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# Tenth Edition

## CHAPTER VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

18 DYNAMICS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
Phillip J. Cornwell Kinetics of Rigid Bodies in
Lecture Notes:
Three Dimensions
Brian P. Self
California Polytechnic State University

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Contents
Introduction Motion About a Fixed Point or a Fixed
Axis
Rigid Body Angular Momentum in
Three Dimensions Sample Problem 18.3
Principle of Impulse and Motion of a Gyroscope. Eulerian
Momentum Angles
Kinetic Energy Steady Precession of a Gyroscope
Sample Problem 18.1 Motion of an Axisymmetrical Body
Under No Force
Sample Problem 18.2
Motion of a Rigid Body in Three
Dimensions
Euler’s Equations of Motion and
D’Alembert’s Principle

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

## Three dimensional analyses are needed to determine the forces

and moments on the gimbals of gyroscopes, the rotors of
amusement park rides, and the housings of wind turbines.

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Introduction
• The fundamental relations developed for
the plane motion of rigid bodies may also
be applied to the general motion of three
dimensional bodies.
 
• The relation H G  I  which was used
to determine the angular momentum of a
rigid slab is not valid for general three
dimensional bodies and motion.
• The current chapter is concerned with
 
 F  m a evaluation of the angular momentum and
  its rate of change for three dimensional
 M G  HG motion and application to effective
forces, the impulse-momentum and the
work-energy principles.

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rigid Body Angular Momentum in Three Dimensions
• Angular momentum of a body about its mass center,
 n   n   
H G   ri vi mi    ri   riΔmi 
i 1 i 1
• The x component of the angular momentum,
n

   
H x   yi   ri z  zi   ri y Δmi 
i 1

   
n
  yi  x yi   y xi  zi  z xi   x zi  Δmi
i 1

 x 
n
 yi2  zi2 Δmi   y  xi yi Δmi   z  zi xi Δmi
n n

i 1 i 1 i 1

 
H x   x  y 2  z 2 dm   y  xy dm   z  zx dm
  I x x  I xy y  I xz z
H y   I yx x  I y y  I yz  z
H z   I zx x  I zy y  I z z
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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rigid Body Angular Momentum in Three Dimensions
 
• Transformation of  into H G is characterized
by the inertia tensor for the body,
  Ix  I xy  I xz 
 
  I yx  Iy  I yz 
 I  I zy  I z 
 zx
• With respect to the principal axes of inertia,
 I x 0 0
 
 0 I y 0
 0 I z 
H x   I x x  I xy y  I xz  z  0

## H y   I yx x  I y y  I yz  z H x  I x xH y  I y y H z  I z z

H z   I zx x  I zy y  I z z • The angular momentum H G of a rigid body

and its angular velocity  have the same

direction if, and only if,  is directed along a
principal axis of inertia.
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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rigid Body Angular Momentum in Three Dimensions
• The momenta of the particles of a rigid body can
be reduced to:

L  linear momentum

 mv

H G  angular momentum about G
H x   I x x  I xy y  I xz  z
H y   I yx x  I y y  I yz  z
H z   I zx x  I zy y  I z z

## • The angular momentum about any other given

point O is
   
H O  r  mv  H G

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Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rigid Body Angular Momentum in Three Dimensions
• The angular momentum of a body constrained to
rotate about a fixed point may be calculated from
   
H O  r  mv  H G

## • Or, the angular momentum may be computed

directly from the moments and products of inertia
with respect to the Oxyz frame.
 n  
H O   ri  vi Δm 
i 1
n
  
  ri    ri Δmi 
i 1

H x   I x x  I xy y  I xz  z
H y   I yx x  I y y  I yz  z
H z   I zx x  I zy y  I z z

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Principle of Impulse and Momentum

## • The principle of impulse and momentum can be applied directly to the

three-dimensional motion of a rigid body,
Syst Momenta1 + Syst Ext Imp1-2 = Syst Momenta2

## • The free-body diagram equation is used to develop component and

moment equations.

• For bodies rotating about a fixed point, eliminate the impulse of the
reactions at O by writing equation for moments of momenta and
impulses about O.
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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Concept Question
At the instant shown, the
disk shown rotates with an
angular velocity 2 with
respect to arm ABC, which
rotates around the y axis as
shown (1). Determine the
directions of the angular
momentum of the disc
about point A (choose all
that are correct).

+x +y +z

-x -y -z
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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Concept Question
A homogeneous disk of
mass m and radius r is
mounted on the vertical
shaft AB as shown
Determine the directions of
the angular momentum of
the disc about the mass
center G (choose all that
are correct).

