moves the contents of the C register into the memory address
stored in the H and L register pair. The instruction LDAX B loads the accumulator
with the byte of data specified by the address in the B and C register pair.
UNIT- II

 Intel 8086 microprocessor

 Architecture

 Signals

 Instruction set

 Addressing modes

 Assembler directives

 Assembly language programming

 Procedures

 Macros

 Interrupts and interrupt service routines.

 BIOS Function Calls


8086 ARCHITECTURE&PIN
DIAGRAM
8086 FEATURES

 16-bit Arithmetic Logic Unit

 16-bit data bus (8088 has 8-bit data bus)

 20-bit address bus - 220 = 1,048,576 = 1 meg

 The address refers to a byte in memory.

 In the 8088, these bytes come in on the 8-bit data bus. In the 8086, bytes at
even addresses come in on the low half of the data bus (bits 0-7) and bytes at
odd addresses come in on the upper half of the data bus (bits 8-15).

 The 8086 can read a 16-bit word at an even address in one operation and at an

odd address in two operations. The 8088 needs two operations in either case.

 The least significant byte of a word on an 8086 family microprocessor is at the

lower address.
16-bit Registers

General Purpose Index


AH AL
BP
AX

SP
BH BL
BX
SI

CH CL
DI
CX

DH DL
DX Segment

CS

Status and Control SS

Flags DS

IP ES
8086 ARCHITECTURE
The 8086 has two parts,
 the Bus Interface Unit (BIU) and

 the Execution Unit (EU).

 The BIU fetches instructions, reads and writes data, and computes the 20-bit address.

 The EU decodes and executes the instructions using the 16-bit ALU.

The BIU contains the following registers:

IP - the Instruction Pointer


CS - the Code Segment Register
DS - the Data Segment Register
SS - the Stack Segment Register
ES - the Extra Segment Register

The BIU fetches instructions using the CS and IP, written CS:IP, to contract
the 20-bit address. Data is fetched using a segment register (usually the DS)
and an effective address (EA) computed by the EU depending on the
addressing mode.
INTERNAL BLOCK
PROGRAM MODEL
8086 Programmer’s Model

ES Extra Segment
BIU registers
(20 bit adder) CS Code Segment
SS Stack Segment
DS Data Segment
IP Instruction Pointer

EU registers AX AH AL Accumulator
BX BH BL Base Register
CX CH CL Count Register
DX DH DL Data Register
SP Stack Pointer
BP Base Pointer
SI Source Index Register
DI Destination Index Register
FLAGS
8086/88 internal registers 16 bits (2 bytes each)

AX, BX, CX and DX are two


bytes wide and each byte can
be accessed separately

These registers are used as


memory pointers.

Flags will be discussed later

Segment registers are used


as base address for a segment
in the 1 M byte of memory
The 8086/8088 Microprocessors: Registers

• Registers
– Registers are in the CPU and are referred to by specific names
– Data registers
• Hold data for an operation to be performed
• There are 4 data registers (AX, BX, CX, DX)
– Address registers
• Hold the address of an instruction or data element
• Segment registers (CS, DS, ES, SS)
• Pointer registers (SP, BP, IP)
• Index registers (SI, DI)
– Status register
• Keeps the current status of the processor
• On an IBM PC the status register is called the FLAGS register
– In total there are fourteen 16-bit registers in an 8086/8088
Data Registers: AX, BX, CX, DX

• Instructions execute faster if the data is in a register


• AX, BX, CX, DX are the data registers
• Low and High bytes of the data registers can be accessed
separately
– AH, BH, CH, DH are the high bytes
– AL, BL, CL, and DL are the low bytes
• Data Registers are general purpose registers but they also
perform special functions
• AX
– Accumulator Register
– Preferred register to use in arithmetic, logic and data transfer instructions
because it generates the shortest Machine Language Code
– Must be used in multiplication and division operations
– Must also be used in I/O operations
• BX
– Base Register
– Also serves as an address register
– Used in array operations
– Used in Table Lookup operations (XLAT)
• CX
– Count register
– Used as a loop counter
– Used in shift and rotate operations
• DX
– Data register
– Used in multiplication and division
– Also used in I/O operations
Pointer and Index Registers

