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RESIDENTIAL TRAINING PROGRAMME

ON

PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY
27th APRIL-6th MAY 2011

FOR
DELEGATES FROM SRILANKA

SPONSORED BY
MINISTRY OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
SRI LANKA

ORGANISED BY
PACKAGING OF PERISHABLES &
PROCESSED FOODS
 INTRODUCTION TO FOOD PACKAGING - THE NEED
 PRODUCT GROUPS - SPOILAGE FACTORS/PROTECTION
REQUIRED
 PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
 COMPATIBILITY / SHELF –LIFE
 FOOD PACKAGING SYSTEMS
- GAS FLUSHING
- VACUUM / MOULDED VACUUM PACKAGING
- CONTROLLED / MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE
PACKAGING
- ACTIVE PACKAGING
- RETORT PACKAGING
- ASEPTIC PACKAGING
 SUMMARY/KEY POINTS
FOOD SPOILAGE, PRESERVATION
TECHNIQUES,
ROLE OF PACKAGING
FOOD
“ANY SUBSTANCE TAKEN INTO AND
ASSIMILATED BY A PLANT OR
ANIMAL TO KEEP IT ALIVE AND
ENABLE IT TO GROW AND REPAIR
TISSUE AND PROMOTE NOURISHMENT”
NECESSARY FOR
SURVIVAL - GROWTH - PHYSICAL ABILITY
GOOD HEALTH
FOOD SPOILAGE, PRESERVATION
TECHNIQUES,
ROLE OF PACKAGING

SOURCES OF FOOD
ANIMAL FOODS PLANT FOODS
MEAT & MEAT PRODUCTS CEREALS & PULSES
POULTRY VEGETABLES
EGGS FRUITS
MILK NUTS
SUGAR
OILS
FOOD PROCESSING
THERE ARE MANY WAYS THAT
WE CAN PRESERVE FOOD BUT
FIRST WE MUST UNDERSTAND
WHY
FOOD PROCESSING
WE PROCESS (PRESERVE) FOOD
TO
ENABLE US TO BE ABLE TO EAT FOOD
FROM ONE HARVEST UNTIL THE NEXT
TO ENABLE US TO DISTRIBUTE IT OVER
A WIDE AREA
TO KEEP IT FOR TIMES OF SHORTAGE
FOOD PROCESSING
PROCESSED FOOD IS NOW A
NECESSITY
AS MORE AND MORE PEOPLE
MOVE TO THE TOWNS AND ARE
NO LONGER ABLE TO SUPPORT
THEMSELVES BY GROWING THEIR
OWN FOOD
FOOD PROCESSING

PEOPLE’S LIFESTYLES ARE


ALSO CHANGING WHICH IN
TURN IS INCREASING THE
DEMAND FOR PROCESSED AND
CONVINIENCECE FOODS
FOOD PACKAGING
METHODS OF INCREASING DURABILITY
SIX MOST IMPORTANT METHODS
 HEAT TREATMENT
 COLD STORING OR FREEZING
 REDUCTION OF WATER ACTIVITY
 PRESERVING BY MEANS OF ADDITIVES
 CONTROL OF THE PACKAGING ATMOSPHERE
 FERMENTATION
PROCESSED FOOD GROUPS
 BAKERY BISCUITS & CONFECTIONERY
 FRUITS ,VEGETABLES AND ITS PRODUCTS
 FISH AND FISH PRODUCTS
 MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS
 BREAKFAST FOODS AND READY- TO- EAT
FOODS
 EXTRUDED TEXTURED VEGETABLE PROTEIN
FOOD
PROCESSED FOOD GROUPS
 BEER AND NON ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES
 MILK POWDER, CONDENSED MILK
 BABY MILK FOOD
 MALTED MILK FOODS
 DAIRY PRODUCTS - CHEESE, BUTTER, SWEETS
 INSTANT MIXES
 GROUND SPICES
INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS PACKAGE
PART TYPE

PRODUCTION
PRESERVATION UNIT
DISTRIBUTION
PROTECTION BULK
MARKETING
PRESENTATION
AESTHETICS
MARKING
FOOD PACKAGING
WHY ?
FOOD PACKAGING IS CLOSELY ENTWINED
WITH THE PRODUCTION, PRESERVATION,
STORAGE AND MARKETING OF FOODS AND
THEREFORE FORMS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE
PRODUCT
A PACKAGE PLAYS THE ROLE OF ENSURING
THAT THE PRODUCT REACHES THE CONSUMER IN
AN ATTRACTIVE AND CONVENIENT FORM
WITHOUT SPOILAGE OR CHANGES IN COLOUR,
FLAVOUR, TEXTURE AND THE NUTRITIVE VALUE
OF THE FOOD
THE NEED:
ADOPT PACKAGING TO CONSERVE AND
PRESERVE
PACKAGING - PART OF TOTAL SYSTEM
PACKAGING - INEFFECTIVE IN ISOLATION
PACKAGING - TO BE ECO-FRIENDLY
- REDUCE SOLID WASTE
BAR CODING
CONSUMER CONVENIENCE
MODULAR FOR SHELF - SPACE
STORAGE / WAREHOUSING
TRASPORTATION
EXTRINSIC FACTORS
PRIMARY PACKAGE

