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CHECKPOINT BIOLOGY

REVISION

CHECKPOINT BIOLOGY REVISION

MR MATHEW
OXFORD MANOR COLLEGE
NO9 MAGAJI MUAZU KATEMPE EXTENSION
ABUJA, NIGERIA.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING
THINGS
Biology is the study of living organisms

How do we decide if something is living or non living?


Aliens land on Earth and watch things carefully to tell whether they
are alive or not.
Would an alien think this car is alive?
Life Processes

 If something is alive it will carry out all of the seven life processes.
 Movement
 Respiration
 Sensitivity
 Growth
 Reproduction
 Excretion
 Nutrition
LIVING PROCESSES PLANT ANIMAL
MOVEMENT------M Plants do not move in the same way Animals move to find food, shelter or a mate.
Change in position not as animals but move towards
necessary location sunlight.
REPRODUCTION-------R Animals lay eggs or have babies. Seeds from plants grow into new plants.
Giving birth to your kind

SENSITIVITY-------S Plants don’t have sense organs but do Animals find their way using their sense
Response to external respond to gravity and light. organs such as the eyes or skin.
stimuli

GROWTH --------G Plant grow throughout their lives Animals stop growing when they reach adult
Increase in size size
RESPIRATION------R This usually needs carbon dioxide Respiration is the release of energy from food
The release of energy
EXCRETION------E Plants shed their leaves Animals excrete through their lungs, kidney
Production of waste and skin
NUTRITION --------- N Plants make their own food by the Animals have to find their own food and eat
needs food for energy, process of photosynthesis plants and other animals
growth and repair
MAJOR ORGAN SYSTEM
living things are also called living organism because most
living organism have bodies composed of organs. The
task of an organ is related to the seven characteristics

ORGANIZATION OF LIVING THINGS


ORGANELLES CELLS TISSUE ORGANS
ORGAN SYSTEM (ORGANISM)
ORGANS OF FLOWERING PLANTS
ORGANS SYSTEMS OF A HUMAN
In animals, there are groups of organs that work together to carry
out a task to keep the animal alive. These groups are called organ
system

There are 11 organ systems in the human body


1. Integumentary System
2. Skeletal System
3. Muscular System
4. Nervous System
5. Endocrine System
6. Cardiovascular System
7. Lymphatic & Immune System
8. Respiratory System
9. Digestive System
10. Urinary System
11. Reproductive System
The Nervous system
Purpose: to coordinate the body’s response to changes in its
internal and external environment
Major Organs and Their Functions
Brain – control center of the body, where all processes are
relayed through
-- consists of cerebrum (controls though and senses) and
cerebellum (controls motor functions)
Spinal Cord – sends instructions from the brain to the rest of the
body and vice versa
-- any organism with a major nerve cord is classified as a
chordate
Nerves – conduct impulses to muscle cells throughout the body
The Circulatory system
Purpose: to deliver oxygenated blood to the Arteries – carry blood away from the heart and
various cells and organ systems in your body to the major organs of the body
so they can undergo cellular respiration
Veins – carry blood back to the heart away from
Major Organs and Their Functions the major organs of the body
Heart – the major muscle of the circulatory Capillaries – small blood vessels where gas
system exchange occurs
-- pumps blood through its four chambers Blood – the cells that flow through the
(two ventricles and two atria) circulatory system
-- pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs, -- red blood cells contain hemoglobin, an
where it gets oxygenated, returned to the iron-rich protein that carries oxygen
heart, and then pumped out through the
aorta to the rest of the body -- white blood cells function in the immune
system
-- valve regulate the flow of blood between
the chambers -- platelets help in blood clotting
Spleen – helps to filter out toxins in the blood
The Respiratory system
Purpose: to provide the body with oxygen and to remove
carbon dioxide
Major Organs and Their Functions
Nose & Mouth – internal entry and exit point for air
Pharynx – serves as a passage way for both air and food
at the back of the throat
Larynx – your “voicebox”, as air passes over your vocal
chords, you speak
Trachea – the “windpipe”, or what connects your pharynx
to your lungs
Lungs- Supplies oxygen to the blood and remove CO2
from blood.
The Digestive system
Purpose: to dissolve food so it can be absorbed into the
bloodstream and used by the body
Major Organs and their Functions:
Mouth – to chew and grind up food
-- saliva also begins to breakdown food into particles
Esophagus – pipe connecting mouth to stomach
Stomach – produces acid that breakdowns food.
Small Intestine – Digested food moves through intestine by
Villi. The Villi absorbs nutrients and water
from digested food.
Large Intestine – removes water from the digested food and
gets the waste ready for excretion
The Excretory system
Cells
A CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIVING THINGS
General Animal Cell

