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Hydraulic Machinery

Pumps, Turbines...

School of Civil and


Monroe L. Weber-Shirk Environmental Engineering
Hydraulic Machinery Overview

 Types of Pumps
 Dimensionless Parameters for Turbomachines
 Power requirements
 Head-discharge curves
 Pump Issues
 Cavitation
 NPSH
 Priming
 Pump selection
Types of Pumps
Positive  Jet pumps
displacement  Turbomachines
piston pump
 axial-flow (propeller
Diaphragm pump pump)
peristaltic pump  radial-flow (centrifugal
Rotary pumps pump)
gear pump  mixed-flow (both axial
two-lobe rotary and radial flow)
pump
screw pump
Reciprocating action pumps
 Piston pump diaphragm pump
 can produce very high pressures
 hydraulic fluid pump
 high pressure water washers
Peristaltic Pump
 Fluid only contacts tubing
 Tubing ___
ID and roller
_______
velocity with respect to the
tubing determine flow rate
 Tubing eventually fails from
fatigue and abrasion
 Fluid may leak past roller at
high pressures
 Viscous fluids may be
pumped more slowly
Rotary Pumps
Gear Pump
fluid is trapped between gear teeth and the
housing
Two-lobe Rotary Pump
(gear pump with two “teeth” on each gear)
same principle as gear pump
fewer chambers - more extreme pulsation
trapped fluid
Rotary Pumps
 Disadvantages
 precise machining
 abrasives wear surfaces rapidly
 pulsating output
 Uses
 vacuum pumps
 air compressors
 hydraulic fluid pumps
 food handling
Screw Pump
 Can handle debris
 Used to raise the
level of wastewater
 Abrasive material
will damage the
seal between screw
and the housing
 Grain augers use
the same principle
Positive Displacement Pumps

What happens if you close a valve on the


effluent side of a positive displacement pump?
What does flow rate vs. time look like for a
piston pump?
2.5

2
1st piston

total flow
1.5
2nd piston

1 3rd piston
3 pistons
0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5
revolutions

Thirsty Refugees
Jet Pump
“eductor”
 A high pressure, high velocity jet discharge is
used to pump a larger volume of fluid.
 Advantages
 no moving parts
 self priming
 handles solids easily
 Disadvantage
 inefficient
 Uses
 deep well pumping
 pumping water mixed with solids
http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/shuttle/upgrades/ojp.html
Turbomachines

 Demour’s centrifugal pump - 1730


 Theory
 conservation of angular momentum
 conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy in flow
(inefficient ________
expansion ___________ process)
 Pump components Tz = r Q é ( ) (
ë r2Vt2 - rV ) ù
1 t1 û

 rotating element - ___________


impeller
 encloses the rotating element and seals the pressurized
casing or _________
liquid inside - ________ housing
Pressure Developed by
Centrifugal Pumps
 Centrifugal pumps accelerate a liquid
 The maximum velocity reached is the velocity of the
periphery of the impeller
 The kinetic energy is converted into potential energy
as the fluid leaves the pump
 The potential energy developed is approximately
V2
velocity head
equal to the ________ ____ at the periphery of the hp =
impeller 2g
 A given pump with a given impeller diameter and
speed will raise a fluid to a certain height regardless
of the fluid density
Radial Pumps
 also called _________
centrifugal pumps
 broad range of applicable flows and heads
2
 higher heads can be achieved by increasing the hp =
V
_______
diameter or the ________
rotational ______
speed of the impeller 2g

Flow Expansion
Discharge
Casing
Suction Eye Impeller
Impeller
Vanes
Axial Flow

also known as
__________
propeller pumps
low head (less than 12
m)
high flows (above 20
L/s)
Dimensionless Parameters for
Turbomachines

 We would like to be able to compare pumps


with similar geometry. Dimensional analysis to
the rescue...
 To use the laws of similitude to compare
performance of two pumps we need
 exact geometric similitude
 all linear dimensions must be scaled identically
 roughness must scale
Q
same
 homologous - streamlines are similar D 3
 constant ratio of dynamic pressures at
corresponding points
 also known as kinematic similitude
Kinematic Similitude:
Constant Force Ratio
 Reynolds VD
 ratio of inertial to _______
viscous forces

 Froude V2 V
 ratio of inertial to ________
gravity force
gl gl
 Weber
 ratio of inertial to _______ ______ forces
surface-tension V 2
l

 Mach
 ratio of inertial to _______ V
elastic forces
c
Turbomachinery Parameters
 D flow  Q 
C p  f  Re, F ,W , M , , ,  Where is the fluid?
 Dimpeller D flow  D flow 
3