FOOD PRODUCT
INTRINSIC FACTORS

INGREDIENTS FORMULATION

PROCESSING STEPS

PRIMARY PACKAGE

EXTRINSIC FACTORS
FOOD SPOILAGE, PRESERVATION
TECHNIQUES,
ROLE OF PACKAGING
FOOD SPOILAGE

PHYSICAL

CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL

BIOLOGICAL
PRODUCT SPOILAGE FACTORS
PRODUCT FACTORS OF SPOILAGE
GROUND AND WHOLE SPICES - MOISTURE / CAKING
- LOSS OF AROMA/FLAVOUR
- DISCOLOURATION
- INSECT ATTACK/MOLD GROWTH
TEA - MOISTURE - LEADING TO MOLD
GROWTH/FERMENTATION
- PREVENT EVAPORATION OF
AROMA/FLAVOUR LOSSES
- PICK-UP OF FOREIGN ODOURS
COFFEE (GROUND COFFEE - LOSS OF AROMA/FLAVOUR DUE
AND COFFEE BEANS) TO LOSS OF ESSENTIAL OILS
- RANCIDIFICATION DUE TO O2
- EVOLUTION OF CO2 GAS FROM
ROASTED BEANS
- MOISTURE ABSORBTION
PRODUCT SPOILAGE FACTORS
PRODUCT FACTORS OF SPOILAGE
MILK (LIQUID) - ENZYMATIC & OXIDATIVE
RANCIDITY, HYDROLYTIC
RANCIDITY & OFF FLAVOUR,
- LIGHT AND HEAT EFFECT ON
VITAMIN C CONTENT
BACTERIAL DETERIORATION

MILK (POWDER) - MOISTURE/CAKING


- INSECT INFESTATION

MEAT & MEAT PRODUCTS - MICRO-ORGANISMS


- ENZYME ACTIVITY
- OXYGEN - PIGMENTS
- MOISTURE - DEHYDRATION
- ODOUR / FLAVOUR
PRODUCT SPOILAGE FACTORS
PRODUCT FACTORS OF SPOILAGE
EDIBLE OILS & VANASPATI - MOISTURE - HYDROLYSIS
- OXYGEN - OXIDATION
- LIGHT & TEMPERATURE
FRUIT JUICES - OXYGEN -OXIDATION LEADING
TO CHANGE IN COLOUR/TASTE
- METAL - DISCOLORATION
AND TURBIDITY
- ACIDITY CHANGE
- ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY
CEREALS - MOISTURE
- HEAT
- INSECTS & WEEVILS
BREAKFAST CEREALS - MOISTURE
- OXIDATIVE RANCIDITY
- ODOUR PERMEATION
BREAD - DRYING, MICROBIAL SPOILAGE
PRODUCT PACKAGING TYPE OF PACKAGING
REQUIREMENT MATERIAL
DEHYDRATED/MOIST NEED TO BE PROTECTED MATERIALS WITH GOOD WATER
URE SENSITIVE FROM MOISTURE GAIN VAPOUR BARRIER PROERTIES
PRODUCTS ARE USED
FRIED FOODS, NUTS, BECOME RANCID DUE TO MATERIALS WITH LOW OXYGEN
EDIBLE OILS ETC. OXIDATION OF FATS AS PERMIABILITY ARE USED
SENSITIVE TO OXYGEN
AND LIGHT

TEA, CHOCOLATE, PICK UP FOREIGN MATERIALS WHICH GIVE


SPICES ODOURS PROTECTION AGAINST INGRESS
OF ODOUR FROM OUTER SOURCES
SNACK FOODS MOISTURE PICK UP AND MATERIALS WITH GOOD WVTR
RANCIDITY AND OTR BARRIER

