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Performance and

 Performance assessments (also known as
performance-based assessments) require
students to apply knowledge and skills.
 Performance assessments can be used
formatively or summatively.
 These assessments can be labor- and time-
 They also tend to be quite diverse.
Taken from the book, A Teacher’s Guide to Performance-Based Learning and
Performance Assessment
• An assessment in which the teacher
observes and makes a judgement about a
student’s demonstration of a skill or
competency in creating a product.
• Similar terms include:
• authentic assessment.
• alternative assessment.
• portfolio assessment
Authentic Assessment
• A form of assessment in which students are
asked to perform real-world tasks that
demonstrate meaningful application of essential
knowledge and skills -- Jon Mueller

• Performance assessments call upon the examinee

to demonstrate specific skills and competencies,
that is, to apply the skills and knowledge they
have mastered." -- Richard J. Stiggins
• http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm
Authentic Assessment
• aims to evaluate students' abilities in 'real-
world' contexts.
• students learn how to apply their skills to
authentic tasks and projects.
• focuses on students' analytical skills; ability
to integrate what they learn;
• creativity; ability to work collaboratively;
and written and oral expression skills.
• values the learning process as much as the
finished product.
Characteristics Performance Assessment

Alternative assessments

Authentic assessments

Performance assessments
Characteristics Performance Assessment
 Performance assessments: present students with
hands-on tasks or other performance-based
activities that students must complete individually
or in small groups; work is evaluated using
preestablished criteria.
• consist of two components:

 a performance task (actual prompt/activity)

 a scoring rubric (scoring guide consisting of
pre-established performance criteria)
• permit direct observation of student skills and
capabilities (very different from pencil-and-
paper tests)
Characteristics Performance Assessment
 Performance assessments (continued)
• must be linked to instructional objectives
• tend to be less abstract than more
traditional forms of assessment (more “real
• based in the “real world” = authentic
 the assessments, by themselves, are
meaningful learning activities
• concept of performance assessments is not
new; used for years in other fields
Characteristics Performance Assessment
 Performance assessments (continued)
• basic requirements:
 specific behaviors or capabilities should
be observed
 appropriately measure complex
capabilities or skills that cannot be
measured with pencil-and-paper tests
 tasks must focus on teachable
 can judge appropriateness of behavior
or understanding
Characteristics Performance Assessment
 Performance assessments (continued)
• basic requirements (continued):
 can judge appropriateness of behavior
or understanding, which provides
information about strengths and
 require products of behaviors that are
valuable in their own right
 tasks should encourage student
Characteristics Performance Assessment
 Performance assessments (continued)
• process versus product assessment
 Process assessment: specifically targets
procedures used by students to solve problems.
 Product assessment: results in tangible
 Teachers are usually more interested in one or
the other, although the task may require both.
 Decisions must be made about focus of the
Developing Perf. Assessment Tasks
 Four essential features to keep in mind—
performance assessment tasks should:
1) Have a clear purpose that specifies the
decision that will be made resulting from the
• very crucial step
• will results be used for formative or
summative purposes?
• will focus be on process, product, or
Developing Perf. Assessment Tasks
2) Identify the observable aspects of student
performance or product that will be judged.
• Performance criteria: specific
observable standards by which student
performances or products will be
• Must be observable.

• Again, consider whether focus will be on

process, product, or both.
• Must be stated clearly.

• Criteria should be limited to a

reasonable and manageable number.
Developing Perf. Assessment Tasks
3) Provide an appropriate setting for
completing the task.
4) Result in one or more scores that
describe the performance.

 Selecting existing tasks vs. developing

your own
Performance Tasks . . .
. . . generally occur over time

. . . result in tangible products/observable performances

. . . involve meaning-making

. . . encourage self-evaluation and revision

. . . require judgment to score

. . . reveal degrees of proficiency based on criteria

established and made public prior to the performance

. . . sometimes involve students working with others

• To define valued outcomes for students
• To capture students' time and attention
• To generate appropriate student learning
• To help students internalize the
discipline’s standards
• To identify opportunities for
5 Common Domains for
Performance Assessment

Psychomotor Athletic
Skills Activities


Affective Skills
Performance Assessment
• Individual Projects.
• Group Projects.
• Interviews and Oral Presentations.
• Constructed Response Questions.
• Essays.
• Experiments.
• Demonstrations.
Performance Assessment Techniques
Individual Projects
• Comprehensive demonstrations of
skills or knowledge.
• Usually require student initiative and
• Trained judges (often teachers)
score projects against predetermined
standards of quality.
• Science fair projects are examples.
Performance Assessment Techniques
Group Projects

• Similar to individual projects.

• A number of students work
cooperatively on a complex problem.
• Trained judges (often teachers)
score projects against predetermined
standards of quality.
Performance Assessment Techniques
Interviews/Oral Presentations

• Allow verbalization of knowledge.

• Interviews are particularly effective
with younger children.
• Examples of usage include foreign
language assessment, and
• Solutions to math or science
Performance Assessment Techniques
• Primarily used for assessing learning in
• Several national organizations advocate the
use of experiments in classroom
assessment of science concepts.
• Again, trained judges (often teachers)
score projects against predetermined
standards of quality
Performance Assessment Techniques

• Give students the opportunity to

show their mastery of subject-area
content and procedures.
• In physics, for example, use pulleys,
gears, and inclined planes to move
Performance Assessment Techniques

• Collections of student work provide a

portrait of individual performance
over time.
• Typically, students are asked to
evaluate the work they select for
Performance Assessment:
Advantages and Limitations
Advantages Limitations
• Assessment of • Weaker reliability.
complex, higher-order • Limited sampling of
learning targets. learning targets.
• Students actively • Time-consuming.
engaged in learning
while being assessed. • Not good for
• Forces teachers to use
knowledge learning
multiple criteria.
Performance Assessment:
Most Serious Limitation
Limited Generalizability
• Students respond to fewer tasks.
• Makes it difficult to draw inferences about
general abilities.
– If the performance is successful can we infer
that the student would do well on other tasks?
– If performance is unsuccessful can we infer
that the student would do poorly on other
Performance Assessments:
Three essential components
• A performance assessment should contain
the following three components:
– Multiple criteria.
– Pre-specified quality standards.
– Judgmental appraisal.
• In addition, performance assessments can
be either simulated or authentic.
Performance Assessment:
• Identify the purpose for the assessment.
• Identify the learning target.
• Identify activities that illustrate acquisition
of the targeted capability.
• Identify the types of evidence needed to
infer skill acquisition.
• Identify the standards to be used.
• Place all this in the rubric.
Performance Assessment:
Evaluating the Rubric
• Does it identify critical components of the
learning target?
• Does it identify “observable” behaviors or
• Is it appropriate for the students being
• Does it apply across contexts that call for
similar behaviors?
• Does it specify levels of accomplishment?
Vehicles for Recording
Evidence of Skill Acquisition
• Rating Scales
– Assess the degree or adequacy of attainment
of the learning target.
• Checklists
– Assess presence or absence of skill acquisition.
• Anecdotal Records
– Assess a typical or unusual behaviors on
selected children for future reference.
Advantages and Limitations
Advantages Limitations
• Authenticity. • Many uses of classroom
• Show growth. assessment are not
served well with
• Empower students.
• Foster communication. • Time consuming.
• Great instruc- • Psychometric problems:
– with validity.
tional tool. – with reliability.
Portfolio Assessment
Assessment or instruction aid?
Types of portfolios:
Purposeful portfolios.
Document progress.
Showcase accomplishments.
Evaluate student status.
Work-sample portfolios ( Document typical
Appraising portfolios (Scored w/ a rubric).