Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 43

EE-526

“ELECTRICAL POWER

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ENGINEERING

COURSE INSTRUCTOR

COURSE INSTRUCTOR

Iqbal Azeem

Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Dept, NEDUET.

Masters in Energy Management NEDUET 2015

Bachelors of Engineering (Electrical) NEDUET 2012

Research: Renewable Energy, Solar MPPT, Matrix Converter

CLASS INTRODUCTION

CLASS INTRODUCTION http://weclipart.com
CLASS INTRODUCTION http://weclipart.com

http://weclipart.com

EXPECTATIONS FROM THE COURSE

EXPECTATIONS FROM THE COURSE http://cliparting.com http://moziru.com
EXPECTATIONS FROM THE COURSE http://cliparting.com http://moziru.com

http://cliparting.com

http://moziru.com

COURSE OUTLINE

COURSE OUTLINE 1. Comparision of overhead lines and underground cables 2. R,L,C parameters of a transmission
  • 1. Comparision of overhead lines and underground cables

  • 2. R,L,C parameters of a transmission line

  • 3. Representation of a transmission line

  • 4. A,B,C,D parameters of a transmission line

  • 5. Design of a transmission line

  • 6. Over voltages and insulation coordination in a transmission line

  • 7. Loading of a transmission line

  • 8. HVDC transmission

BOOKS

BOOKS 1. Electrical Power Transmission System Engineering, by Turan Gonen 2. Elements of Power System Analysis,
  • 1. Electrical Power Transmission System Engineering, by Turan Gonen

  • 2. Elements of Power System Analysis, by William D. Stevenson

  • 3. Power System Analysis and Design, by J. Duncan Glover and Sharma

  • 4. Any other book/ material from the web

ASSESMENT

ASSESMENT 1. Midterm 2. Class Test 3. Assignment 4. Quiz/ Attendance 5. Final Paper = 20
  • 1. Midterm

  • 2. Class Test

  • 3. Assignment

  • 4. Quiz/ Attendance

  • 5. Final Paper

= 20 marks

= 10 marks = 05 marks

=

05 marks

= 60 marks

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

PAKISTAN’S YEARLY ELECTRICITY

SUPPLY AND DEMAND

PAKISTAN’S YEARLY ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND
PAKISTAN’S YEARLY ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND
30,000 Generation (MW) Demand (MW) 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
30,000
Generation (MW)
Demand (MW)
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
2014-15
2015-16
2016-17
2017-18

1. OVERHEAD LINES VS UNDERGROUND CABLES

1. OVERHEAD LINES VS UNDERGROUND CABLES • Overhead lines are subjected to damage from severe weather

Overhead lines are subjected to damage from severe weather conditions (mainly lightning, wind and freezing) while underground cables are less prone to these effects

Overhead lines are subjected damage during war or civil unrest while underground cables are comparatively safe

Overhead lines cause emission, into the

surrounding area, of electromagnetic fields. All electric currents generate electromagnetic fields, but the shielding provided by the earth surrounding

underground cables restricts their range and power

Underground cables need a narrower surrounding strip of about 110 meters to install, whereas an overhead line requires a surrounding strip of about 20200 meters wide to be kept permanently clear for safety,

maintenance and repair

Undergrounding is more expensive, since the cost of burying cables at transmission voltages is several times greater than overhead power lines, and the life- cycle cost of an underground power cable is two to four times the cost of an overhead power line

Operations are more difficult since the high reactive power of underground cables produces large charging currents and so makes voltage control more difficult

Underground cables pose no hazard to low flying aircrafts or to wildlife, and are significantly safer as they pose no shock hazard (except to the unwary digger).

K-Electric Transmission network

K-Electric Transmission network • The transmission network of K-Electric is comprised of around 65 grids •

The transmission network of K-Electric is comprised of around 65 grids

Transmission is done on three voltages; 220kV, 132 kV and 66kV.

DISCLAIMER: The image shown on the next slide is courtesy of K- Electric. Any further copying or publishing of this image may be

subjected to copyright.

Transmission Lines The power transmission line is one of the major components of an electric power

Transmission Lines

Transmission Lines The power transmission line is one of the major components of an electric power

The power transmission line is one of the major components of an electric power system. Its major function is to transport electric energy, with minimal losses, from the power sources to the load centres, usually separated by long distances. The three basic electrical parameters of a transmission line are:

  • 1. Series resistance

  • 2. Series inductance

  • 3. Shunt capacitance

Once evaluated, the parameters are used to model the line and to perform design calculations.