BAKERY PRODUCTS NEED TO BE PROTECTED MATERIALS WITH GOOD OXYGEN


FROM MOISTURE GAIN AND ODOUR RESISTANCE

SPICE PRODUCTS AND LOSE VOLATILE MATERIALS WITH GOOD


PROCESSED FOOD COMPONENTS MOISTURE, ODOUR AND OXYGEN
BARRIERS ARE USED.
REQUIREMENTS OF A PROCESSED
FOOD PACKAGE
• HEAT RSISTANCE - SHOULD WITHSTAND HIGH
FILLING TEMPERATURES
• HEAT TRANSMISSION - SHOULD BE CAPABLE OF FAST
HEAT TRANSFER, BOTH WHILE HEATING AND COOLING
• SEAL INTEGRITY - SHOULD BE ABLE TO ACHIEVE AND
MAINTAIN PERFECT SEALS AND PREVENT
CONTAMINATION FROM AIR, MOISTURE AND MICRO-
ORGANISMS
• STRONG BUT LIGHT WEIGHT - TO WITHSTAND
HANDLING AND STORAGE HAZARDS
• COMPATIBILITY WITH THE PRODUCT
• RESISTANCE TO SUNLIGHT, STORAGE TEMPERATURE
AND ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY
MATERIALS - SELECTION
CRITERIA
PRODUCT PROPERTIES
PRODUCT - PACKAGE COMPATIBILITY
PRODUCTION SYSTEM
SHELF - LIFE
MARKET NEEDS
ECO REGULATIONS
PACKAGE DEVELOPMENT FACTORS
• CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRODUCT & PROTECTION
PHYSICAL
PHYSICO - CHEMICAL

• METHOD OF DISTRIBUTION
MODE OF TRANSPORT TO VARIOUS DESTINATIONS
HANDLING AND CLIMATIC HAZARDS
UNIT LOAD DEVICES

• MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS
SALES APPEAL
DISPENSING DEVICES
DECORATION

• COST FACTOR
OVERALL COST

• DISPOSABILITY
PACKAGING
INNER OUTER
*PRIMARY PACK *TRANSPORT PACK
*RETAIL PACK *SHIPPING CASE
*CONSUMER PACK *SECONDARY PACK
*SALES PACK *OUTER CARTON
*DIRECT CONTACT WITH FOOD *CONTAINS NUMBER
OF INNER PACKS
FOOD PACKAGING
PRODUCT - PACKAGE
COMPATIBILITY

IT IS DEFINED AS THE ABILITY OF


THE PRODUCT AND THE PACKAGE TO
CO - EXIST WITHOUT ONE HAVING A
DELETERIOUS EFFECT OVER THE OTHER
GLASS AND METAL CONTAINERS
PLASTIC CONTAINERS
COMPOSITE
CONTAINERS
FLEXIBLE POUCHES
PRIMARY FOOD PACKAGING
MATERIALS
•METAL CONTAINERS
LACQUERS / COATINGS
SEALANT COMPOUNDS
•GLASS CONTAINERS
CLOSURES
WADS
•PAPER BASED PACKAGES
FOOD GRADE
•PLASTICS PACKAGES
FOOD GRADE - SAFETY
•ADHESIVES, PRINTING INKS ETC.
FOOD PACKAGING

PLASTICS BASED PACKAGES


MIGRATION
THE PHENOMENON OF TRANSFER OF
SUBSTACES FROM THE PACKAGE INTO
THE PRODUCT

OVERALL / GLOBAL MIGRATION


SPECIFIC MIGRATION
FOOD PACKAGING

SHELF - LIFE
IT IS THE PERIOD BETWEEN PACKAGING
OF A PRODUCT AND USING IT BUT
ENSURING THAT THE QUALITY OF THE
PRODUCT REMAINS ACCEPTABLE TO THE
PRODUCT USER.
FOOD PACKAGING
SHELF - LIFE
SHELF-LIFE DETERMINATIONS ARE MORE APPROPRIATE
- WHERE PRODUCT - PACKAGE ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO
INFLUENCE OF CONDITIONS CAUSING DETERIORATION
OF THE PRODUCT
- WHERE MIGRATION OF PACKAGE COMPONENTS ARE
POSSIBLE
- IN THE SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE AND ECONOMIC
MEDIUM FOR A GIVEN PURPOSE

SHELF LIFE DETERMINATIONS ARE LESS NEEDED


- WHERE THE PACK (CAN OR GLASS CONTAINER)
PROVIDES FULL PROTECTION FROM EXTERNAL
FACTORS PRESUMING THE CLOSURE AND SEAL SYSTEM
ARE PERFECT AND THE PRODUCT BY ITSELF DOES NOT
DETERIORATE
FOOD PACKAGING
DATA NEEDED FOR SHELF-LIFE
DETERMINATION

• PRODUCT PROFILE
• SHELF LIFE PERIOD EXPECTED
• PACKAGING MATERIAL SELECTION
• PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF
PACKAGING MATERIALS
• CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
• MARKETING REQUIREMENTS
STORAGE / SHELF –LIFE
STUDIES
SHELF - LIFE
SIGNIFICANCE OF INITIAL VALUES Vs MAXIMUM LIMITS