• Contain the offset addresses of memory locations


• Can also be used in arithmetic and other operations
• SP: Stack pointer
– Used with SS to access the stack segment
• BP: Base Pointer
– Primarily used to access data on the stack
– Can be used to access data in other segments
• SI: Source Index register
– is required for some string operations
– When string operations are performed, the SI register points to
memory locations in the data segment which is addressed by the
DS register. Thus, SI is associated with the DS in string
operations.
• DI: Destination Index register
– is also required for some string operations.
– When string operations are performed, the DI register points to
memory locations in the data segment which is addressed by the
ES register. Thus, DI is associated with the ES in string
operations.
• The SI and the DI registers may also be used to access data
stored in arrays
Segment Registers - CS, DS, SS and ES

• Are Address registers


• Store the memory addresses of instructions and data
• Memory Organization
– Each byte in memory has a 20 bit address starting with 0 to 220-1 or 1
meg of addressable memory
– Addresses are expressed as 5 hex digits from 00000 - FFFFF
– Problem: But 20 bit addresses are TOO BIG to fit in 16 bit registers!
– Solution: Memory Segment
• Block of 64K (65,536) consecutive memory bytes
• A segment number is a 16 bit number
• Segment numbers range from 0000 to FFFF
• Within a segment, a particular memory location is specified with an offset
• An offset also ranges from 0000 to FFFF
Segmented Memory

Segmented memory addressing: absolute (linear) address is a


combination of a 16-bit segment value added to a 16-bit offset

F0000
E0000 8000:FFFF
D0000
C0000
B0000
A0000
one segment
90000
80000
70000
60000
8000:0250
50000
0250
40000
30000 8000:0000
20000
10000
seg ofs
00000
Intel
Memory Address Generation

• The BIU has a dedicated adder for


determining physical memory addresses
Offset Value (16 bits)

Segment Register (16 bits) 0000

Adder

Physical Address (20 Bits)


Intel
Example Address Calculation

• If the data segment starts at location 1000h


and a data reference contains the address
29h where is the actual data?
2 9

Offset: 0000000000101001

Segment: 0001000000000000 0000

Address: 0001000000000010 1001


SEGMENT:OFFSET ADDRESS

• Logical Address is specified as segment:offset


• Physical address is obtained by shifting the segment address 4
bits to the left and adding the offset address
• Thus the physical address of the logical address A4FB:4872 is
A4FB0
+ 4872
A9822
EXAMPLE
THE CODE SEGMENT

0H
4000H
CS: 0400H
CS:IP = 400:56
4056H Logical Address
IP 0056H

Segment Register Memory


0400 0
Offset
+ 0056
Physical or 0FFFFFH

Absolute Address 04056H

The offset is the distance in bytes from the start of the segment.
The offset is given by the IP for the Code Segment.
Instructions are always fetched with using the CS register.

The physical address is also called the absolute address.


THE DATA SEGMENT

0H

05C00H
DS: 05C0
05C50H
EA 0050 DS:EA

Memory
05C0 0
Segment Register

Offset + 0050
0FFFFFH
Physical Address 05C50H

Data is usually fetched with respect to the DS register.


The effective address (EA) is the offset.
The EA depends on the addressing mode.
THE STACK SEGMENT

0H

0A00 0A000H
SS:
0A100H
SP 0100 SS:SP

Segment Register
Memory
0A00 0
Offset
+ 0100
Physical Address
0FFFFFH
0A100H
The offset is given by the SP register.
The stack is always referenced with respect to the stack segment register.
The stack grows toward decreasing memory locations.
The SP points to the last or top item on the stack.

PUSH - pre-decrement the SP


POP - post-increment the SP
Flags

Carry flag
Overflow
Direction Parity flag

Interrupt enable Auxiliary flag

Trap Zero

Sign
6 are status flags
3 are control flag
Flag Register

• Conditional flags:
– They are set according to some results of arithmetic operation. You do
not need to alter the value yourself.
• Control flags:
– Used to control some operations of the MPU. These flags are to be set
by you in order to achieve some specific purposes.
Flag O D I T S Z A P C

1
Bit no. 15 14 13 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0

• CF (carry) Contains carry from leftmost bit following


arithmetic, also contains last bit from a shift or rotate
operation.
Flag Register

 OF (overflow) Indicates overflow of the leftmost bit during arithmetic.

 DF (direction) Indicates left or right for moving or comparing string data.

 IF (interrupt) Indicates whether external interrupts are being processed or


ignored.

 TF (trap) Permits operation of the processor in single step mode.