+x +y +z

-x -y -z
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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Kinetic Energy
• Kinetic energy of particles forming rigid body,
n
T 1 mv 2
2
 1
2  Δ m i vi 2
i 1
n  
 12 mv 2  1
2    ri 2 Δmi
i 1

 12 mv 2  1 (I  2  I  2  I  2  2 I xy x y
2 x x y y z z
 2 I yz y z  2 I zx z x )

principle axes,

## • With these results, the principles of work and

energy and conservation of energy may be applied
to the three-dimensional motion of a rigid body.
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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Kinetic Energy

## • Kinetic energy of a rigid body with a fixed point,

T  12 ( I x x2  I y 2y  I z z2  2 I xy x y
 2 I yz  y z  2 I zx z x )

## • If the axes Oxyz correspond instantaneously with

the principle axes Ox’y’z’,
T  12 ( I x x2  I y 2y  I z z2 )

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Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Concept Question
At the instant shown, the disk
shown rotates with an angular
velocity 2 with respect to
arm ABC, which rotates
around the y axis as shown
(1). What terms will
contribute to the kinetic
energy of the disk (choose all
that are correct)?

1 1 1
I x12 I z 12 I y 12
2 2 2

1 1 2 2
I z 22 mL 1
2 2
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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.1
SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and
momentum. Since the initial momenta
is zero, the system of impulses must be
equivalent to the final system of
momenta.
• Assume that the supporting cables
remain taut such that the vertical velocity
and the rotation about an axis normal to
the plate is zero.
Rectangular plate of mass m that is
suspended from two wires is hit at D in • Principle of impulse and momentum
a direction perpendicular to the plate. yields to two equations for linear
momentum and two equations for
Immediately after the impact, angular momentum.
determine a) the velocity of the mass
• Solve for the two horizontal components
center G, and b) the angular velocity of
of the linear and angular velocity
the plate.
vectors.
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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.1

SOLUTION:
• Apply the principle of impulse and momentum. Since the initial momenta is zero,
the system of impulses must be equivalent to the final system of momenta.
• Assume that the supporting cables remain taut such that the vertical velocity and the
rotation about an axis normal to the plate is zero.
     
v  vx i  vz k    xi   y j

## Since the x, y, and z axes are principal axes of inertia,

   1  1 
HG  I x xi  I y y j  12 mb2 xi  12 ma 2 y j

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.1

• Principle of impulse and momentum yields two equations for linear momentum and
two equations for angular momentum.
• Solve for the two horizontal components of the linear and angular velocity vectors.
0  mvx  FΔt  mvz 1 bFΔt  Hx  12 aFΔt  H y
2
vx  0 vz   FΔt m 1 mb 2 1 ma 2
 12 x  12 y
 
v  FΔt mk  x  6FΔt mb  y  6FΔt ma 
6 FΔt  

 ai  b j 
mab

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.1

 
v  FΔt mk

6 FΔt  

 ai  b j 
mab
 
1 mb 2 i  1 ma 2 j

HG  12 x 12 y

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.2
SOLUTION:
• The disk rotates about the vertical axis
through O as well as about OG.
Combine the rotation components for
the angular velocity of the disk.

## A homogeneous disk of mass m is • Compute the angular momentum of the

mounted on an axle OG of negligible disk using principle axes of inertia and
mass. The disk rotates counter- noting that O is a fixed point.
clockwise at the rate 1 about OG. • The kinetic energy is computed from the
Determine: a) the angular velocity of angular velocity and moments of inertia.
the disk, b) its angular momentum about • The vector and couple at G are also
O, c) its kinetic energy, and d) the computed from the angular velocity and
vector and couple at G equivalent to the moments of inertia.
momenta of the particles of the disk.

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.2
SOLUTION:
• The disk rotates about the vertical axis through O as well
as about OG. Combine the rotation components for the
angular velocity of the disk.
  
  1i   2 j
Noting that the velocity at C is zero,
  
vC    rC  0
   
0  1i   2 j   Li  rj 

 L 2  r1 k
 2  r1 L
  
  1i  r1 L  j

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.2
• Compute the angular momentum of the disk using
principle axes of inertia and noting that O is a fixed point.
   