SHELF-LIFE FACTOR INTERRELATED TO THE PRODUCT QUALITY


WHEN READY TO PACK, AS WELL AS TO MARKET ENVIRONMENT

LOWER THE INITIAL VALUE - HIGHER THE SHELF-LIFE

LOWER THE INITIAL VALUE - MORE ECONOMICAL THE PACKAGING


MEDIUM.
HIGHER THE INITIAL VALUE - HIGHER THE SPECIFICATION OF
PACKAGING MEDIA AND THEREFORE
HIGHER THE PACKAGING COST
HIGHER THE SHELF-LIFE - HIGHER THE PACKAGING SPECIFICATION
REQUIREMENT AND THEREFORE THE PACKAGING COST

VERY IMPORTANT TO FIX THREE PRIMARY FACTORS :


SHELF-LIFE PERIOD REQUIRED
MARKET CONDITIONS
INITIAL VALUES OF CRITICAL PARAMETERS
PACKAGING COLD STORAGE

SELECTION TRANSPORTATION
& GRADING SEA / AIR

FUNGICIDE STORAGE / RIPENING


TREATMENT

HARVESTING DISTRIBUTION

PREHARVESTING RETAILING
PACKAGING OF HORTICULTURAL
PRODUCE
PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS
HIGHLY PERISHABLE IN NATURE
EASILY AFFECTED BY CLIMATIC CONDITIONS,
DISTRIBUTION HAZARDS AND MICROBIAL DECAY.

 RESPIRATION
 MOISTURE
 MICRO-ORGANISMS
 CHANGES IN COLOUR, TEXTURE, ODOUR, FLAVOUR
 TEMPERATURE
 VOLATILES
FRESH FRUITS & VEGETABLES
PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS

 PROTECT AGAINST BRUISING AND PHYSICAL


INJURY
 PROTECT AGAINST MICROBIAL SPOILAGE AND
DETERIORATION
 PROVIDE VENTILATION FOR EXCHANGE OF
GASES
 PROTECT AGAINST MOISTURE / WEIGHT LOSS
 SLOW DOWN RESPIRATION RATE TO DELAY
RIPENING AND INCREASE STORAGE LIFE
 CONTROL ETHYLENE CONCENTRATIONS
 PRECOOLING
PACKAGING OF HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE
CORRUGATED FIBRE BOARD BOXES (CFB)
MAJOR ATTRIBUTES :
* LOW COST TO STRENGTH AND WEIGHT RATIO
* SMOOTH NON-ABRASIVE SURFACE , MINIMUM
BRUISING DAMAGE
* GOOD CUSHIONING CHARACTERISTICS
* EXCELLENT PRINTABILITY
* EASY TO SET UP, COLLAPSIBLE FOR STORAGE
* REUSABILE AND RECYCLABLE
* EASY HANDLING AND STACKABILITY
* CAN BE TURNED OUT INTO HIGHLY PRECISE
AND ACCURATE SIZES
* CAN BE APPROPRIATELY PUNCHED FOR
VENTILATION
* MOST ACCEPTABLE FORM IN INTERNATIONAL
MARKETS
PACKAGING OF HORTICULTURAL
PRODUCE
PARAMETERS FOR SPECIFYING A CFB BOX :
• MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
• EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS
• STYLE OF BOX
• TYPE OF FLUTES
• DIRECTION OF FLUTES
• GRAMMAGE ( G/M.SQ. )
• BURSTING STRENGTH ( KG/CM.SQ.)
• PUNCTURE RESISTANCE ( OZS. INCHES / TEAR INCH)
• NUMBER OF PIECES PER BOX
• MANUFACTURER’S JOINT
• COMPRESSION STRENGTH
• TYPE OF ADHESIVE
• COBB ( 30 MTS. ) G/M.SQ.
CURRENT TRENDS AND
DEVELOPMENTS
CONSUMER PACKAGING MATERIALS
PLASTIC NETS (EXTRUDED & WOVEN)

PLASTIC CRATE - LIGHT WEIGHT


CURRENT TRENDS AND
DEVELOPMENTS
CONSUMER PACKAGING MATERIALS
TRAYS (EPS, MOULDED PULP, CFB)

PLASTIC PUNNETS
TRADITIONAL PACKAGES FOR
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
PACKAGES FOR FRUITS AND
VEGETABLES
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES - BULK
PACK
CFB BOXES OF FOLLOWING STYLES DEVELOPED

RSC (0201) TELESCOPIC (LTO R)


(0300, 0312, 0306)
PROJECTS COMPLETED
PRINTING OF PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS
PACKAGING OF MEAT & MEAT
PRODUCTS
SUITABLE PACKAGING IMPORTANT ASPECT OF
MEAT PRESERVATION