The arrangement of the parameters (equivalent circuit) representing the line depends upon the length of the line.

Line resistance

Line resistance The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the

The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the calculation of its DC resistance. If DC is flowing along a round cylindrical conductor, the current is uniformly

Line resistance The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the
Line resistance The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the

distributed over its cross-section area and the DC resistance is evaluated by:

Line resistance The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the
Line resistance The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the
Line resistance The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the

If AC current is flowing, rather than DC current, the conductor effective resistance is higher due to the skin effect.

Line resistance The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the
Line resistance The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the

at 50Hz

Temperature effects The resistivity of any metal varies linearly over an operating temperature, and therefore the

Temperature effects

Temperature effects The resistivity of any metal varies linearly over an operating temperature, and therefore the

The resistivity of any metal varies linearly over an operating temperature, and therefore the resistance of any conductor suffers the same variations. As temperature rises, the resistance increases linearly, according to the following equation:

Temperature effects The resistivity of any metal varies linearly over an operating temperature, and therefore the
Temperature effects The resistivity of any metal varies linearly over an operating temperature, and therefore the
Temperature effects The resistivity of any metal varies linearly over an operating temperature, and therefore the
Temperature effects The resistivity of any metal varies linearly over an operating temperature, and therefore the

Magnetic Field -Fundamentals

Magnetic Field -Fundamentals Ampere ’ s circuital law Flux Linkage Inductance Permeability of free space =
Magnetic Field -Fundamentals Ampere ’ s circuital law Flux Linkage Inductance Permeability of free space =

Amperes circuital law

Magnetic Field -Fundamentals Ampere ’ s circuital law Flux Linkage Inductance Permeability of free space =
Magnetic Field -Fundamentals Ampere ’ s circuital law Flux Linkage Inductance Permeability of free space =
Magnetic Field -Fundamentals Ampere ’ s circuital law Flux Linkage Inductance Permeability of free space =

Flux Linkage

Magnetic Field -Fundamentals Ampere ’ s circuital law Flux Linkage Inductance Permeability of free space =
Magnetic Field -Fundamentals Ampere ’ s circuital law Flux Linkage Inductance Permeability of free space =
Inductance
Inductance
Magnetic Field -Fundamentals Ampere ’ s circuital law Flux Linkage Inductance Permeability of free space =
Magnetic Field -Fundamentals Ampere ’ s circuital law Flux Linkage Inductance Permeability of free space =

Permeability of free space = µ = 4π×10 7

0

H / m

Line Inductance • The magnetic flux generated by the current in transmission line conductors produces a

Line Inductance

Line Inductance • The magnetic flux generated by the current in transmission line conductors produces a

The magnetic flux generated by the current in transmission line conductors produces a total inductance whose magnitude depends on the line configuration.

Line Inductance • The magnetic flux generated by the current in transmission line conductors produces a
Line Inductance • The magnetic flux generated by the current in transmission line conductors produces a

1- Inductance of a Single Conductor

Line Inductance • The magnetic flux generated by the current in transmission line conductors produces a
Line Inductance • The magnetic flux generated by the current in transmission line conductors produces a

External and internal concentric magnetic flux lines around the conductor

Internal magnetic flux.

Internal Inductance The fraction of the current I enclosed in the area of the circle is

Internal Inductance

Internal Inductance The fraction of the current I enclosed in the area of the circle is

The fraction of the current I x enclosed in the area of the circle is determined by:

Internal Inductance The fraction of the current I enclosed in the area of the circle is

Amperes law determines the magnetic field intensity H x constant at any point along the circle contour:

Internal Inductance The fraction of the current I enclosed in the area of the circle is
Internal Inductance The fraction of the current I enclosed in the area of the circle is
Internal Inductance The fraction of the current I enclosed in the area of the circle is

where μ = μ 0 = 4 π x 10 -7 (H/m)

Internal Inductance The fraction of the current I enclosed in the area of the circle is

The differential flux dφ enclosed in a ring of thickness dx for a 1-m length of conductor, and the differential flux linkage d λ in the respective area are:

The internal flux linkage is obtained by integrating the differential flux linkage from x = 0

The internal flux linkage is obtained by integrating the differential flux linkage from x = 0 to x = r :

The internal flux linkage is obtained by integrating the differential flux linkage from x = 0
The internal flux linkage is obtained by integrating the differential flux linkage from x = 0
The internal flux linkage is obtained by integrating the differential flux linkage from x = 0

---------------------------

(1)

The inductance due to internal flux linkage per-unit length becomes

The internal flux linkage is obtained by integrating the differential flux linkage from x = 0
The internal flux linkage is obtained by integrating the differential flux linkage from x = 0