HO  I x xi  I y y j  I z z k
H x  I x x  12 mr 2 1
H y  I y y  mL2  14 mr 2  r1 L 
   H z  I z z  mL2  14 mr 2 0  0
  1i  r1 L  j
HO  12 mr 21i  mL2  14 r 2 r1 L  j
  

## • The kinetic energy is computed from the angular velocity

and moments of inertia.
 
T  12 I x x2  I y y2  I z z2

##  12 mr 212  mL2  14 r 2  r1 L 2 

 2
1 mr 2  6  r  2
T 8  2 1
 L 

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.2
• The vector and couple at G are also computed from the
angular velocity and moments of inertia.
 
mv  mr1k
   
H G  I x xi  I y y j  I z  z k
2  1 
 2 mr 1i  4 mr  r L  j
1 2

  
  1i  r1 L  j   r 
H G  12 mr 21 i  j
 2 L 

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion of a Rigid Body in Three Dimensions
• Angular momentum and its rate of change are
taken with respect to centroidal axes GX’Y’Z’ of
fixed orientation.
 
• Transformation of  into H G is independent of
the system of coordinate axes.
• Convenient to use body fixed axes Gxyz where
moments and products of inertia are not time
dependent.

• Define rate of change of change of H G with
 
 F  m a respect to the rotating frame,

 M  HG

H

 G Gxyz 

x

H i H jH k

y

z
Then,

HG  HG  Gxyz    H G
 
 

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Euler’s Eqs of Motion & D’Alembert’s Principle

• With    and Gxyz chosen to correspond
to the principal axes of inertia,

M  H

G  G Gxyz
 
 H G

Euler’s Equations:
 M x  I x x  I y  I z  y z
 M y  I y y  I z  I x  z x
 M z  I z z  I x  I y  x y
• System of external forces and effective forces
are equivalent for general three dimensional
motion.
• System of external forces are equivalent
 to

the vector and couple, ma and H G .

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Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
• The part rotates about the axis AB.
Determine the mass moment of inertia
matrix for the part.

## • Compute the angular momentum of the

disk using the moments inertia.

## • Compute the kinetic energy from the

Two L-shaped arms, each weighing
angular velocity and moments of inertia.
4 lb, are welded at the third points
of the 2-ft shaft AB. Knowing that
shaft AB rotates at the constant rate
= 240 rpm, determine (a) the
angular momentum of the body
about B, and b) its kinetic energy.

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Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
4
Given: W  4 lb, m   0.12422 lb  s2/ft ,
32.2
a  8 in.  0.66667 ft
(2 )(240)
z     8 rad/s,  x  0,  y  0
60

Find: HB, T

## There is only rotation about the

z-axis, what relationship(s) can
you use?
( H B ) x   I xz  ( H B ) y   I yz ( H B ) z  I z

## Split the part into four different segments, then determine

Ixz, Iyz, and Iz. What is the mass of each segment?
m
•Mass of each of the four segments m   0.06211 lb  s 2 /ft
2
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Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Fill in the table below to help
you determine Ixz and Iyz. 1
a=
2
Ixz Iyz
1 m(a)(a) m(0.5a)(a) 3 4
2 m(0.5a)(a) m(0)(a)
3 m(0.5a)(2a) m(0)(2a)
4 m(a)(2a) m(0.5a)(2a)
S 1.5ma 2 1.5ma 2
Determine Iz by using the parallel Parts 2 and 3 are also
axis theorem – do parts 1 and 4 first equal to one another
2 1
 ma  m  12 a    a 
 
1 2 2
I z  2  I z 3  ma 2
I z 1  I z  4 2
12   3

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Calculate Hx Calculate Hy
3 3
( HB ) x   I xz   ma 2 ( HB ) y   I yz   ma 2
2 2
3 3
  (0.06211)(0.66667)2 (8 )   (0.06211)(0.66667) 2 (8 )
2 2
 1.04067 lb  s  ft  1.04067 lb  s  ft

Calculate Hz
10
( HB ) z  I z   ma 2
3
10
 (0.06211)(0.66667)2 (8 )
3
 2.3126 lb  s  ft

Total Vector
H B  (1.041 lb  ft  s)i  (1.041 lb  ft  s)j  (2.31 lb  ft  s)k

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
Calculate the kinetic energy T
1 1 1 1
T I xx2  I y y2  I zz2  I xyx y  I xzxz  I yz yz  I z  2
2 2 2 2

1  10 2 2 1  10 
T  m a      (0.06211)(0.66667) 2 (8 ) 2
2 3  2 3 

T  29.1 ft  lb

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Retracting the landing gear while the wheels are still spinning
can result in unforeseen moments being applied to the gear.
When turning a motorcycle, you must “steer” in the opposite
direction as you lean into the turn.