PACKAGING CAN ONLY DELAY THE ONSET


OF SPOILAGE

PRODUCT IS PROTECTED FOR A LIMITED PERIOD


DETERMINED BY THE PACKAGING SYSTEM USED
PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS OF
FRESH MEAT
 MICRO-ORGANISMS

 ENZYME ACTIVITY

 PIGMENTS

 MOISTURE

 ODOUR / FLAVOUR
PACKAGE FORMS FOR FRESH
MEAT

 FILMS AND LAMINATES - BAGS

 TRAYS WITH FILM OVERWRAP

 SHRINK PACKAGING

 SKIN PACKAGING

 VACUUM PACKAGING
PACKAGE FORMS FOR FRESH
MEAT
TRAYS AND FILMS
* RIGID TRAYS OF EPS OVERWRAPPED WITH TRANSPARENT FILMS
•AESTHETICALLY APPEALING
•NON - ABSORBENT
*CLEAR PS TRAYS
•OFFERS VISIBILITY

*OVERWRAP FILMS USED ARE :


•RUBBER HYDROCHLORIDE, LDPE, PVC, EVA

SHELF - LIFE ----- 8 TO 10 AT 00 C TO 10C


HOWEVER, SALEABLE ONLY UPTO ABOUT 5 DAYS
BECAUSE OF UNATTRACTIVE BROWN COLOUR
PACKAGE FORMS FOR FRESH
MEAT
VACUUM PACKAGING
SUITABLE MATERIALS FOR VACUUM PACKAGING HAVE:
* HIGH RESISTANCE TO GAS AND MOISTURE
* GOOD MECHANICAL STRENGTH
* PERFECT SEALS

TYPICAL MATERIALS:
* POLETHYLENE / COATED CELLULOSE
* POLYESTER / POLYETHYLENE
* POLYAMIDE / POLYETHYLENE
* LAMINATES OF AL FOIL
SHELF - LIFE OF UPTO 3 WEEKS IS ACHIEVED
NOT POPULAR AT RETAIL LEVEL BECAUSE OF PURPLISH
COLOUR OF MEAT
PACKAGING OF
FRESH FISH
NEED FOR PACKAGING OF FISH
AND FISH PRODUCTS

•EXTREMELY PERISHABLE PRODUCT

•PREVENT MICROBIAL DETERIORATION

•PREVENT DESICCATION AND WEIGHT


LOSSES
PLASTIC CONTAINERS AND
LIDDING FILMS FOR MAP OF
FRESH FISH
PET PA EVOH
PVDC PVDC PC
LDPE LDPE EVA

HDPE LDPE LDPE


UPVC EVOH
EPS
INSULATED PLASTIC CONTAINER
FOR FISH
PRINTED
PLASTIC
LAMINATED
POUCH FOR
IQF SHRIMP
PLASTIC TRAYS FOR IQF
CRABS
GAS FLUSHING
VACUUM PACKAGING
MOULDED VACUUM PACK
FOR GARLIC POWDER
MOULDED VACUUM PACK FOR AFD
CORN
MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE
PACKAGING FOR FRESH FISH
 INCREASE IN SHELF-LIFE BY MAP AS COMPARED
TO NORMAL PACKAGING CAN BE 0%- 280%
DEPENDING ON MEASUREMENT OF SHELF-LIFE

 IF SHELF-LIFE IS TAKEN AS HIGH QUALITY


AT EARLY STAGE, MARGINAL EXTENSION IS
OBSERVED

 IF SHELF-LIFE IS TAKEN AT A POINT


ACCEPTABLE TO THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE,
THE EXTENSION IS CONSIDERABLE
MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING
MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING IS A
PROCESS BY WHICH THE SHELF-LIFE OF A FRESH
PRODUCE IS INCREASED SIGNIFICANTLY BY
ENCLOSING IT IN AN ATMOSPHERE WHICH
SLOWS DOWN THE DEGRADATION PROCESS.

A FORM OF PACKAGING INVOLVING THE


REMOVAL OF AIR FROM THE PACK AND
REPLACING IT WITH A SINGLE OR MIXTURE
OF GASES.
THE GAS MIXTURE USED IS DEPENDANT ON THE
TYPE OF THE PRODUCE.
MAP / CAP
CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING
THE MAINTENANCE OF A CONSTANT ATMOSPHERE WITHIN A
PACKAGE DESPITE CHANGES IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE OR
HUMIDITY, IS CALLED CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING.
CA PACKAGING ACTIVELY AND CONTINUOUSLY “SENSES”
PACKAGE CONDITIONS AND RESPONDS TO CHANGES IN THOSE
CONDITIONS BY MEANS OF GAS ABSORBERS OR EMITTERS,
HUMIDITY REGULATORS.

MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING


IN MAP THE INITIAL ATMOSPHERE AT THE TIME OF PACKAGING IS
MODIFIED AND THERE IS NO WAY IN WHICH THE BALANCE OF THE
AIR COMPONENTS CAN BE MAINTAINED ONCE THE PACKAGE HAS
BEEN SEALED HERMETICALLY.
GAS MIXTURES
THREE TYPES OF GAS MIXTURES USED IN MAP:
• NITROGEN
• CARBON DIOXIDE / NITROGEN OR OXYGEN /
CARBON DIOXIDE / NITROGEN
• CARBON DIOXIDE OR CARBON DIOXIDE/OXYGEN

COMBINATION OF GASES USED DEPEND ON:

• TYPE OF PRODUCTS - FAT & MOISTURE CONTENT,


MICROBIAL CHARACTERISTICS, RESPIRATION RATE.
• PACKAGING MATERIALS USED
• STORAGE TEMPERATURE
GASES USED IN MAP
1)CARBON DIOXIDE 2) NITROGEN 3) OXYGEN

GAS PROPERTIES
1. CARBON DIOXIDE INHIBITS BACTERIAL AND
MOULD ACTIVITY

2. NITROGEN CHEMICALLY INERT


PREVENTS OXIDATION,
RANCIDITY, MOULD GROWTH,
INSECT ATTACK

3. OXYGEN SUSTAINS BASIC METABOLISM,


PREVENTS ANAEROBIC
SPOILAGE.
ESTIMATED SHELF - LIFE OF MAP
PRODUCTS
PRODUCT ORDINARY MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE
PACKAGING PACKAGING

BEEF 4 DAYS 12 DAYS


PORK 4 DAYS 9 DAYS
CHICKEN 6 DAYS 18 DAYS
COOKED MEATS 7 DAYS 28 DAYS
FISH 2 DAYS 10 DAYS
BREAD 7 DAYS 21 DAYS
COFFEE 3 DAYS 18 DAYS
PACKAGING MATERIALS FOR MAP
 LOW WATER VAPOUR TRANSMISSION RATE

 HIGH GAS BARRIER

 GOOD MECHANICAL STRENGTH TO


WITHSTAND MACHINE HANDLING AND
SUBSEQUENT STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION
 HIGH INTEGRITY SEALS TO ENSURE
RETENTION OF GAS WITHIN THE PACK UNTIL
OPENED BY THE CONSUMER
MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE
PACKAGES FOR PERISHABLES

Pomegranate
Cherries Mango- 35 days at Coriander- 3 days
4 months
20 deg C at 10 deg C
at 6 deg C
MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING
OF BANANAS
ACTIVE PACKAGING
ACTIVE PACKAGING
ACTIVE V/S BARRIER PACKAGING
BARRIER PACKAGING:
– BARRIER IS CONSIDERED “PASSIVE” AS IT
ERECTS WALLS TO PRODUCT DEGRADERS.

ACTIVE PACKAGING:
– ACTIVE PACKAGING CONTROLS AND REACTS TO
EVENTS TAKING PLACE INSIDE THE PACKAGE.
ACTIVE PACKAGING

TYPES OF ACTIVE PACKAGING


SYSTEMS
ANTIMICROBIALS
CARBON DIOXIDE CONTROLLERS
MOISTURE CONTROLLERS
ETHYLENE ABSORBERS
MICOWAVE SUSCEPTORS
OXYGEN SCAVENGERS
OXYGEN GENERATORS
FIELD TRIALS OF ACTIVE
PACKAGING FILM
BANANAS KEPT INSIDE
ACTIVE PACKAGING
BAGS WERE GREENER
WHILE BANANAS
KEPT OPEN TURNED
Bananas were opened after
3 days of unloading
YELLOW.
LONG LIFE TECHNOLOGIES

AP BANANAS FROM
ACTIVE PACK AFTER 35
DAYS

MP BANANAS FROM MODIFIED


ATMOSPHERE PACK AFTER 32
DAYS
RETORT PACKAGES
DEFINITION
IN 1977, WEBSTER DEFINED A RETORT
PACKAGE AS

“ A FLEXIBLE PACKAGE IN WHICH


PREPARED FOOD IS HERMETICALLY
SEALED FOR LONG TERM
UNREFRIGERATED STORAGE”.
RETORT PACKAGES
AIM OF RETORTING PROCESS AND
COMMERCIAL STERILITY

TO COOK FOOD READY FOR CONSUMPTION

TO DESTROY CHEMICAL ENZYMES

TO DESTROY MICRO-ORGANISMS IN FOOD


RETORT PACKAGES
STRUCTURES THAT CAN BE
THERMALLY PROCESSED LIKE A
METAL CAN WITH AN ADDED
ADVANTAGE OF BOIL-IN-BAG FEATURE