 SF (sign) Contains the resulting sign of an arithmetic operation (1=negative)

 ZF (zero) Indicates when the result of arithmetic or a comparison is zero.


(1=yes)

 AF (auxiliary carry) Contains carry out of bit 3 into bit 4 for specialized
arithmetic.

 PF (parity) Indicates the number of 1 bits that result from an operation.


Macros
 avoid repetitious SAS code

 create generalizable and flexible SAS code

 pass information from one part of a SAS job to another

 conditionally execute data steps and PROCs

 dynamically create code at execution time


Example
Simple macro variable

%let dsn=LAB;

title "DATA SET &dsn";

proc contents data=&dsn;

run;

proc print data=&dsn(obs=10);

run;
Procedures

Initial call to run an external program

 Run a LCA model to simulate data

 Estimate a model of simulated data

 Collect necessary output

 Check if output read is indeed output wanted

 Collect output in a single data matrix


Instruction Set
 Mov destination, source

 add, inc, dec and sub instructions

 Input/Output

 String Instructions

 Machine Control

 Flag Manipulation.
Addressing Modes

 Immediate addressing.

 Register addressing.

 Direct addressing.

 Indirect addressing

 Implied addressing.

 Indexed addressing

 Relative addressing
Interrupts &Interrupt Service
Routine
 An interrupt signals the processor to suspend its current activity
(i.e. running your program) and to pass control to an interrupt service
program (i.e. part of the operating system).

 A software interrupt is one generated by a program (as opposed to


one generated by hardware).

 The 8086 int instruction generates a software interrupt.

 It uses a single operand which is a number indicating which MSDOS


subprogram is to be invoked.

 This subprogram handles a variety of I/O operations by calling


appropriate subprograms.
MAXIMUM MODE

Maximum mode

 Maximum mode is designed to be used with a coprocessor exists in the system.

 All the control signals (except RD) are not generated by the microprocessor.

 But we still need those control signals.

 Solution:

 8288.
8086 maximum & minimum
modes
 8086 maximum & minimum modes
 The mode is controlled by MN/MX.
 Maximum mode is obtained by connecting MN/MX to low and
minimum mode is by connecting it to high.
 Having two different modes (minimum and maximum) is used
only 8088/8086.
 Each mode enables a different control structure.
 Minimum mode operation and control signals are very similar to
those of 8085.
 So 8085 8-bit peripherals can be used with 8086 without special
considerations.
 Easy and least expensive way to build single processor systems
S2 S1 S0 operation signal
0 0 0 Interrupt Acknowledge INTA
0 0 1 Read I/O port IORC
0 1 0 Write I/O port IOWC, AIOWC
0 1 1 Halt none
1 0 0 Instruction Fetch MRDC
1 0 1 Read Memory MRDC
1 1 0 Write Memory MWTC, AMWC
1 1 1 Passive none
UNIT III

 Coprocessor Configuration

 Closely Coupled Configuration

 Loosely Coupled Configuration

 8087 Numeric Data Processor-architecture

 Data types

 8089 I/O Processor-Architecture

 Communication between CPU and IOP


PIN DIAGRAM OF 8087
Architecture of 8087

 Two Units
 􀂙 Control Unit
 􀂙 Execution Unit
Control Unit

 􀂙 Control unit: To synchronize the operation of the coprocessor and the processor.
 􀂙 This unit has a Control word and Status word and Data Buffer
 􀂙 If instruction is an ESCape (coprocessor) instruction, the coprocessor executes it, if not
 the microprocessor executes.
 􀂙 Status register reflects the over all operation of the coprocessor.
Status Register
Status Register
 C3-C0 Condition code bits
 TOP Top-of-stack (ST)
 ES Error summary
 PE Precision error
 UE Under flow error
 OE Overflow error
 ZE Zero error
 DE Denormalized error
 IE Invalid error
 B Busy bit
􀂙 B-Busy bit indicates that coprocessor is busy executing a task. Busy can be tested by examining
the status or by using the FWAIT instruction.
􀂙 C3-C0 Condition code bits indicates conditions about the coprocessor.
􀂙 TOP- Top of the stack (ST) bit indicates the current register address as the top of the stack.
􀂙 ES-Error summary bit is set if any unmasked error bit (PE, UE, OE, ZE, DE, or IE) is set. In the
8087 the error summary is also caused a coprocessor interrupt.
􀂙 PE- Precision error indicates that the result or operand executes selected precision.
􀂙 UE-Under flow error indicates the result is too large to be represent with the current precision
selected by the control word.
􀂙 OE-Over flow error indicates a result that is too large to be represented. If this error is masked, the
coprocessor generates infinity for an overflow error.
􀂙 ZE-A Zero error indicates the divisor was zero while the dividend is a non-infinity or non-zero
number.
􀂙 DE-Denormalized error indicates at least one of the operand is denormalized.
􀂙 IE-Invalid error indicates a stack overflow or underflow, indeterminate from (0/0,0,-0,
etc) or the use of a NAN as an operand. This flag indicates error such as those produced
by taking the square root of a negative number.
CONTROL REGISTER
 Control register selects precision, rounding control, infinity control.
 It also masks an unmasks the exception bits that correspond to the rightmost Six bits of
status register.
 Instruction FLDCW is used to load the value into the control register.

