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ADVANCED TOPICS IN

PLANNING AND
SCHEDULING
Chapter 11

Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc.


CHAPTER 11
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Understand why Agile Project Management was developed
and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.
2. Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as it
drawbacks.
3. Understand the key features of the Extreme Programming
(XP) planning process for software projects.
4. Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project
scheduling techniques.
5. Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project
resource conflicts.
6. Apply critical chain project management to project portfolios.

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PMBOK CORE CONCEPTS

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoK) covered


in this chapter includes:
1. Rolling Wave Planning Method Sequence Activities
(PMBoK 6.2.2.2)
2. Sequence Activities (PMBoK 6.3)
3. Estimate Activity Resources (PMBoK 6.4)
4. Estimate Activity Durations (PMBoK 6.5)

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PMBOK CORE CONCEPTS

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMB0K) covered


in this chapter includes:
5. Develop Schedule (PMBoK 6.6)
6. Develop Schedule (tools and techniques) (PMBoK 6.6.2)
7. Critical Chain Method (PMBoK 6.6.2.3)
8. Resource Optimization (PMBoK 6.6.2.4)

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COMMON REASONS NEW
PROJECTS MISS DELIVERY DATES
Based on Kickstarter projects, the most common reasons that new
projects do not meet their delivery dates include:
1. Manufacturing obstacles
2. Shipping
3. Volume
4. Apple’s “curve ball”
5. Changing scope
6. Certifications
7. Kickstarter’s infrastructure
8. Overseas logistics

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CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT
MANAGEMENT (CCPM)
 Developed by Dr. Eli Goldratt in mid-1990s
 Alternative scheduling mechanism to speed up project delivery
 Make better use of project resources
 More efficiently allocate and discipline the process of
implementing projects
 Based on theory of constraints (TOC)
 Represents both cultural shift and change in scheduling processes
 Applies technical and behavioral elements of project
management

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AGILE PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Agile Project Management (Agile PM) reflects a new era in


project planning that places a premium on flexibility and
evolving customer requirements throughout the development
process.

 Planning the work and then working the plan


 Customer needs may evolve and change over course of project
 Importance of evolving customer needs leads to incremental,
iterative planning process

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WATERFALL MODEL FOR PROJECT
DEVELOPMENT
(FIGURE 11.1)

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WATERFALL MODEL

Waterfall project development process works well when:


 Requirements are very well understood and fixed at the
outset of the project.
 Product definition is stable and not subject to changes.
 Technology is understood.
 Ample resources with required expertise are available
freely.
 The project is of short duration.

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UNIQUE FEATURE OF AGILE PM

 Agile PM, referred to as Scrum, recognizes mistakes of


assuming once initial project conceptualization and planning are
completed, project will be executed to original specifications.
 Example, software projects are prone to constant changes.
 Flexible, iterative system designed for the challenge of
managing projects in midst of change and uncertainty
 “Rolling wave” process of continuous plan-execute-evaluate
cycle
 Emphasis on adaptation, flexibility, and coordinated efforts of
multiple disciplines

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SCRUM PROCESS FOR PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENT
(FIGURE 11.2)

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KEY TERMS IN AGILE PM

 Sprint – one iteration of the Agile planning and executing cycle.


 Scrum – the development strategy agreed to by all key
members of the project.
 Time-box – the length of any particular sprint, fixed in advance,
during the Scrum meeting.
 User stories – short explanation of the end user that captures
what they do or what they need from the project under
development
 Scrum Master – person on the project team responsible for
moving the project forward between iterations, removing
impediments, or resolving differences of opinions between
major stakeholders.
.
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KEY TERMS IN AGILE PM

 Sprint backlog – the set of product backlog items selected for


the Sprint, plus a plan for delivering the Sprint Goal.
 Burndown chart – remaining work in the Sprint backlog.
 Product owner – person representing the stakeholders and
serving as the “voice of the customer.”
 Development team – organizational unit responsible for
delivering the product at the end of the iteration (Sprint).
 Product backlog – a prioritized list of everything that might be
needed in completed product and source of requirements for any
changes.
 Work backlog – evolving, prioritized queue of business and
technical functionality that needs to be developed into a system.