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Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion About a Fixed Point or a Fixed Axis
• For a rigid body rotation around a fixed point,
 
 M O  HO
 H

 O Oxyz
 
 H O

## • For a rigid body rotation around a fixed axis,

H x   I xz H y   I yz H z   I z
 
 
 M O  H O Oxyz    H O
 

  I xz i  I yz j  I z k 
 
 
 k   I xz i  I yz j  I z k 
 

  I xz i  I yz j  I z k    I xz j  I yz i 
    2

 M x   I xz  I yz 2
 M y   I yz  I xz 2
 M z  I z
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 - 31
Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rotation About a Fixed Axis
• For a rigid body rotation around a fixed axis,
 M x   I xz  I yz 2
 M y   I yz  I xz 2
 M z  I z
• If symmetrical with respect to the xy plane,
 M x  0  M y  0  M z  I z

## • If not symmetrical, the sum of external moments

will not be zero, even if  = 0,
 M x  I yz 2  M y  I xz 2  M z  0

## • A rotating shaft requires both static   0  and

dynamic   0  balancing to avoid excessive
vibration and bearing reactions.
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Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Concept Question

## The device at the right

rotates about the x axis
with a non-constant
angular velocity. Which
of the following is true
(choose one)?

## a) You can use Euler’s equations for the provided x, y, z axes

b) The only non-zero moment will be about the x axis
c) At the instant shown, there will be a non-zero y-axis bearing force
d) The mass moment of inertia Ixx is zero
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 33
Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.3
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate the system of effectiveforces
by reducing them to a vector
 ma
attached at G and couple H G .

## • Expressing that the system of external

forces is equivalent to the system of
effective forces, write vector expressions
for the sum of moments about A and the
summation of forces.
Rod AB with weight W = 40 lb is
pinned at A to a vertical axle which • Solve for the wire tension and the
rotates with constant angular velocity reactions at A.
 = 15 rad/s. The rod position is
maintained by a horizontal wire BC.
Determine the tension in the wire and
the reaction at A.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 - 34
Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.3
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate the system
 of effective forces byreducing them
to a vector ma attached at G and couple H G .
  2

a  an  r I   2 L cos   I
1 2

 2 
  450 ft s I 
 40 
ma   450  559 lb I
g
   
HG  I x xi  I y y j  I z z k

I x  12 mL2 Iy  0 I z  12 mL2
 x   cos   y   sin   z  0
 
HG   12 mL  cos  i
1 2

H G  
  
 H G Gxyz    H G
 

 0    cos  i   sin  j   12 mL  cos  i
1 2

 
 12 mL  sin  cos  k  645 lb  ft k
1 2 2

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 - 35

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 18.3
• Expressing that the system of external forces is equivalent
to the system of effective forces, write vector expressions
for the sum of moments about A and the summation of
forces.
 
 M A   M A eff
      
6.93 J   TI   2 I   40 J   3.46 J   559 I   645K
 
6.93T  80K  1934  645K
T  384 lb
 
 F   F eff
     
AX I  AY J  AZ K  384I  40 J  559I
  
A  175 lb I  40 lb J

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 - 36

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving
SOLUTION:
• Determine the overall angular velocity of
the aircraft propeller

the propeller

## • Calculate the angular momentum of the

A four-bladed airplane propeller has a propeller about its CG
mass of 160 kg and a radius of
gyration of 800 mm. Knowing that the • Calculate the time rate of change of the
propeller rotates at 1600 rpm as the angular momentum of the propeller about
airplane is traveling in a circular path its CG
of 600-m radius at 540 km/h, • Calculate the moment that must be
determine the magnitude of the couple applied to the propeller and the resulting
exerted by the propeller on its shaft moment that is applied on the shaft
due to the rotation of the airplane
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Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving

Establish axes for the rotations of the
aircraft propeller

## Determine the x-component of its

angular velocity
 2 rad 
 x  1600 rpm  
 60 s 
 167.55 rad/s
Determine the y-component of its
angular velocity
Determine the mass moment of inertia
v  540 km/h  150 m/s
I x  mk 2  (160 kg)(0.8 m)2  102.4 kg  m2
v 150 m/s
y    0.25 rad/s
 600 m

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 38

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Group Problem Solving

## Angular momentum about G equation:

H G  I x x i  I y  y j
Time rate of change of angular
momentum about G :