 IC Infinity control
 RC Rounding control
 PC Precision control
 PM Precision control
 UM Underflow mask
 OM Overflow mask
 ZM Division by zero mask
 DM Denormalized operand mask
 IM Invalid operand mask
 IC –Infinity control selects either affine or projective infinity. Affine allows positive and
negative infinity, while projective assumes infinity is unsigned.
 INFINITY CONTROL
0 = Projective
1 = Affine
 RC –Rounding control determines the type of rounding.
 ROUNDING CONTROL
00=Round to nearest or even
01=Round down towards minus infinity
10=Round up towards plus infinity
11=Chop or truncate towards zero
 PC- Precision control sets the precision of he result as define in table
 PRECISION CONTROL
00=Single precision (short)
01=Reserved
10=Double precision (long)
11=Extended precision (temporary)
 Exception Masks – It Determines whether the error indicated by the exception affects
the error bit in the status register. If a logic1 is placed in one of the exception control bits,
corresponding status register bit is masked off.
Numeric Execution Unit

 This performs all operations that access and manipulate the numeric data in the
coprocessor’s registers.
 Numeric registers in NUE are 80 bits wide.
 NUE is able to perform arithmetic, logical and transcendental operations as well as
supply a small number of mathematical constants from its on-chip ROM.
 Numeric data is routed into two parts ways a 64 bit mantissa bus and
a 16 bit sign/exponent bus.
Data Types

 Internally, all data operands are converted to the 80-bit temporary real format.
We have 3 types.
 Integer data type
 Packed BCD data type
 Real data type
Example
Converting a decimal number into a Floating-point number.
1) Converting the decimal number into binary form.
2) Normalize the binary number
3) Calculate the biased exponent.
4) Store the number in the floating-point format.
Example
 Step Result
1) 100.25
2) 1100100.01 = 1.10010001 * 26
3) 110+01111111=10000101
4 ) Sign = 0
 Exponent =10000101
 Significand = 10010001000000000000000
 In step 3 the biased exponent is the exponent a 26 or 110,plus a bias of 01111111(7FH)
single precision no use 7F and double precision no use 3FFFH.
 IN step 4 the information found in prior step is combined to form the floating point no.
UNIT V

 Architecture of 8051
 Signals
 Operational features
 Memory and I/O addressing
 Interrupts
 Instruction set
 Applications.
Microcontroller :

 A smaller computer
 On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...
 Example:Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC
16X

CPU RAM ROM


A single chip
Serial
I/O Timer COM
Port
Port
Microcontroller
Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller

Microprocessor
 CPU is stand-alone, RAM, Microcontroller
ROM, I/O, timer are separate • CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and
 designer can decide on the timer are all on a single chip
amount of ROM, RAM and • fix amount of on-chip ROM,
I/O ports. RAM, I/O ports
 expansive • for applications in which cost,
 versatility power and space are critical
 general-purpose • single-purpose
Block Diagram