External Inductance

External Inductance The external inductance is evaluated assuming that the total current I is concentrated at
External Inductance The external inductance is evaluated assuming that the total current I is concentrated at

The external inductance is evaluated assuming that the total current I is concentrated at the conductor surface (maximum skin effect). At any point on an external magnetic field circle of radius y , the magnetic field intensity H y and the magnetic field density are :

External Inductance The external inductance is evaluated assuming that the total current I is concentrated at
External Inductance The external inductance is evaluated assuming that the total current I is concentrated at
External Inductance The external inductance is evaluated assuming that the total current I is concentrated at

The differential flux dφ enclosed in a ring of thickness dy, from point D 1 to point D 2 , for a 1-m length of conductor is:

External Inductance The external inductance is evaluated assuming that the total current I is concentrated at
• As the total current I flows in the surface conductor, then the differential flux linkage
• As the total current I flows in the surface conductor, then the differential flux linkage

As the total current I flows in the surface conductor, then the differential flux linkage dλ has the same magnitude as the differential flux dφ.

• As the total current I flows in the surface conductor, then the differential flux linkage
• As the total current I flows in the surface conductor, then the differential flux linkage

In general, the external flux linkage from the surface of the conductor to any point D is:

• As the total current I flows in the surface conductor, then the differential flux linkage

---------------------------

(2)

The summation of the internal and external flux linkage at any point D permits evaluation of the total inductance of the conductor L per-unit length as follows,

• As the total current I flows in the surface conductor, then the differential flux linkage
• As the total current I flows in the surface conductor, then the differential flux linkage

=

2×10 7 ln D r

\

• As the total current I flows in the surface conductor, then the differential flux linkage

Inductance of a two-wire Single-Phase Line

Inductance of a two-wire Single-Phase Line

conductors of radii r 1 and r 2 , separated by a distance D

Inductance of a two-wire Single-Phase Line conductors of radii r and r , separated by a
Inductance of a two-wire Single-Phase Line conductors of radii r and r , separated by a
Inductance of a two-wire Single-Phase Line conductors of radii r and r , separated by a
Inductance of a two-wire Single-Phase Line conductors of radii r and r , separated by a
Inductance of a two-wire Single-Phase Line conductors of radii r and r , separated by a
Inductance of a two-wire Single-Phase Line conductors of radii r and r , separated by a
Inductance of Three-Phase Lines

Inductance of Three-Phase Lines

Inductance of Three-Phase Lines
Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Symmetrical spacing μ H/m

Symmetrical spacing

Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Symmetrical spacing μ H/m
Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Symmetrical spacing μ H/m
Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Symmetrical spacing μ H/m
Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Symmetrical spacing μ H/m

μH/m

Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Symmetrical spacing μ H/m
Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Asymmetrical spacing Or in Matrix form:

Inductance of Three-Phase Lines

Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Asymmetrical spacing Or in Matrix form:
Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Asymmetrical spacing Or in Matrix form:

Asymmetrical spacing

Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Asymmetrical spacing Or in Matrix form:
Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Asymmetrical spacing Or in Matrix form:

Or in Matrix form:

Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Asymmetrical spacing Or in Matrix form:
Inductance of Three-Phase Lines • Asymmetrical spacing Or in Matrix form:
Transposition In actual transmission lines, the phase conductors generally do not have a symmetrical (triangular) arrangement.
Transposition
Transposition

In actual transmission lines, the phase conductors generally do not have a symmetrical (triangular) arrangement. However, if the phase conductors are transposed, an average distance GMD (geometrical mean distance) is substituted for distance D, and the calculation of the phase inductance derived for symmetrical arrangement is still valid. In a transposed system, each phase

conductor occupies the location of the other two phases for one third of the

total line length. The inductance per phase per unit length in a transmission line is:

Transposition In actual transmission lines, the phase conductors generally do not have a symmetrical (triangular) arrangement.
Transposition In actual transmission lines, the phase conductors generally do not have a symmetrical (triangular) arrangement.
Transposition In actual transmission lines, the phase conductors generally do not have a symmetrical (triangular) arrangement.

Exercise

Conductor Bundling

Conductor Bundling • Commonly used to reduce the electric field strength at the conductor surface Used

Commonly used to reduce the electric field strength at the conductor surface

Used on overhead lines above 230 kV Conductors are connected in parallel

Typical bundled conductor configurations

Conductor Bundling • Commonly used to reduce the electric field strength at the conductor surface Used

2 conductors

Conductor Bundling • Commonly used to reduce the electric field strength at the conductor surface Used

3 conductors

Conductor Bundling • Commonly used to reduce the electric field strength at the conductor surface Used

4 conductors

2
2

Exercise

Q4. Find the GMR of a stranded conductor consisting of six outer strands surrounding

and touching one central strand, all strands having the same radius r.