 2p hp g
Cp  CH =
hp g V   Dimpeller CH 
V 2 V 2  2 Dimpeller
2

hp g  D flow  Q 
 CH  f  Re, , , 
 2 Dimpeller
2  Dimpeller D flow  D flow 
3

impeller (Impeller is better defined)
Shape Factor

Related to the ratio of flow passage


diameter to impeller diameter
Defined for the point of best efficiency
What determines the ideal shape for a
pump?
S  f ( , Q, p,  )

Exercise
N Q
* Impeller Geometry: w Q
N sp = S=
(h )
p
34
Shape Factor (gh ) p
34

Impeller
N S diameter
500 0.18 pressure low ____
Radial: high _______, flow

1000 0.37 radial

3400 1.25 mixed

6400 2.33 mixed

flow
axial: high _______, pressure
low _______
10000 3.67

*N in rpm, Q in gpm, H in ft Nsp = 2732S


Use of Shape Factor: w Q
S= 34
Specific Speed (gh )
p

 The maximum efficiencies for all pumps occurs


when the Shape Factor is close to 1!
 Flow passage dimension is close to impeller diameter!
 Low expansion losses!
 There must be an optimal shape factor given a
discharge and a head.
 Shape factor defined for specific cases
 Double suction
 Treat like two pumps in parallel
 Multistage (pumps in series) Why multistage?
 Use Q and H for each stage
Additional Dimensionless
Parameters
hp g
CH = 2 2
D is the _______
impeller diameter
w D
Q
CQ 
 D3
Pw = g Qhp
P
CP  P is the _____
power
 3 D 5

CQ1 2 Alternate equivalent way


S to calculate S.
CH3 4
(defined at max efficiency)
Head-Discharge Curve
hp g Theoretical head-
 circulatory flow - CH =
w 2 D2 discharge curve
inability of finite
number of blades to hp
guide flow
 friction - ____
V2
 shock - incorrect angle
V2
of blade inlet ___ Actual head-
discharge curve
 other losses
 bearing friction
 packing friction
 disk friction Q
Q
 internal leakage CQ 
 D3
Pump Power Requirements
Pw = g Qhp Water power

Subscripts
Pw
eP 
Ps
w = _______
water
Ps p = _______
pump
em 
Pm s = _______
shaft
g Qhp m = motor
_______
Pm =
eP em
Impeller Shape vs. Power Curves

S
Power (% of design)

radial 1 - O.33
2 - 0.81
3 - 1.5
4 - 2.1
axial 5 - 3.4
Discharge (% of design)
http://www.mcnallyinstitute.com/ Implications
homologous
Affinity Laws CQ  held constant

 With diameter, D, held constant: P  QH

Q hp g P
CQ  CH = CP 
 D3 w 2 D2  3 D 5
1
3
Q1 hp1 æw1 ö
2
P1  1 
 =ç ÷   
Q2 2 hp 2 èw2 ø  
P2  2
With speed, , held constant:
2 5
Q1 æD1 ö
3 hp1 æD1 ö P1 æD1 ö
=ç ÷ =ç ÷ =ç ÷
Q2 èD2 ø hp 2 èD2 ø P2 èD2 ø
Dimensionless Performance
Curves
0.08 1
0.07 0.9
0.8
hp g 0.06
0.7 Efficiency
CH = 2 2 0.05 0.6
w D
0.04 0.5
0.03 0.4
0.3
0.02
D=0.366 m 0.2
0.01 0.1
0 0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Q
 0.087 
0.5
CQ  shape
12  4.57
S
C Q
 0.026 
0.75 D 3
34
 Curves for a particular pump
C H (defined at max efficiency)  Independent of the fluid!
____________
Pump Example

Given a pump with shape factor of 4.57, a


diameter of 366 mm, a 2-m head, a speed of
600 rpm, and dimensionless performance 0.08 1
0.07 0.9

curves (previous slide). 0.06


0.8

Efficiency
Hg 0.7
CH  0.05 0.6
 2D 2 0.04 0.5
0.03 0.4
0.3

What will the discharge be?


0.02
0.01
D=0.366 m 0.2
0.1
0 0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Q
CQ 
D 3

How large a motor will be needed if motor


efficiency is 95%?

Exercise
Pumps in Parallel or in Series

Parallel
Flow ________
adds
Head ________
same

Series
Flow ________
same
Head ________
adds

Multistage
Cavitation in Water Pumps
 water vapor bubbles 8000
form when the pressure 7000

Vapor pressure (Pa)


is less than the vapor 6000

pressure of water 5000


4000
 very high pressures 3000
(800 MPa or 115,000 2000
psi) develop when the 1000
0
vapor bubbles collapse 0 10 20 30 40
Temperature (C)
Net Positive Suction Head
 NPSHR - absolute pressure in excess of vapor
pressure required at pump inlet to prevent
cavitation
 given by pump manufacturer
 determined by the water velocity at the entrance to the
pump impeller
 NPSHA - pressure in excess of vapor pressure
available at pump inlet
 determined by pump installation (elevation above
reservoir, frictional losses, water temperature)
 If NPSHA is less than NPSHR cavitation will occur
Net Positive Suction Head