External interrupts
On-chip Timer/Counter

Interrupt ROM for


On-chip Timer 1 Counter
Control program
code RAM Timer 0 Inputs

CPU

Bus Serial
4 I/O Ports
OSC Control Port

P0 P1 P2 P3 TxD RxD
Address/Data
Pin Description of the 8051

P1.0 1 40 Vcc
P1.1 2 39 P0.0(AD0)
P1.2 3 38 P0.1(AD1)
P1.3
P1.4
4
5
8051 37
36
P0.2(AD2)
P0.3(AD3)
P1.5 6 (8031) 35 P0.4(AD4)
P1.6 7 34 P0.5(AD5)
P1.7 8 33 P0.6(AD6)
RST 9 32 P0.7(AD7)
(RXD)P3.0 10 31 EA/VPP
(TXD)P3.1 11 30 ALE/PROG
(INT0)P3.2 12 29 PSEN
(INT1)P3.3 13 28 P2.7(A15)
(T0)P3.4 14 27 P2.6(A14)
(T1)P3.5 15 26 P2.5(A13)
(WR)P3.6 16 25 P2.4(A12)
(RD)P3.7 17 24 P2.3(A11)
XTAL2 18 23 P2.2(A10)
XTAL1 19 22 P2.1(A9)
GND 20 21 P2.0(A8) 
Figure (b). Power-On RESET Circuit

Vcc

+
10 uF
31
EA/VPP
30 pF X1
19
11.0592 MHz
8.2 K
X2
18
30 pF
9 RST


Port 0 with Pull-Up Resistors

Vcc
10 K

P0.0

Port
DS5000 P0.1
P0.2
8751 P0.3
8951 P0.4 0
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
Registers

R0
DPTR DPH DPL
R1

R2 PC PC
R3

R4 Some 8051 16-bit Register

R5

R6

R7

Some 8-bitt Registers of


the 8051
Stack in the 8051
 The register used to access
the stack is called SP (stack 7FH
pointer) register.
Scratch pad RAM

 The stack pointer in the 30H

8051 is only 8 bits wide, 2FH


Bit-Addressable RAM
which means that it can take
value 00 to FFH. When 20H
1FH Register Bank 3
8051 powered up, the SP 18H
register contains value 07. 17H
10H
Register Bank 2

0FH (Stack) Register Bank 1


08H
07H
Register Bank 0
00H
Timer:
: Timer :
Interrupt :
Numerical Bases Used in
Programming

 Hexadecimal

 Binary

 BCD
Hexadecimal Basis
 Hexadecimal Digits:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

A=10
B=11
C=12
D=13
E=14
F=15
Decimal, Binary, BCD, & Hexadecimal Numbers

(43)10=

(0100 0011)BCD=

( 0010 1011 )2 =

( 2 B )16
Register Addressing Mode

MOV Rn, A ;n=0,..,7


ADD A, Rn
MOV DPL, R6

MOV DPTR, A
MOV Rm, Rn
Direct Addressing Mode

Although the entire of 128 bytes of RAM can be


accessed using direct addressing mode, it is most often
used to access RAM loc. 30 – 7FH.

MOV R0, 40H


MOV 56H, A
MOV A, 4 ; ≡ MOV A, R4
MOV 6, 2 ; copy R2 to R6
; MOV R6,R2 is invalid !
Immediate Addressing Mode

MOV A,#65H

MOV R6,#65H

MOV DPTR,#2343H

MOV P1,#65H
SETB bit ; bit=1
CLR bit ; bit=0

SETB C ; CY=1
SETB P0.0 ;bit 0 from port 0 =1
SETB P3.7 ;bit 7 from port 3 =1
SETB ACC.2 ;bit 2 from ACCUMULATOR =1
SETB 05 ;set high D5 of RAM loc. 20h

Note:

CLR instruction is as same as SETB


i.e.:
CLR C ;CY=0

But following instruction is only for CLR:


CLR A ;A=0
DEC byte ;byte=byte-1
INC byte ;byte=byte+1

INC R7
DEC A
DEC 40H ; [40]=[40]-1
LOOP and JUMP Instructions

Conditional Jumps :
JZ Jump if A=0

JNZ Jump if A/=0

DJNZ Decrement and jump if A/=0


CJNE A,byte Jump if A/=byte
CJNE reg,#data Jump if byte/=#data
JC Jump if CY=1

JNC Jump if CY=0

JB Jump if bit=1

JNB Jump if bit=0

JBC Jump if bit=1 and clear bit


Call instruction

SETB P0.0
.
.
CALL UP
.
.
.
UP:CLR P0.0
.
.
RET
UNIT IV

 Memory Interfacing and I/O interfacing


 Parallel communication interface
 Serial communication interface
 Timer
 Keyboard /display controller
 Interrupt controller
 DMA controller
 Programming and applications
Accessing I/O Devices
 I/O address mapping
 Memory-mapped I/O
 Reading and writing are similar to memory
read/write
 Uses same memory read and write signals
 Most processors use this I/O mapping
 Isolated I/O
 Separate I/O address space
 Separate I/O read and write signals are needed
 Pentium supports isolated I/O
 64 KB address space
 Can be any combination of 8-, 16- and 32-bit I/O
ports
 Also supports memory-mapped I/O
Accessing I/O Devices
(cont’d)
 Accessing I/O ports in Pentium
 Register I/O instructions
in accumulator, port8 ; direct format
 Useful to access first 256 ports
in accumulator,DX ; indirect format
 DX gives the port address
 Block I/O instructions
 ins and outs
 Both take no operands---as in string instructions
 ins: port address in DX, memory address in
ES:(E)DI
 outs: port address in DX, memory address in
ES:(E)SI
 We can use rep prefix for block transfer of data
An Example I/O Device

 Keyboard
 Keyboard controller scans and reports
 Key depressions and releases
 Supplies key identity as a scan code
 Scan code is like a sequence number of the key
 Key’s scan code depends on its position on the
keyboard
 No relation to the ASCII value of the key

 Interfaced through an 8-bit parallel I/O port


 Originally supported by 8255 programmable
peripheral interface chip (PPI)
An Example I/O Device
(cont’d)
 8255 PPI has three 8-bit registers
 Port A (PA)
 Port B (PB)
 Port C (PC)
 These ports are mapped as follows
8255 register Port address
PA (input port) 60H
PB (output port) 61H
PC (input port) 62H
Command register 63H
An Example I/O Device
(cont’d)
Mapping of 8255 I/O ports
An Example I/O Device
(cont’d)
 Mapping I/O ports is similar to mapping
memory
 Partial mapping
 Full mapping
 See our discussion in Chapter 16
 Keyboard scan code and status can be
read from port 60H
 7-bit scan code is available from
 PA0 – PA6
 Key status is available from PA7
 PA7 = 0 – key depressed
 PA0 = 1 – key released
I/O Data Transfer
 Data transfer involves two phases
 A data transfer phase
 It can be done either by
 Programmed I/O
 DMA
 An end-notification phase
 Programmed I/O
 Interrupt
 Three basic techniques
 Programmed I/O
 DMA
 Interrupt-driven I/O (discussed in Chapter 20)
I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)
 Programmed I/O
 Done by busy-waiting
 This process is called polling
 Example
 Reading a key from the keyboard involves
 Waiting for PA7 bit to go low
 Indicates that a key is pressed
 Reading the key scan code
 Translating it to the ASCII value
 Waiting until the key is released
 Program 19.1 uses this process to read input
from the keyboard
I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)

 Direct memory access (DMA)


 Problems with programmed I/O
 Processor wastes time polling
 In our example
 Waiting for a key to be pressed,
 Waiting for it to be released
 May not satisfy timing constraints associated with
some devices
 Disk read or write
 DMA
 Frees the processor of the data transfer
responsibility
I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)
I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)

 DMA is implemented using a DMA


controller
 DMA controller
 Acts as slave to processor
 Receives instructions from processor
 Example: Reading from an I/O device
 Processor gives details to the DMA controller
 I/O device number
 Main memory buffer address
 Number of bytes to transfer
 Direction of transfer (memory  I/O device, or vice
versa)
I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)
 Steps in a DMA operation
 Processor initiates the DMA controller
 Gives device number, memory buffer pointer, …
 Called channel initialization
 Once initialized, it is ready for data transfer
 When ready, I/O device informs the DMA
controller
 DMA controller starts the data transfer process
 Obtains bus by going through bus arbitration
 Places memory address and appropriate control signals
 Completes transfer and releases the bus
 Updates memory address and count value
 If more to read, loops back to repeat the process
 Notify the processor when done
 Typically uses an interrupt
I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)

DMA controller details


I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)
DMA transfer timing
I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)
8237 DMA controller
I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)
 8237 supports four DMA channels
 It has the following internal registers
 Current address register
 One 16-bit register for each channel
 Holds address for the current DMA transfer
 Current word register
 Keeps the byte count
 Generates terminal count (TC) signal when the count goes from
zero to FFFFH
 Command register
 Used to program 8257 (type of priority, …)
I/O Data Transfer (cont’d)
 Mode register
 Each channel can be programmed to
 Read or write
 Autoincrement or autodecrement the address
 Autoinitialize the channel
 Request register
 For software-initiated DMA
 Mask register
 Used to disable a specific channel
 Status register
 Temporary register
 Used for memory-to-memory transfers
What is a Timer?