Q5. Determine the GMR of each of the unconventional stranded conductors shown in the Figure below. All strands have the same radius r.

Exercise Q4. Find the GMR of a stranded conductor consisting of six outer strands surrounding and

Electric Field -Fundamentals

Electric Field -Fundamentals

Gausss law

Electric Field -Fundamentals Gauss ’ s law
Electric Field -Fundamentals Gauss ’ s law
Electric Field -Fundamentals Gauss ’ s law
Electric Field -Fundamentals Gauss ’ s law

Capacitance of a Single Solid Conductor

Capacitance of a Single Solid Conductor The potential difference between two outside points P and P
Capacitance of a Single Solid Conductor The potential difference between two outside points P and P

The potential difference between two outside points P 1 and P 2 with corresponding distances x 1 and x 2 from the conductor centre is defined by integrating the electric field intensity from x 1 to x 2

Capacitance of a Single Solid Conductor The potential difference between two outside points P and P
Capacitance of a Single Solid Conductor The potential difference between two outside points P and P

Then, the capacitance between points P1 and P2 is evaluated as

Capacitance of a Single Solid Conductor The potential difference between two outside points P and P

If point P1 is located at the conductor surface (x 1 = r), and point P 2 is located at ground surface below the conductor (x 2 = H), then the voltage of the conductor and the capacitance between the conductor and ground are

If point P1 is located at the conductor surface ( x = r), and point P
If point P1 is located at the conductor surface ( x = r), and point P
If point P1 is located at the conductor surface ( x = r), and point P

Capacitance of a Single-Phase Line with Two Wires

Capacitance of a Single-Phase Line with Two Wires

The charge on each conductor generates independent electric fields. Charge q+ on conductor A generates a voltage VAB-A between both conductors. Similarly, charge qon conductor B generates a voltage VAB-B between conductors.

Capacitance of a Single-Phase Line with Two Wires The charge on each conductor generates independent electric
Capacitance of a Single-Phase Line with Two Wires The charge on each conductor generates independent electric
Capacitance of a Single-Phase Line with Two Wires The charge on each conductor generates independent electric
Capacitance of a Single-Phase Line with Two Wires The charge on each conductor generates independent electric
The voltage between each conductor and ground is one-half of the voltage between the two conductors.
The voltage between each conductor and ground is one-half of the voltage between the two conductors.
The voltage between each conductor and ground is one-half of the voltage between the two conductors.
The voltage between each conductor and ground is one-half of the voltage between the two conductors.

The voltage between each conductor and ground is one-half of the voltage

between the two conductors. Therefore, the capacitance from either line to ground is twice the capacitance between lines

The voltage between each conductor and ground is one-half of the voltage between the two conductors.
The voltage between each conductor and ground is one-half of the voltage between the two conductors.
The voltage between each conductor and ground is one-half of the voltage between the two conductors.

Capacitance of a Three-Phase Line

Capacitance of a Three-Phase Line / / / / / / / / / / /
Capacitance of a Three-Phase Line / / / / / / / / / / /

/

/

/ / / / / / /
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

/

/

/

GMD -=geometeric mean distance between conductors conductor radius

r .=

Capacitance of a Three-Phase Line / / / / / / / / / / /

Example

Example Calculate the resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance of the overhead line shown. Assume the

Calculate the resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive

reactance of the overhead line shown. Assume the line operates at 60 Hz

Example Calculate the resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance of the overhead line shown. Assume the
2
2

Typical Parameters for various voltage TL at 60 Hz

Typical Parameters for various voltage TL at 60 Hz

Tutorial- 2

J.Duncan Glover, M. S.Sarma, T.J. Overbye Power System Analysis and Desig, Fourth Edition

Tutorial- 2 J.Duncan Glover, M. S.Sarma, T.J. Overbye “ Power System Analysis and Desig ” ,
Tutorial- 2 J.Duncan Glover, M. S.Sarma, T.J. Overbye “ Power System Analysis and Desig ” ,

Chapter 4

Tutorial- 2 J.Duncan Glover, M. S.Sarma, T.J. Overbye “ Power System Analysis and Desig ” ,

Problems 4.7, 4.8, 4.10, 4.15, 4.17,

4.22,4.23,4.32,4.36