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Chapter 1:

Modern Network Security Threats


CCNA Security v2.0
Instructor Name: Touch Ra

Email: ra.touchit@gmail.com

Tel: 089 81 91 72

Certified: CCNA R&S,CCNA Security,


CCAI,CCNP R&S (300-101),CCNA Cyber
OP, JNCIA-JUNOS,

Awarded:HE IPV6 Certified awarded the


rank of SAGE level, Won CCNA 1-4
competition 2014 award as 2ND RUNNER
UP
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Securing Networks
1.2 Network Threats
1.3 Mitigating Threats
1.4 Summary

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Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:
• Describe the current network security landscape.

• Explain how all types of networks need to be protected.

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Common network security terms:
• Threat

• Vulnerability

• Mitigation
Cisco Security Intelligence Operations
• Risk

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Vectors of data loss:
• Email/Webmail

• Unencrypted Devices

• Cloud Storage Devices

• Removable Media

• Hard Copy

• Improper Access Control

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Outside perimeter security:
• On-premise security officers

• Fences and gates

• Continuous video surveillance

• Security breach alarms

Inside perimeter security:


• Electronic motion detectors

• Security traps

• Continuous video surveillance

• Biometric access and exit sensors

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VM-specific threats: Components of a secure data center:
• Hyperjacking • Secure segmentation

• Instant On activation • Threat defense

• Antivirus storm • Visibility

Critical MDM functions for BYOD network:


• Data encryption

• PIN enforcement

• Data wipe

• Data loss prevention

• Jailbreak/root detection

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Upon completion of the section, you should be able to:
• Describe the evolution of network security.

• Describe the various types of attack tools used by hackers.

• Describe malware.

• Explain common network attacks.

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Modern hacking titles:
• Script Kiddies

• Vulnerability Brokers

• Hacktivists

• Cyber Criminals

• State-Sponsored
Hackers

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Penetration testing tools:
• Password crackers • Forensic

• Wireless hacking • Debuggers

• Network scanning and hacking • Hacking operating systems

• Packet crafting • Encryption

• Packet sniffers • Vulnerability exploitation

• Rootkit detectors • Vulnerability Scanners

• Fuzzers to search vulnerabilities

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Network hacking attacks:
• Eavesdropping

• Data modification

• IP address spoofing

• Password-based

• Denial-of-service

• Man-in-the-middle

• Compromised-key

• Sniffer

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Classifications:
• Security software disabler

• Remote-access

• Data-sending

• Destructive

• Proxy

• FTP

• DoS

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Initial Code Red Worm Infection

Code Red Worm Infection 19 Hours


Later

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Components:
1.
Propagate
• Enabling vulnerability for 19 days

• Propagation mechanism

• Payload

4.
Code Red 2.
Launch DoS
Repeat the
cycle
Worm attack for
next 7 days
Propagation

3.
Stop and go
dormant for
a few days

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Ransomware Scareware
Spyware Phishing
Adware Rootkits

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Data
Modification
Syn Flood

Smurf
Attack

Reconnaissance
Access
DoS

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• Initial query of a target

• Ping sweep of the target network

• Port scan of active IP addresses

• Vulnerability scanners

• Exploitation tools

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A few reasons why hackers use access attacks:
• To retrieve data

• To gain access

• To escalate access privileges

A few types of access attacks include:


• Password

• Trust exploitation

• Port redirection

• Man-in-the-middle

• Buffer overflow

• IP, MAC, DHCP spoofing

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• Pretexting

• Phishing

• Spearphishing

• Spam

• Tailgating

• Something for Something

• Baiting

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1. Hacker builds a network of infected machines
• A network of infected hosts is called a botnet.
• The compromised computers are called zombies.
• Zombies are controlled by handler systems.

2. Zombie computers continue to scan and infect more targets


3. Hacker instructs handler system to make the botnet of zombies
carry out the DDoS attack

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Upon completion of this section, you should be able to::
• Describe methods and resources to protect the networks.

• Describe a collection of domains for network security.

• Explain the purpose of the Cisco SecureX Architecture.

• Describe the techniques used to mitigate common network attacks.

• Explain how to secure the three functional areas of Cisco routers and switches.

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Confidentiality:
Uses encryption to
encrypt and hide
data.

Components
of
Cryptography
Availability:
Integrity:
Assures data is
Uses hashing
accessible.
algorithms to
Guaranteed by
ensure data is
network hardening
unaltered during
mechanisms and
operation.
backup systems.

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• Risk assessment

• Security policy

• Organization of information security

• Asset management

• Human resources security

• Physical and environmental security

• Communications and operations management

• Information systems acquisition, development, and maintenance

• Access control

• Information security incident management

• Business continuity management

• Compliance

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Server Edge
and Branch

Secure Data Secure


Center and Email and
Virtualization Web

SecureX

Secure Secure
Access Mobility

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Cisco SecureX Architecture:
• Scanning engines

• Delivery mechanisms

• Security intelligence operations (SIO)

• Policy management consoles

• Next-generation endpoint

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Defines security policies based on five parameters:
• Type of device being used for access

• Person’s identity

• Application in use

• Location

• Time of access

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Best practices:
• Develop a written security policy.

• Educate employees about the risks of social engineering, and develop strategies to
validate identities over the phone, via email, or in person.

• Control physical access to systems.

• Use strong passwords and change them often.

• Encrypt and password-protect sensitive data.

• Implement security hardware and software.

• Perform backups and test the backed up files on a regular basis.

• Shut down unnecessary services and ports.

• Keep patches up-to-date by installing them weekly or daily to prevent buffer


overflow and privilege escalation attacks.

• Perform security audits to test the network.

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Containment

Inoculation Quarantine

Treatment

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Chapter Objectives:
• Explain network security.

• Describe various types of threats and attacks.

• Explain tools and procedures to mitigate the effects of malware and common
network attacks.

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Thank you.