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STEPS IN AGILE

1. Sprint Planning

2. Daily Scrums

3. Development Work

4. Sprint Review

5. Sprint Retrospective

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STAGES IN A SPRINT
(FIGURE 11.4)

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PROBLEMS WITH AGILE

1. Active user involvement and close collaboration of the Scrum team are
critical throughout the development cycle.
2. Evolving requirements can lead to potential for scope creep.
3. It is harder to predict at beginning of project what the end product will
actually resemble.
4. Agile requirements are kept to minimum, which can lead to confusion
about the final outcomes.
5. Testing is integrated throughout lifecycle, which can add cost to
project.
6. Frequent delivery of project features puts a burden on product owners.
7. If it is misapplied to traditional projects, it can be an expensive approach
without delivering benefits.
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EXTREME PROGRAMMING (XP)

 A more aggressive form of Scrum; a software development


methodology intended to improve software quality and
responsiveness to changing customer requirements.
 Two guiding features of XP:
 Refactoring
 Pair programming
 Advantage of XP is whole process is visible and accountable.
 Agile PM and XP have grown out of need to combine the
discipline of project management methodology with the needs
of modern enterprise to respond quickly.

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THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS &
CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT SCHEDULING

A constraint limits any system’s output.


The Goal – Goldratt
TOC Methodology
1. Identify the constraint.
2. Exploit the constraint.
3. Subordinate the system constraint.
4. Elevate the constraint.
5. Repeat the process.

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FIVE KEY STEPS IN THEORY OF
CONSTRAINTS METHODOLOGY
(FIGURE 11.6)

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CRITICAL CHAIN SOLUTIONS

Central Limit Theorem

Activity durations estimated at 50% level

Buffer reapplied at project level


 Goldratt rule of thumb (50%)
 Newbold formula

Feeder buffers for non-critical paths

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REDUCTION IN PROJECT
DURATION AFTER AGGREGATION
(FIGURE 11.7)

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DEVELOPING CRITICAL CHAIN
ACTIVITY NETWORK
 Resource leveling is not required because resources are
leveled within the project in the process of identifying the
critical chain.
 CCPM advocates putting off all noncritical activities as late
as possible, while providing each noncritical path in the
network with its own buffer.
 Noncritical buffers are referred to as feeder buffers.
 Feeding buffer duration is calculated similarly to the
process used to create the overall project buffer.

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CCPM EMPLOYING FEEDER
BUFFER
(FIGURE 11.8)

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CHANGES IN CRITICAL CHANGE
EXAMPLE
(FIGURES 11.10A, 11.10B, 11.10C)

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CRITICAL PATH NETWORK WITH
RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS
(FIGURE 11.10A)

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CRITICAL CHAIN SOLUTION
(FIGURE 11.10B)

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CRITICAL CHAIN PROJECT
PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT
 Capacity constraint buffer (CCP) refers to a safety
margin separating different projects scheduled to
use the same resource.
 Drum buffers are extra safety applied to a project
immediately before the use of the constrained
resource to ensure that the resource will not be
starved for work.

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STEPS TO APPLY CCPM TO
MULTIPLE PROJECT PORTFOLIO

1. Identify company resource constraints or drum.


2. Exploit resource constraints.
3. Subordinate individual project schedules.
4. Elevate the capacity of the constraint resource.
5. Go back to step 2 and reiterate the sequence.

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THREE PROJECTS STACKED FOR
ACCESS TO A DRUM RESOURCE
(FIGURE 11.15)

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APPLYING CCB TO DRUM
SCHEDULES
(FIGURE 11.16)

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CCPM CRITIQUES

1. No milestones used

2. Not significantly different from PERT

3. Unproven at the portfolio level

4. Anecdotal support only

5. Incomplete solution

6. Overestimation of activity duration padding

7. Cultural changes unattainable

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SUMMARY

1. Understand why Agile Project Management was developed


and its advantages in planning for certain types of projects.
2. Recognize the critical steps in the Agile process as well as it
drawbacks.
3. Understand the key features of the Extreme Programming
(XP) planning process for software projects.
4. Distinguish between critical path and critical chain project
scheduling techniques.
5. Understand how critical chain methodology resolves project
resource conflicts.
6. Apply critical chain project management to project portfolios.

Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-32


Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-33