CELL MEMBRANE
NUCLEUS
Controls what
Contains the
enters and
DNA and so
leaves the cell
controls the cell
CYTOPLASM
Chemical
reactions happen
here
Large structures in the cytoplasm where
oxygen is used up and energy is released.

Which process uses oxygen and released energy?

Structures in the cytoplasm where protein


synthesis happens. All proteins are made
here.
What are proteins used for?
Palisade Cell (plant cell)

cell membrane chloroplast

nucleus vacuole

cell wall
cytoplasm
These are green because they contain the pigment
chlorophyll, absorbs light for photosynthesis

Large sap fill This cell wall gives the


section for plant structural
structural support support
What would a plant look like
without these?
Specialized cells
Name: nerve cell Name: sperm cell Name: egg cell
Shape: long, thin and wire Shape: tail Shape: large and
like Function: to swim to surrounded with food
the egg and fertilize Function: so that the baby
Function: to send can grow.
messages around the body it.
RED BLOOD CELLS TRANSPORT OXYGEN

cell surface membrane cytoplasm


contains no allows more room
nucleus for haemoglobin

cytoplasm
contains
haemoglobin
haemoglobin is a bi-concave disc shape
protein which carries increases surface area
the oxygen over which absorption
molecules of oxygen can occur
CILIATED CELLS-
move bacteria and dust away from the lungs

cilia

Cilia are small extensions of


the cell. They beat
rhythmically to sweep
mucus, which has trapped
bacteria and dust, away
from the lungs
nucleus
Root hair cells absorb minerals and water from the soil

Cross-section of a root hair cell

semi-permeable, so
cell membrane will allow water and
mineral ions into the
cytoplasm cell
contains no
chloroplasts as no
photosynthesis is
needed
root hair
increases surface area for
absorption of water and mineral
ions
Microorganism
Some organism are not made from tissue, organs and organ
systems as discuss earlier. These organisms have a body made from
only one cell are called microorganism

Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses and Decomposer


Fungi
Fungi are organisms that produce spores
and come in the form of moulds, yeasts,
mushrooms and toadstools.
They also help things to rot and breakdown
which is an essential process in the cycle of life.

Oral thrush – another


fungus
Examples of fungi
• Mould growing • There can be good forms of • Athletes foot – a bad fungus
on a bread. • fungus (used to make bread/beer)
Bacteria

Bacteria are single-celled organisms. Bacteria have


the tools to reproduce themselves, by themselves.
They are filled with fluid, and may have threadlike
structures to move themselves, like a tail.
Structure of bacteria
Flagellum (Tail for movement) Cytoplasm

Strand
of DNA

Cell wall

Cell
membrane Slimy capsule
Bacteria

Criteria
location Are found everywhere
Shape Spherical, spiral or rod-like
Reproduction Reproduce by fission, wger ech bacteria divides into two. With a
suitable condition it can reproduce once every 20 minute
Diseases Diphtheria, whooping cough, cholera, typhoid, tuberculosis and food
poisoning
Importance • Yogurt is made by introducing certain bacteria to milk making it
turn sour
• Vinegar is made by allowing other bacteria to feed on ethanol.
• Help in digestion of food
• Help in breaking down faeces in sewages
viruses

Viruses may have a spiny outside layer, called the


envelope. Viruses have a core of genetic material,
but no way to reproduce it on their own.
viruses

Criteria
location Are found everywhere
Shape Have different shapes
Reproduction Viruses cannot reproduce on their own. They infect cells and take over
their reproductive machinery to reproduce.
Diseases Common cold, influenza, chicken pox, measles, HIV, rabies etc

Importance
A HEALTHY DIET
A healthy diet is having balanced meals. The meals should have the correct nutritional content
for our bodies needs. Bodies use nutrients for energy and growth.