TWO TYPES:
•FLEXIBLE POUCHES
•SEMI RIGID CONTAINERS
RETORT PACKAGES
BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF RETORT POUCH
MATERIAL
• LOW GAS PERMEABILITY
• LOW WATER VAPOUR TRANSMISSION RATE
• RESISTANCE TO TEMPERATURE OF 1210C
FOR STERILISATION
• INERT AND COMPATIBLE
• HEAT SEALABLE AND MACHINEABLE
• PHYSICAL STRENGTH TO RESIST PHYSICAL ABUSE
RETORT PACKAGES
COMPOSITION OF RETORT POUCH
CRITICAL COMPONENTS
•POLYESTER FILM - REVERSE PRINTING
STRENGTH
ABRASION RESISTANCE
•ALUMINIUM FOIL - WATER, ODOUR, GAS, LIGHT
BARRIER PROPERTIES
•POLYPROPYLENE - HEAT SEAL INTEGRITY,
FLEXIBILITY, STRENGTH AND
COMPATIBILITY
RETORT PACKAGES
COMPOSITION OF RETORT POUCH
COMMON LAMINATES
• 15 MICRON POLYESTER OR NYLON /
70 MICRON CPP
• 12MICRON POLYESTER / 12MICRON Al FOIL/
75 MICRON CPP
• 12 MICRON PET / 9 MICRON Al FOIL /
15 MICRON OPA / 60 MICRON CPP
RETORT PACKAGES
MICRO-OVENABLE RETORT POUCHES

REPLACEMENT OF ALUMINIUM FOIL BY PLASTIC


BARRIER FILMS

•LAMINATE OF PET/ PU ADH./HDPE (MODIFIED)


(SHELF-LIFE OF 3 MONTHS - REFRIGERATION)

•LAMINATE OF PET/HBPVDC/PP
RETORT PACKAGES
ADVANTAGES
• EASY TO OPEN
• EXCELLENT BARRIER PROTECTION
• LONG SHELF-LIFE AT AMBIENT CONDITIONS
• MICRO - OVENABLE
• LOW WEIGHT
• LESS STORAGE SPACE
• THIN PROFILE – REDUCED HEATING TIME
RETORT PACKAGES
PRODUCTS PACKED IN RETORTABLE POUCHES

MEATS SAUCES

SOUPS FRUITS
& VEGETABLES
RETORT POUCHES IN THE
INDIAN MARKET
RETORT PACKAGES
SEMI - RIGID CONTAINERS
A TRAY OR A TUB WITH A SUPPORTING
BODY AND A PEELABLE LID.

MANUFACTURED BY THERMOFORMING,
COLD IMPACT FORMING OR
CO - EXTRUSION.
RETORT PACKAGES

MATERIALS USED:

TRAY LIDDING
MATERIAL

PVDC, EVOH PET/AL. FOIL /CPP


TYPICAL STRUCTURE OF LID AND
BODY OF RETORTABLE
SEMI-RIGID TRAY

PET
ADHESIVE
LID Al FOIL
ADHESIVE
CPP

BODY PET
ADHESIVE
EVOH / PVDC
ADHESIVE
CPP
MICRO-OVENABLE PACKAGES
• ALUMINIUM CONTAINERS - EPOXY & VINYL
COATED TO ABSORB MIROWAVE ENERGY

• GLASS CONTAINERS

• COATED PAPERBOARD CONTAINERS


( PET COATED)

• PLASTIC CONTAINERS
(NYLON, PET, PP,)
ASEPTIC PACKAGING SYSTEM
ORIGINALLY INTRODUCED IN SWEDEN IN THE EARLY
60s, INTRODUCED IN INDIA FEW YEARS BACK
SINGLE TRIP CONTAINER - LAMINATE OF HIGH QUALITY
PAPER WITH ALUMINIUM FOIL AND LOW DENSITY
POLYETHYLENE
MILK IS ASEPTICALLY PACKED AFTER STERLISATION AT
140 0 C FOR 2 TO 3 SECONDS, COOLED SUDDENLY AND
THEN PACKED
PACKAGING MATERIAL IS STERILISED WITH HYDROGEN
PEROXIDE
NO REGRIGERATION REQUIRED / NO PRESERVATIVE
SHELF-LIFE OF ABOUT 90 TO 120 DAYS UNDER TROPICAL
CONDITIONS, IS ACHIEVED
CONVENTIONAL CANNING Vs ASEPTIC
PACKAGING
CONVENTIONAL PROCESS FLOW ASEPTIC PROCESS FLOW
PRODUCT PACKAGE PRODUCT PACKAGE

FILLING HTST PROCESS STERILISATION

SEALING COOLING

RETORT PROCESSING FILLING

COOLING SEALING

STORAGE / DISTRIBUTION STORAGE / DISTRIBUTION


ASEPTIC PACKAGING MATERIALS
PACKAGING MATERIAL MUST MEET FOLLOWING FACTORS :

1. THE PACKAGING MATERIAL MUST BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE


PRODUCT INTENDED TO BE PACKED AND MUST COMPLY WITH
APPLICABLE MATERIAL MIGRATION REQUIREMENTS.