2 Elevation datum
Absolute pressure
z
ps Vs2 pv s = suction
NPSH R = + - Total head -pv!
1 g 2g g

2
peye
pv Veye
NPSH R = - + At cavitation!
g g 2g
NPSHR increases with Q2!
How much total head in excess of vapor pressure is available?
NPSHA
p1 V12 p2 V22
+ + z1 = + + z2 + hL
g 2g g 2g

patm ps Vs2
+ zreservoir = + + hL
g g 2g

patm ps Vs2
- Dz - hL = +
g g 2g

patm pv ps Vs2 pv
- Dz - hL - = + - Subtract vapor pressure
g g g 2g g
patm p
- Dz - hL - v = NPSH A
g g
NPSHr Illustrated

Pv
Pressure in excess of
vapor pressure required
NPSHr to prevent cavitation

NPSHr can exceed atmospheric pressure!


NPSH problem

Determine the minimum


?
reservoir level relative to the
pump centerline that will be 18°C
acceptable. The NPSHr for
the pump is 2.5 m. Assume
you have applied the energy
equation and found a head
loss of 0.5 m.

Exercise
Pumps in Pipe Systems
Pipe diameter is 0.4 m
and friction factor is
0.015. What is the pump
discharge? 60 m
1 km

p1 V12 p2 V22
  z1  hp    z 2  hl 11m
m
 2g  2g

hp  z 2  z 1  hl

hp  f(Q) often expressed as hp = a - bQ 2


Pumps in Pipe Systems
system operating point
120

100

80 Head vs. discharge


Head (m)

pump
curve for ________
hp 60

40 Could you solve this


Static head with a dimensionless
20
performance curve?
0 hp g
CH =
0 0.2 0.4
3
0.6 0.8 w 2 D2
Discharge (m /s)

What happens as the static head changes (a tank fills)?


Priming
hp g
 The pressure increase created is CH = 2 2
w D
proportional to the _______
density of the fluid
p
being pumped. CH 
 2 D 2
 A pump designed for water will be
unable to produce much pressure p  CH  2 2
D
increase when pumping air
 Density of air at sea level is __________
1.225 kg/m3
 Change in pressure produced by pump is
about 0.1% of design when pumping air
rather than water!
Priming Solutions

 Applications with water at less than


atmospheric pressure on the suction side of the
pump require a method to remove the air from
the pump and the inlet piping
priming tank to vacuum pump
 Solutions
 foot valve
 priming tank
 vacuum source
 self priming
foot valve
Self-Priming Centrifugal Pumps

Require a small volume of liquid in the


pump
Recirculate this liquid and entrain air from
the suction side of the pump
The entrained air is separated from the
liquid and discharged in the pressure side of
the pump
Variable Flows?

How can you obtain a wide range of flows?


__________________________
Valve
__________________________
Multiple pumps (same size)
__________________________
Multiple pumps (different sizes)
__________________________
Variable speed motor
__________________________
Storage tank
Why is the flow from two identical pumps
usually less than the 2x the flow from one
pump?
RPM for Pumps

60 cycle number of


poles sync full load rad/sec

Other options 2
4
3600
1800
3500
1750
367
183
6 1200 1167 122
variable speed 8 900 875 92
belt drive 10
12
720
600
700
583
73
61
14 514 500 52
16 450 438 46
18 400 389 41
20 360 350 37
22 327 318 33
24 300 292 31
26 277 269 28
28 257 250 26
30 240 233 24
Estimate of Pump rpm

The best efficiency is obtained when S=1


Given a desired flow and head the
approximate pump rpm can be estimated!
34

S=
w Q

( gh )
p
34
(gh )
p Q

Pump for flume in DeFrees Teaching Lab…


Q = 0.1 m3/s, hp = 4 m.
Therefore  = 50 rads/s = 470 rpm
Actual maximum rpm is 600!
Pump Selection

 Material Compatibility
 Solids
 Flow
 Head
 NPSHa
 Pump Selection software
 A finite number of pumps will come close to
meeting the specifications!
Pump Selection Chart

http://www.pricepump.com/

Model M

Model X
End of Curve Operation

 Right of the BEP (Best Efficiency Point)


 is sufficient NPSH available for the pump to operate
properly?
 fluid velocities through the suction and discharge
nozzles of the pump could be extremely high, resulting
in increased pump and system noise (and wear)
 Left of BEP operation
 high thrust loads on the pump bearings and mechanical
face seals result in premature failure.
 The pump is oversized, resulting in lower efficiency
and higher operating and capital costs.
w Q
S=
Gould’s Pump Curves (gh )p
34

890 rpm = 93.2 rad/s


Splitcase double suction

BEP = 1836 L/s

S=0.787

Check the Power!