Nutrient: A chemical that is needed by the body to


keep it in good health.
Nutrient Use in the body Found in what food?

Carbohydrate To provide energy, are a source of energy Cereals, bread, pasta, rice and
potatoes

Protein For growth and repair, produces enzyme which aid to Fish, meat, eggs, beans, pulses
speed up chemical reaction and dairy products

Fat To provide energy. Also to store energy in the body and Butter, oil and nuts
insulate it against the cold. Also for the formation of
cell membrane

Minerals Needed in small amounts to maintain health Salt, milk (for calcium) and
liver (for iron)

Vitamins Needed in small amounts to maintain health Dairy foods, fruit, vegetables

Fibre Keeps food moving preventing constipation Vegetables, bran, cereal

Water Needed for cells and body fluids. Keep you hydrated! Fruit juice, milk, water, Fruits
Answer questions 2-5

If starch is present, the iodine solution will change from brown to a dark blue-black colour

The filter paper had a greasy mark

If glucose is present, the solution will turn from clear blue to green, yellow, orange or red.

If the solution developed a purple colour, protein was present


Vitamins and their uses

Vitamins Effect on the body Good source


A Increased resistance to diseases, helps eyes to see in Milk, liver, cold-liver oil
the dark
B1 Prevents digestive disorders, prevent the disease Bread, milk, brown rice,
beriberi soyabeans, potatoes
C Prevent the disease scurvy in which gums bleed and the Blackcurrant, orange, lemon,
circulatory system is damaged papaya, guava
D Prevents the disease rickets in which bones become Egg yolk, butter, cold-liver oil,
soft and leg bones of children my bend pilchard, herring, sunlight

Malnutrition: if a diet provides too few nutrients or


too many nutrients malnutrition occurs.
Digestion
The process of making food into a form that can easily be absorbed by the body is called
digestion. It takes place in the digestive system, which is made up of the alimentary
canal and organs such as the liver and pancreas.
The breakdown of food
The physical breakdown of food from large
pieces into small pieces in the mouth.
 The teeth grind up the food into smaller
pieces.
 The teeth that crush and grind the most are
called the molars.
 The incisors help you to bite and chew your
food.
 The canines are used to tear and rip your
food.
The chemical breakdown of food
Carbohydrate, fat and proteins are Enzymes belong to the group of
made from large molecules which chemical substance called catalyst. a
consist of smaller molecules that are catalyst is a chemical substance that
linked together. The large molecules speed up the rate of chemical
do not dissolve in water and cannot reaction.
pass through the lining of the
digestive system into the body. The
smaller molecules from which there
are made, however, do dissolve in
water and do pass through the lining
of the digestive system. Almost all
reaction in living things involve
chemicals called enzymes
What is the function of the salivary glands?
 They release a liquid called
saliva.
 Saliva helps make the food
moist so it is easy to
swallow.
 An enzyme amylase is
release which break starch in
the food into sugar molecules.
What is the function of the gullet?
The food gets pushed into
the gullet
and the muscles contract
to push it along
towards
the stomach.
The windpipe (trachea)
closes when you swallow.
What is the function of the stomach?
There is really strong
hydrochloric acid in the
stomach.
 Itis pH 1-2. it kill bacteria
 This helps to churn (swirl) and
break the food down even more!
 More enzymes pepsin are released
here to help break the food down
quicker.
What is the function of the intestines?
 The small intestine absorbs the
small molecules of food into the
bloodstream.
 The cell lining of the small intestine
makes enzyme which complete the
digestion of food. Protein is broken
down to amino acid, carbohydrate to
sugar, and fat to fatty acid and
glycerol
 The large intestine removes the
water.
What is the function of the anus?
Faeces (poo) are
stored in the
rectum.
Faeces are then
pushed out of the
anus by egestion.
Enzyme

Region of production Type of enzyme Notes

Salivary gland in mouth Carbonhydrase Enzyme is called salivary amalyse

Gastric glnds in stomach Protase Enzyme called pepsin

Pancreas Protease, Enzymes enters the duodenum and


carbonhydrase and mix with food and bile
lipase

Egestion is the process of removal of undigested food


from the body it is also called defecation
The system that circulates blood around the
body of humans and most other animals.
Circulatory
system