2. PHYSICAL INTEGRITY OF THE PACKAGE IS NECESSARY TO ASSUME


CONTAINMENT OF THE PRODUCT AND MAINTENANCE OF STERILITY.

3. THE PACKAGE MATERIAL MUST BE ABLE TO WITHSTAND


STERILIZATION AND BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE METHODS OF
STERILIZATION.

4. THE PACKAGE MUST PROTECT THE PRODUCT FROM OXYGEN, ALSO


PACKAGE MUST RETAIN THE AROMA OF THE PRODUCT.
ASEPTIC PACKAGES OF MILK
THE PACKAGE
1. Polyethylene: Protects against moisture
2. Paper: For stability & strength 6
5
4
3. Polyethylene: Adhesion 3
4. Aluminium: Oxygen, flavour 2
& light 1
5. Polyethylene: Adhesion
6. Polyethylene: Seals in the liquid

6 LAYERS PROVIDING TOTAL


PROTECTION
COMBINING EACH OF THESE THREE MATERIALS HAS ENABLED
TO PRODUCE A PACKAGING MATERIAL WITH OPTIMAL
PROPERTIES AND EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERISTICS ;

HIGHER DEGREE OF SAFETY, HYGIENE AND NUTRIENT


RETENTION IN FOODS
PRESERVING TASTE AND FRESHNESS
CAN BE KEPT FOR MONTHS WITH NO NEED FOR
REFRIGERATION OR PRESERVATIVES.
EFFICIENT (A FILLED PACKAGE WEIGHT IS 97%
PRODUCT AND ONLY 3% PACKAGING MATERIAL),
USING A MINIMUM QUANTITY OF MATERIALS
NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE A GIVEN FUNCTION.
BULK ASEPTIC PACKAGING
‘ASEPTIC BAG-IN-BOX’ SYSTEM CATERS TO
PACKAGING OF ‘HIGH’ AS WELL AS ‘LOW’ ACID
PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTS CONTAINING PARTICLES
FOR FILLING RANGE FROM 25 LITRES. UPTO 1140
LITRES. TYPICAL PACKAGING APPLICATIONS ARE AS
BELOW :
- FRUIT JUICES, CONCENTRATES, PUREES
- TOMATO PRODUCTS
- MILK AND CREAM
- COCONUT PRODUCTS
- JAM
ASEPTIC BULK PACKS
1140 litres (300 US gal) bag for
containers
200 litres (55 US gal) bag for
drums

25 litres (6 US gal) bag


for cardboard box

2" spout on all bags


BULK ASEPTIC BAGS

TRIPLE BAG FOR


MAXIMUM QUALITY

A DOUBLE INNER BAG


OF SPECIAL FOOD GRADE
POLYETHYLENE
- AND AN OUTER BAG WITH
A BARRIER LAYER
COMPOSITION OF ASEPTIC BAG

 HIGH BARRIER BAG


 KEY FEATURES
- GAS-TIGHT SPOUT
- STRONG, DURABLE,
BACTERIOLOGICALLY
SAFE
-PRESTERILIZED
BULK ASEPTIC BAGS

A BULK ASEPTIC BAG IS A MULTILAYER


STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF AN OUTER BARRIER
LAMINATE AND AN INNER BAG IN CONTACT WITH
THE PRODUCT. ALL BAGS ARE PRE-STERILIZED
USING GAMMA IRRADIATION AND SUPPLIED FLAT.
THE LEVEL OF GAMMA IRRADIATION IS
SPECIFICALLY SELECTED TO FACILITATE
PACKAGING OF HIGH AS WELL AS LOW ACID
PRODUCTS.
SUMMARY / KEY POINTS

FOOD PACKAGING IS PART OF TOTAL SYSTEM


PRODUCTSPOILAGE FACTORS AND PACKAGING
REQUIREMENTS TO MATCH
PRODUCT- PACKAGE COMPATIBILITY AND SAFETY
 OPTIMMUM SPECIFICATIONS OF PACKAGING
MATERIALS FOR DESIRED SHELF-LIFE
PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS DISTINCT FOR FRESH AND
PROCESSED FOODS
PACKAGING MATERIAL REQUIEMENTS FOR SYSTEMS :
GAS / VAUUM PACKS / MAP
ASEPTIC PACKS
RETORT PACKS
UNITISATION –PALLETISATION AND MODULARITY OF
PACKS WITH PALLET FOR EXPORTS