Pump Installation Design

Why not use one big pump?


Can the system handle a power failure?
Can the pump be shut down for
maintenance?
How is the pump primed?
Are there enough valves so the pump can be
removed for service without disabling the
system?
Pump Summary

 Positive displacement vs. turbomachines


 Dimensional analysis
 Useful for scaling
 Useful for characterizing full range of pump
performance from relatively few data points
 Turbomachines convert shaft work into increased
pressure (or vice versa for turbines)
 The operating point is determined by where the
pump and system curves intersect
 NPSH
Water problem?
Early in my college days I took a break and spent 17 months in Salvadoran refugee
camps in Honduras. The refugee camps were located high in the mountains and for
several of the camps the only sources of water large enough to sustain the population of
6-10,000 were located at much lower elevations. So it was necessary to lift water to the
camps using pumps.

When I arrived at the camps the pumps were failing frequently and the pipes were
bursting frequently. Piston pumps were used. The refugees were complaining because
they needed water. The Honduran army battalion was nervous because they didn’t want
any refugees leaving the camp. There was only one set of spare parts (valve springs and
valves) for the pump and the last set of parts only lasted a few days. The pump repair
crew didn’t want to start using the pump until the real cause of the problem was fixed
because spare parts have to be flown in from Miami.
Water in Colomoncagua
Waiting for water
Water problem:
proposed solutions?

2 km pipeline (2”
galvanized and then 3”
PVC) with rise of 100 m

piston pump (80 L/min)


Shape Factor Solution

Create a dimensionless grouping


S  f ( , Q, p,  )

M L  Q
p  T 2 L2   2  S 34
mass
Eliminate ______   L
T2  p 
 M     
 L3    
p  2 2/3 
length
Eliminate _______  L T  1 
Q 2 3  T 2  L3 2 / 3   T 4 / 3 
  w Q
S=
p
34
time
Eliminate ______ (gh )
p
Q 2 3 4 3
Pump Curve Solution

 600rev   1 min   2 
       62.8 / s
    
 min   60s   rev 

hp g  2m 9.8m / s 2 
CH = CH   0.037
w 2 D2 62.8 / s 2 0.366m 2
Q CQ  0.068
CQ 
D 3
Q  0.06862.8 / s 0.366m   0.21m3 / s
3
Q  CQD 3

g Qhp
P
 9800 N / m  0.21m / s   2m 
3 3

 5.55kW
Pm =
eP em  0.78 0.95
Pump Curve Solution
0.08 1
0.07 0.9
0.8
hp g 0.06
0.7 Efficiency
CH = 2 2 0.05 0.6
w D
0.04 0.5
0.03 0.4
0.3
0.02
D=0.366 m 0.2
0.01 0.1
0 0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Q
CQ 
D 3
NPSH solution

NPSH A = NPSH R
?
patm - pv
NPSH A = - Dz - hL
g
18°C
patm - pv pv  2000 Pa
Dz = - hl - NPSH R
g
patm = 101300 Pa
101300 Pa   2000 Pa    9789 N / m3
z   0.5m  2.5m
9789 N / m3

z  7.14m
Implications of Power Curves

You are going to start a radial flow pump


powered by an electric motor. You want to
reduce the starting load on the motor. What
can you do? Close the effluent valve
What would you do if you were starting an
axial flow pump? Open the effluent valve
How could reducing the head on a radial
flow pump result in motor failure?
An effluent pipe break would increase the flow and
increase the power requirement
Find Q

Tz = r Q é
ë r2V (
t 2
- rV
1) (
t1
ù
û ) Let A = 10 cm2
Tz = r QVt2 r2

Tzw = r QwVt2 r2 work


Tzw wVt2 r2 Tzw wVt2 r2
Dimensional analysis
hp = = =
gQ g gVA g
p1 V12 p2 V22
  z1  hp    z 2  hl Datum is reservoir level
 2g  2g

wVt2 r2 V22 Neglect head loss


= + z2
g 2g
How could we lift water more
efficiently?

vt cs2

wVt2 r2 V22
= + Dz Solve for Q=AV r
g 2g

Q = A 2wVt2 r2 - 2 g Dz = AV2 Tzw = r QwVt2 r2

Decrease V without decreasing Q! (


hp Tzw Dz g ADz 2wVt2 r2 - 2 g Dz
= =
Dz g Q Dz hp Tzw
Lost energy

wVt2 r2 V22
= + Dz
g 2g

wVt2 r2 V22
= + Dz
g 2g
Selection of Pump Type

1000 Positive
displacement
Radial
100 6000
Pumping head (m)

4000

Power (kW)
2000
hp Mixed 1000
10 600
400
200
100
1 Axial 60
40
1 2 4 6 20
10
0.1
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
Flow (m3/s)