The main function of


the circulatory system
in humans is to deliver
oxygen and nutrients
to all parts of the body
and to remove waste.
2. Blood picks up
oxygen from the
lungs and gives out
carbon dioxide
3. Oxygenated
1. Blood travels blood travels back
from the heart to lungs to the heart
the lungs

6. DEOXYGENATED
blood travels from the
4. Oxygenated
body to the heart
blood travels from
the heart to the
body

5. Body cells use body’s


oxygen and give
blood CARBON cells
DIOXIDE
Arteries:
carries blood Away from heart
 Large
 Thick-walled, Muscular
 Elastic
 Oxygenated blood
 Exception Pulmonary Artery
 Carried under great pressure
 Steady pulsating
Arterioles: smaller vessels, enter tissue
Capillaries

 Smallest vessel
 Microscopic
 Walls one cell thick
 Nutrients and gases diffuse here
Veins:
Carries blood to heart

 Carries blood that contains


waste and CO2
 Exception pulmonary vein
 Blood not under much
pressure
 Valves to prevent much
gravity pull

Venules: larger than capillaries


Erythrocytes (RBC)

 Transporters of
 Oxygen
 Carbon Dioxide
 RBC are produced in red bone
marrow of
 ribs,
 humerus,
 femur,
 sternum, and other long bones
Leukocytes (WBC)

 WBC fight infection


 Attack foreign
substances
 Less abundant
 Large cells
Platelets

 PLATELETS are for CLOTTING blood


 Cell fragments
 Produced in bone marrow
 Fibrin (sticky network of protein fibers)
 Form a web trapping blood cells
Blood Types
 Massive loss of blood requires a transfusion
 Four Types
 A
 B
 AB
 O
 Inherited from your parents
Respiratory system
How is digested food used by the body?

The body needs a constant supply of energy which comes


from digested food.

Glucose, from digested carbohydrates, is an important substance that


contains stored chemical energy. This is released when it reacts with
oxygen in cells.

The energy is used in many ways, such as for:

 enabling muscles to contract

 keeping warm in mammals and birds

 building new molecules, cells and tissues.


What is respiration?
Respiration is the process that the body uses to release energy from digested
food (glucose).

carbon
glucose + oxygen  dioxide + water ( + energy)

from the from the waste waste


digestive respiratory product product
system system (exhaled) (exhaled)

This type of respiration is called aerobic respiration because energy is released


in the presence of oxygen.

How do the glucose and oxygen needed for aerobic respiration get to the
all the body’s cells?
What do you notice about these two
equations?
Plants respire too!

glucose + oxygen Water + carbon dioxide (+ energy)

Reactants Products

 Aerobic respiration (uses oxygen)


 Happens all the time
 Overall plants produce more oxygen by photosynthesis than they use
by respiration
YouTube - Plant Physiology: Respiration
(Britannica.com)
The Respiratory System

Bronchi
Trachea

Bronchioles
Rib muscles

Lung
Ribs

Alveoli (“air sacs”) Diaphragm


The Head

Air enters the


respiratory
system
through
openings in
your nose and
mouth. They
are linked
together
through an
opening at the
back of the
throat.
The Trachea

The trachea (also called


your windpipe) is the
tube that connects your
mouth to the tubes that
go into your lungs.
At the top of the trachea
is your larynx (voice box).
The tube is surrounded
by rings of cartilage to
stop it from getting
crushed.
The trachea splits into
two main tubes – the
bronchus. They divide
into smaller tubes called
bronchi.
The Lung

These tubes continue to


split. The order goes….

Trachea
(biggest tube)

Bronchus

Bronchi

Bronchiole
(smallest tube)
The Lungs

The lungs are all


of the tubes
surrounded by the
lung tissue.
There are different
sections to the
lungs called
lobes.
Compare the two
lungs – what do
you notice about
the lobes?

One does not


have a middle
lobe and is
smaller.
Reproduction in
Reproduction
What is reproduction
is one of the seven life processes
humans
 All living things reproduce
 Humans use sexual reproduction to produce their young
 In order to do this, the male & female have different
reproductive systems & organs which produce different
sex cells
What is reproduction?
Reproduction is the production of new members of a species, replacing those
who die due to old age, disease, competition etc.

It is divided into two main types:

Sexual reproduction involves


two parents who have sex organs
which produce sex cells.