 A device that uses highspeed clock input


to provide a series of time or count-related
events Counter Register
System Clock 0x1206
Reload
on Zero
÷ 000000
Clock Divider Countdown Register

Interrupt to
I/O Control
Processor
Inside the Timer
High Byte Low Byte
Counter Register
at offsets 0x04, 0x00 (write only)

GO Register
offset 0x08, immediately moves
Counter Reg value into Current Counter

Current Counter
(not directly readable by software)

Latch Register
offset 0x0C, write a ``1'' to immediately write
Current Counter value to readable Latch Reg

Latched Counter
at offsets 0x04, 0x00 (read only)
Setting the Timer's
Counter Registers
 Counter is usually programmed to reach
zero X times per second
 To program the timer to reach zero 100 times
per second
 Example: For a 2 MHz-based timer, 2MHz /
100 = 20,000

#define TIMER1 0x10200050


int time;

time = 2000000 / 100;


timer = (timer_p) TIMER1;
Interrupt vs. Polled I/O

 Polled I/O requires the CPU to ask a device (e.g. toggle switches) if the device requires
servicing
 For example, if the toggle switches have changed position
 Software plans for polling the devices and is written to know when a device will be
serviced
 Interrupt I/O allows the device to interrupt the processor, announcing that the device
requires attention
 This allows the CPU to ignore devices unless they request servicing (via interrupts)
 Software cannot plan for an interrupt because interrupts can happen at any time
therefore, software has no idea when an interrupt will occur
 This makes it more difficult to write code
 Processors can be programmed to ignore interrupts
 We call this masking of interrupts
 Different types of interrupts can be masked (IRQ vs. FIQ)
IRQ and FIQ

 Program Status Register


31 30 29 28 27 … 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
N Z C V I F M4 M3 M2 M1 M0

 To disable interrupts, set the corresponding “F” or “I” bit to 1


 On interrupt, processor switches to FIQ32_mode registers or IRQ32_mode
registers
 On any interrupt (or) Switch register banks
 Copy PC and CPSR to R14 and SPSR
 Change new CPSR mode bits
 SWI Trap
INTERFACING

 Static RAM interfacing.


 Procedure
 Configuration.
 Dynamic RAM interfacing.
I/O Port Interfacing

 Steps in Interfacing
 Methods of interfacing
a) I/O Mapped
b) Memory Mapped.
PIO 8255

 Programmable input output Port.


 Architecture
 Signals
 Modes Of Operation
a) BSR Mode
b) I/O Modes
i) Mode 0(Basic I/O Mode)
ii) Mode 1 (Strobed I/O Mode)
iii) Mode 2 (Strobed Bidirectional Mode)
Controller 8259

 Programmable Interrupt Controller.


 Architecture and Signal Descriptions
 Interrupt Sequence .
 Command word
a) Initialization Command word (ICWs).
b) Operation Command words.
Modes of operation:
1.Nested mode.
2.Fully Nested Mode.
3.Poll mode
Automatic EOI Mode.
Display Controller 8279

 Output Mode
1)Display Scan
2) Display Entry
Command words.
8251 USART

 Methods of Data communication


a) Simplex
b) Duplex
c) Half Duplex
 Architecture
 Control Word
a) Mode Instruction control word
b) Command instruction control word
TEXT BOOKS

 Ramesh S.Gaonkar, “Microprocessor - Architecture, Programming


and Applications with the 8085”, Penram International publishing
private limited, fifth edition.

 (UNIT-1: – Chapters 3,5,6 and programming examples from


chapters 7-10)

 A.K. Ray & K.M.Bhurchandi, “Advanced Microprocessors and


peripherals- Architectures, Programming and Interfacing”, TMH,
2002 reprint. (UNITS 2 to 5: – Chapters 1-6, 7.1-7.3, 8, 16)
REFERENCES

 Douglas V.Hall, “Microprocessors and Interfacing: Programming and


Hardware”, TMH, Third edition

 Yu-cheng Liu, Glenn A.Gibson, “Microcomputer systems: The 8086 / 8088


Family architecture, Programming and Design”, PHI 2003

 Mohamed Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi, “The 8051 microcontroller and
embedded systems”, Pearson education, 2004.