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Example Problem

◦ Fluid Flow Control


◦ In the past, control systems used a human operator as a part of a closed
looped control system. Sketch the block diagram of the valve control system
shown in this figure.

Fluid flow control


Block diagram
Example Problem
Automobile Steering Control System
+ ERROR ACTUAL
DRIVER STEERING AUTOMOBILE COURSE OF
DESIRED
MECHANISM TRAVEL
COURSE OF
TRAVEL

MEASUREMENT
VISUAL AND
TACTILE
Example problem
In a chemical process control system, it is valuable to control the chemical composition of
the product. To do so, a measurement of the composition can be obtained by using an
infrared stream analyzer, as
shown in Figure. The valve on the additive stream may be controlled.
Block diagram
Control Systems
In its modern usage, automation can be defined as a technology that uses programmed
commands to operate a given process, combined with feedback of information to
determine that the commands have been properly executed.

Automation is often used for processes that were previously operated by humans. When
automated, the process can operate without human assistance or interference. In fact,
most automated systems are capable of performing their functions with greater accuracy
and precision, and in less time, than humans are able to do.
Control systems
The control of power plants for minimum waste emission has become increasingly
important. The modern, large-capacity plants, which exceed several hundred megawatts,
require automatic control systems that account for the interrelationship of the process
variables and optimum power production. It is common to have 90 or more manipulated
variables under coordinated control.

A simplified model showing several of the important control variables of a large boiler-
generator system is shown in Figure. This is an example of the importance of measuring
many variables, such as pressure and oxygen, to provide information to the computer for
control calculations.
Example of a Multivariable
Design Process

Establish the Control Goals


1. Establishment of goals,
Identify the variables to be controlled variables to be controlled,
and specifications.
Write the specifications

Establish the system configuration


2. System definition and
modeling
Obtain a model of the process, the
actuator, and the sensor

Describe a controller and select key


parameters to be adjusted
3. Control system design,
simulation and analysis
Optimize the parameters and
analyze the performance

If the performance meets the specifications,


If the performance does not meet the then finalize the design.
specifications, then iterate the configuration.
Summary
In summary, the approach to dynamic system modeling can be listed as follows:
1. Define the system and its components
2. Formulate the mathematical model and fundamental necessary assumptions based on basic
principles.
3. Obtain the differential equation representing the mathematical model
4. Solve the equations for the desired output variables
5. Examine the solutions and the assumptions
6. If necessary, reanalyze or redesign