Asexual reproduction involves one parent and


no sex cells
Most animals reproduce sexually so they need:

Sex cells
Sex cells are called gametes

The male gametes are sperm

The female gametes are eggs


(or ova)

The sperm and egg have to meet and a sperm nucleus must fuse
(join) with the egg nucleus.
This process is called fertilisation.

A fertilised egg is known as a zygote


Sperm

Tail which
Head- mainly a nucleus allows it to
containing genetic move
material (DNA)

Nucleus containing DNA

Egg Cytoplasm with food


store, cannot move
(ova)
Human Reproductive System
Male
Name Function
sperm travel
sperm tube
along it
sperm & urine
urethra released
through it
testes produces sperm
for placing
penis sperm into
female
Human Reproductive System
Female
Name Function
eggs released
oviduct
into it, site of
(egg tube)
fertilisation
ovary produces eggs
where fertilised
uterus
egg implants
sperm deposited
vagina
here
The leaf and photosynthesis
Why is the sun so important to us?
 Without it we wouldn’t have the abundance of life we have on Earth now
 Living organisms rely on the sun as a source of energy
 Plants use the light energy and convert it to chemical energy (food). This is
why they are at the start of the food chain – they are producers
 The food the plants make is called glucose and the process to do this is
called photosynthesis – this happens in the leaves
 We can represent this using a word equation – where do you think the
following will go?

Carbon Light
Oxygen Glucose Water
Dioxide Energy
Photosynthesis equations
Carbon Dioxide + Water  Oxygen + Glucose
Light energy

We can also represent this as a symbol equation

6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

Check – is this balanced?

If you were to reverse this equation you would get the


equation for aerobic respiration – if you can remember one
you can remember the other
Why are plants green?

 Chloroplasts are where photosynthesis takes place


 They contain photosynthetic pigments – chlorophyll (remember your
chlorophyll ‘fills’ the chloroplast) – which are able to absorb light energy of
different wavelengths of light
 This allows the plant to absorb the maximum amount of sunlight to make as
much glucose as possible

 Not all the wavelengths are absorbed, some are reflected. It is mainly the
green wavelength that is reflected from the chlorophyll – that is why they are
green
All (living) structures are made from
glucose
 Glucose is a versatile molecule that can be broken down linked up and
modified or even added to molecules to make structures.
 Uses of glucose:

Broken down in Combined with


respiration to Built up to make nitrates to make
release energy for cellulose (found in amino acids, which
processes in the cell walls) go on to make
plant proteins

Built up into starch


Used to make Used to make fats
(an energy storage
chlorophyll and oils
molecule in plants)
Plants generally have a large surface
area to volume ratio
Waxy Cuticle

Upper Palisade Cells


Epidermis

Spongy Mesophyll

Xylem

Phloem
Guard Cells Air Space
Stomata Lower Epidermis
Plant tissues

(Elongated)
Veins Waxy Cuticle
Palisade Cells
• Xylem supplies • Prevents • Packed with
the water water loss chloroplasts to
needed for • Gives the leaf absorb
photosynthesis its shiny maximum light
• Phloem carries appearance energy for
sugars away photosynthesis
for use
Plant tissues

Spongy Mesophyll Lower Epidermis Stomata

• Have air spaces in • Allow gasses to • Each stoma is


between to allow enter and leave surrounded by
gasses to diffuse the leaf two guard cells,
between the air which swell and
and the bend, to open the
photosynthesizing pore up to allow
cells gas exchange or
to shrink and
close to prevent
water loss
The rate of photosynthesis can be
affected by
 The Light Intensity
 Carbon Dioxide Concentration
 Temperature

 A limiting factor is...


 Part of the photosynthesis reaction that is in short supply which prevents the rate of
photosynthesis increasing further.