HG  (HG )Gxyz  Ω  HG  0   y j  ( I x x i  I y y j)

## Determine the moment that must Determine the couple that is

be applied to the propeller shaft exerted on the shaft by the
propeller
M  HG  (4.29 kN  m)k
Mon shaft  M  (4.29 kN  m)k

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 39

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Concept Question
The airplane propeller has a y
constant angular velocity +x.
The plane begins to pitch up at
a constant angular velocity x

The propeller has zero z
angular acceleration
TRUE FALSE

## Which direction will the pilot have to steer to counteract the

moment applied to the propeller shaft?
a) +x b) +y c) +z
d) -y e) -z

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 40

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

## Gyroscopes are used in the navigation system of the Hubble

telescope, and can also be used as sensors (such as in the
Segway PT). Modern gyroscopes can also be MEMS (Micro
Electro-Mechanical System) devices, or based on fiber optic
technology.

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 41

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion of a Gyroscope. Eulerian Angles
• A gyroscope consists of a rotor with its mass center
fixed in space but which can spin freely about its
geometric axis and assume any orientation.
• From a reference position with gimbals and a
reference diameter of the rotor aligned, the
gyroscope may be brought to any orientation
through a succession of three steps:
a) rotation of outer gimbal through j about AA’,
b) rotation of inner gimbal through q about
c) rotation of the rotor through y about CC’.
• j, q, and y are called the Eulerian Angles and

  rate of precession
q  rate of nutation
  rate of spin

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 - 42

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion of a Gyroscope. Eulerian Angles
• The angular velocity of the gyroscope,
     
   K  q j  k
  
with K   sin q i  cosq j
  
   sin q i  q j     cosq k
    

• Equation of motion,
 
  
 M O  H O Oxyz    H O
   
H O   I  sin q i  I q j  I    cosq k
  
   K q j
 

##  M x   I sin q  2q cosq   Iq   cosq 

 M y  I q   2 sin q cosq  I sin q    cosq 
Mz  I    cosq 
d  
dt
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Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Steady Precession of a Gyroscope

  
Steady precession,  O
M    HO When the precession and spin
 axis are at a right angle,
q , ,y are constant
  I z  I  cosq  sin q j
 
q  90
    
   sin q i   z k
 Couple is applied about an axis  OM  I j
  
H O   I  sin q i  I z k perpendicular to the precession Gyroscope will precess about an
   and spin axes
   sin q i   cosq k
  axis perpendicular to both the
spin axis and couple axis.

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 - 44

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion of an Axisymmetrical Body Under No Force
• Consider motion about its mass center of an
axisymmetrical body under no force but its own
weight, e.g., projectiles, satellites, and space craft.
 
H 0 G H  constant
G

• Define the Z axis to be aligned with H G and z in a
rotating axes system along the axis of symmetry.
The x axis is chosen to lie in the Zz plane.
H sin q
H x   H G sin q  I  x x   G
I
H y  0  I  y y  0
H G cosq
H z  H G cosq  I z z 
I
• q = constant and body is in steady precession.

x I
• Note:   tan   tanq
z I
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Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion of an Axisymmetrical Body Under No Force
Two cases of motion of an axisymmetrical body
which under no force which involve no precession:

## • Body set to spin about its axis of symmetry,

x  Hx  0
 
 and H G are aligned
and body keeps spinning about its axis of
symmetry.

## • Body is set to spin about its transverse axis,

z  Hz  0
 
 and H G are aligned
and body keeps spinning about the given
transverse axis.

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 - 46

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion of an Axisymmetrical Body Under No Force
The motion of a body about a fixed point (or its mass
center) can be represented by the motion of a body
cone rolling on a space cone. In the case of steady
precession the two cones are circular.

## • I < I’. Case of an elongated body.  < q and the

vector  lies inside the angle ZGz. The space
cone and body cone are tangent externally; the
spin and precession are both counterclockwise
from the positive z axis. The precession is said to
be direct.

## • I > I’. Case of a flattened body.  > q and the

vector  lies outside the angle ZGz. The space
cone is inside the body cone; the spin and
precession have opposite senses. The precession
is said to be retrograde.

## © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 - 47

Edition
Tenth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Concept Question

## The rotor of the gyroscope shown

to the right rotates with a constant
angular velocity. If you hang a
weight on the gimbal as shown,
what will happen?

## a) It will precess around to the right

b) Nothing – it will be in equilibrium
c) It will precess around to the left
d) It will tilt down so the rotor is horizontal
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