 This is normally due to changes in the environment


Light intensity
 Light provides the energy
needed for photosynthesis
 If we increase the light
intensity it will also increase
the rate
 This only work though till a
certain point – you cannot
further increase the rate of
photosynthesis by increasing
the light intensity
 Something else is limiting the
rate of photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide concentration
 Carbon Dioxide is needed to
react with water to form
glucose.
 Again by increasing the
concentration we also
increase the rate of
photosynthesis up to a certain
point
 If light and CO2 concentration
is high, temperature is
limiting the rate of
photosynthesis
A bit of chemistry before we nearly go

 Most reactants are chemically stable, for a reaction to take place electrons
need to be rattled free enough so they can be transferred and shared with
other atoms
 For this to happen the reacting particles need to collide with one another
with sufficient energy
 Collision Theory is a model which says particles only react if the collision has
enough energy to break some of the bonds between the atoms
 The minimum amount of energy particles must have to react is called the
activation energy
temperature
 At room temperature
photosynthesis is low as they
have less energy for collisions
between the enzymes and
substrates
 Increasing the temperature
makes the collisions occur
more frequently – the rate of
photosynthesis increases
 If the plant becomes too hot
the enzymes can become
denatured causing
photosynthesis to stop
completely
Minerals

ELEMENT Deficiency symptom FUNCTION


NITROGEN Leaves turn yellow Development of leaves
Plants show poor growth Making chlorophyll
Making protein
Phosphorus Poor growth Development of roots
Help plant during photosynthesis
and respire
Potassium Leaves turn yellow and grow Development of flowers nd fruit
adnormally Help plant makes chlorophyll and
protein
Reproduction in
flowering plants
Flower structure

stigma
anther
stamen style carpel
filament ovary
ovule

petal

sepal
receptacle
peduncle

Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination


Term Definition
Petal Coloured, flag-like structures which attract
insects
The male sex organ – made of the filament and
Stamen
the anther
Anther Part of the male sex organ – makes pollen
Filament A thin stalk that supports the anther
The female sex organs – made of the stigma, the
Carpel
style and the ovary
Stigma Collects pollen
Style Connects the stigma to the ovary
Ovule Found inside the ovary; contains the egg cell
Grows out of the pollen grain and into the stigma:
Pollen tube
carries the pollen nucleus down to the egg cell

What happens at the moment of fertilization?


The nucleus from the pollen fuses with the nucleus of the egg
cell
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther
to the stigma

• This is an example of cross-pollination as the


pollen travels from one flower to a different flower.
This is desirable in plants as it promotes variation.
Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Insect-pollinated flowers are adapted to attract
insects to them to enable transfer of pollen
Pollen has
barbs for
nectar and a hooking onto
scent present insect fur

Anthers positioned
to rub pollen onto
insects

Sticky stigma
to collect Brightly
pollen coloured petals

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test


Wind-pollinated flowers are different in structure
because they do not have to attract insects to them but
do need to be exposed to the wind.

Pollen grains are very Anthers are exposed to


small and light. They the wind so that pollen
occur in very large can easily be blown away
numbers

Stigma are
feathery to
catch pollen
carried on wind

Petals are small and


green as there is no
No scent or nectary
need to attract
insects
Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
Self-pollination occurs when pollen falls from the
anther onto the stigma of the same flower
 Self-pollination is
not desirable as
it reduces
variation

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test


Seed Dispersal- why?

Seeds must be carried away (dispersed /


scattered) from the parent plant to:
• Reduce overcrowding

• Reduce competition for:


- Water
- Light
- Nutrients
ECOSYSTEM
What is an ecosystem?
 An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants and animals)
sharing an environment. The largest ecosystems are called biomes.
What is a biome?
 A biome is a very large ecosystem e.g. Tropical Rainforest.

JKE
Activity 3: Terms you need to sort, know. . .
A community of plants
Environment
and animals unaffected
by human activity.

The non-living environment The natural or physical


surroundings where
plants and animals live.

The living environment


Rocks, soil, the air and
climate.

A natural ecosystem
Animals, birds, fish,
insects and people.

…and learn!! JKE


An Ecological System
The word ecosystem is short for ecological systems. An ecosystem includes all of
the living organisms in a specific area. These systems are the plants and animals
interacting with their non-living environments (weather, Earth, Sun, soil,
atmosphere). An ecosystem's development depends on the energy that moves in
and out of that system. You could have an entire ecosystem underneath a big
rock. On the other hand, you could be talking about the overall ecosystem of the
entire planet (biosphere).
An ecosystem can be as small as a puddle or as large as the Pacific Ocean. That
ecosystem includes every living and non-living thing in the area. It is several
small communities interacting with each other.

CLIMATE

LIVING CREATURES VEGETATION

ROCKS AND SOIL

Activity 4:
Describe the links between a JKE
simple ecosystem.
STARTER: Changes in food chain
populations
The organisms in a food chain are dependent on each other. Changes in the
number of organisms in one part of the food chain can have dramatic effects on
the rest of the food chain.

grass rabbit fox

What would happen to the number of rabbits and foxes if all the grass died
out?

 Rabbit numbers would decrease because they would have less to eat
and may starve or stop reproducing.
 Fox numbers would also fall as there would not be as many rabbits to
eat.
What is a food web?
Why is it a good idea for an organism to have different sources of food?
Animals usually eat many different things and are involved in lots of
different food chains:

plants aphid ladybird blue tit owl

plants moth blue tit owl

plants vole stoat

plants vole owl

These food chains can be put together in a food web,


which shows how the food chains are connected.

What would the food web for these food chains look like?

LETS ACT IT OUT!!


Food webs

chiffchaff
owl
stoat
bluetit

moth
spider
vole

ladybird

aphid plant
Trophic Level: the position an organism hold in
a food chain

Food web: a network of many food chains


Reminder of key vocabulary!
 Primary producers (organisms that make their own food from sunlight are the base of every food chain

 Primary consumers are animals that eat primary producers; they are also called herbivores

 Secondary consumers eat primary consumers. They are carnivores and omnivores

 Tertiary consumers eat secondary consumers.

 Quaternary consumers eat tertiary consumers.

 Food chains "end" with top predators, animals that have little or no natural enemies.

 When any organism dies, it is eventually


eaten by detrivores (like vultures, worms
and crabs) and broken down by
decomposers (mostly bacteria and fungi),
and the exchange of energy continues .
In your books:
Trophic Levels
Draw the food chain and
add the following labels.

Think… Quaternary consumer


Primary consumer
Why are we unlikely to Primary producer
have a food chain longer Tertiary consumer
than 5 species? Secondary consumer
Pyramid of numbers

 Shows the total number of individual organisms at each trophic level.

On the mini-white
boards:
Draw the following
pyramids of numbers:

Oak tree (1)


Aphid (50)
Lady bird (25)
Sparrow
Think… (5)
What do you notice about the
shapes of the two pyramids?
Pyramids of biomass
Think…
Pair…
Share…

What is the
difference
between the
two pyramids?

Which
represents an
ecosystem
more
accurately?
What is an adaptation?
What is an adaptation?
 “A thing that makes it better at living where it lives.”

 “Something that helps an animal live in its environment.”

 “A characteristic, behavioural or physical, that makes an organism


better suited to its environment”
How is the polar bear adapted to
being a hunter?

 Strong muscles for over powering and catching prey.


 White colour to camouflage in the snow.
 Forward facing eyes so it can perceive depth (helps targeting prey).
 Sharp claws and teeth to grip and prey.
Explain how a camel is adapted to live
in the desert.
CLASSIFICATION OF
ANIMALS
We can classify animals into two main groups:

vertebrates invertebrates

Have a Do not
backbone have a
backbone
We can put vertebrates into 5 other groups:

mammals fish birds

reptiles amphibians
Mammals are
vertebrates
They have a backbone
They have lungs
They are warm blooded and
have fur or hair on their bodies
They make milk to feed their
babies
They give birth to live babies.
e.g. humans, monkeys, zebras, dogs, mice, horses, cats,
elephants, whales, dolphins.
Fish are
vertebrates
They have a backbone
They are cold blooded
They have fins
They use gills to
breathe
e.g., cod, eel, goldfish, trout, salmon,
sharks
Birds are
vertebrates
They have a backbone
They are warm
blooded
They have feathers
They have beaks
They lay eggs.
e.g. Ostrich, chicken, pigeon, sparrow,
blackbird
Reptiles are
vertebrates
They have back bones
They are cold blooded
They have scaly skin
They live on land
They have lungs for
breathing
They lay eggs.
e.g. snake, crocodile, alligator, dinosaur
Amphibians are
vertebrates
They have backbone
They are cold
blooded
They have slimy wet
skin,
They can live in
water and on land
They have lungs

e.g. Frogs, newts, toads


Invertebrates

Flatworms
Jellyfish Molluscs
Segmented
Starfish worms
Arthropods

Roundworms
THE END
SUCCESS IN YOUR EXAM