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WCDMA Air Interface Training

Part 5
WCDMA Acquisition,
Synchronization,
and Handover

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WCDMA Physical Layer Procedures
• Physical Layer Timing and procedures
 BS Downlink timing

 Fast Synchronization Codes


Synchronization Code 1 (PSC)
Synchronization Code 2 (SSCi)

 Downlink Scrambling Codes


Used by UE to distinguish desired Base Station
8192 possible codes, 64 Scrambling Code Groups

 Slot Synchronization

 Frame Synchronization

 System Timing Synchronization

 Soft Handover

 Random Access protocol

 Packet Access protocol

 Inter-Frequency Handover

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Downlink Transmission Timing
3GPP TS 25.211 ¶ 7.0
10 ms Frame

Primary SCH SCH (PSC+SSC)


P-CCPCH
Secondary SCH
S-CCPCH
PICH
AICH
PDSCH
Common Pilot CPICH (Common Pilot Channel) DPCH
Channel

P-CCPCH, (SFN modulo 2 = 0) P-CCPCH, (SFN modulo 2 = 1)


Primary CCPCH
(Broadcast Data)

Secondary CCPCH
t S-CCPCH,k k:th S-CCPCH
(Paging, Signaling) t PICH

Paging Indication Channel PICH for n:th S-CCPCH

Dedicated Physical t DPCH,n


Control/Data Channel n:th DPCCH/DCDPH

Downlink Shared Channel Any PDSCH

AICH access slots #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14


t S-CCPCH,k = N x 256 chips

t DPCH,n = N x 256 chips

t PICH = 7680 chips (3 slots)

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Downlink Scrambling Codes
3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.2

• Downlink Scrambling Codes


 Used to distinguish Base Station transmissions on Downlink
Each Cell is assigned one and only one Primary Scrambling Code
The Cell always uses the assigned Primary Scrambling Code for the Primary and Secondary CCPCH’s
Secondary Scrambling Codes may be used over part of a cell, or for other data channels

8192 Downlink Scrambling Codes


Each code is 38,400 chips of a 218 - 1 (262,143 chip) Gold Sequence

Code Group #1 Code Group #64

Primary SC0 Primary SC7 Primary SC504 Primary SC511

Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary


Scrambling Scrambling Scrambling Scrambling
Codes Codes Codes Codes

(15) (15) (15) (15)

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Downlink Scrambling Codes 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.2

• Downlink Scrambling Code Generation


10 mSec Gold Code formed by Modulo-2 Addition of 38,400 chips from two m-sequences

Primary Scrambling code i (where i = 0,...,511) is generated


by offsetting the X sequence by (16*i) clock cycles from the Y sequence

X 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Q
Y 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Initial Conditions:

x(0) =1; X(1)... X(17) = 0


y(0) ... Y(17) = 1

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Synchronization Codes 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.3

• Synchronization Codes (PSC, SSC)


P-CCPCH

256 Chips 2304 Chips


(PSC + SSC + BCH)

PSC
Broadcast Data (18 bits)
SSCi

 Broadcast by BS
First 256 chips of every SCH time slot

 Allows UE to achieve fast synchronization in an asynchronous system

 Primary Synchronization Code (PSC)


Fixed 256-chip sequence with base period of 16 chips
Provides fast positive indication of a WCDMA system
Allows fast asynchronous slot synchronization

 Secondary Synchronization Codes (SSC)


A set of 16 codes, each 256 bits long
Codes are arranged into one of 64 unique permutations
Specific arrangement of SSC codes provide UE with frame timing, BS “code group”

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Primary Synchronization Code 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.3

• Primary Synchronization Code (PSC)


let a = <1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, -1, -1, 1, -1, 1, -1, 1, -1, -1, 1>
PSC(1...256) = < a, a, a, -a, -a, a, -a, -a, a, a, a, -a, a, -a, a, a >

Note: PSC is transmitted “Clear” (Without scrambling)

SCH BCH
256 Chips 2304 Chips

PSC
Broadcast Data (18 bits)
SSCi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec

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Secondary Synchronization Code Group 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 5.2.3

• 16 Fixed 256-bit Codes; Codes arranged into one of 64 patterns


SSCi
Scrambling slot number
SSC1 Code Group
#1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15
SSC2 Group 1 1 1 2 8 9 10 15 8 10 16 2 7 15 7 16
SSC3 Group 2 1 1 5 16 7 3 14 16 3 10 5 12 14 12 10
SSC4 Group 3 1 2 1 15 5 5 12 16 6 11 2 16 11 15 12
SSC5   
SSC6 
SSC1 SSC15
 
SSC7   
SSC8 Group 62 9 10 13 10 11 15 15 9 16 12 14 13 16 14 11

SSC9 Group 63 9 11 12 15 12 9 13 13 11 14 10 16 15 14 16

SSC10 Group 64 9 12 10 15 13 14 9 14 15 11 11 13 12 16 10

SSC11
SSC12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
SSC13
SSC14 1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec
SSC15 Note:

SSC16 The SSC patterns positively identify one and only one of the 64 Scrambling Code Groups.

This is possible because no cyclic shift of any SSC is equivalent to any cyclic shift of any other SSC.

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Slot Synchronization 3GPP TS 25.214 Annex C

• Slot Synchronization using Primary Synchronization Code

10 mSec Frame (15 slots x 666.666 uSec)

PSC BCH PSC BCH PSC BCH PSC BCH PSC BCH Matched Filter
[1] Data [2] Data [3] Data [4] Data [15] Data (Matched to PSC)

P-CCPCH

(PSC)

Matched
Filter
Output

time

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Frame Synchronization, SCG ID 3GPP TS 25.214 Annex C

• Frame Synchronization using Secondary Synchronization Code

10 mSec Frame (15 slots x 666.666 uSec)

SSC BCH SSC BCH SSC BCH SSC BCH SSC BCH
[1] Data [2] Data [3] Data [4] Data [15] Data

Matched Filter
SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC SSC
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] Matched to SSC
code group pattern
SSC Code Group Pattern provides

Matched • Frame Synchronization


Filter
• Positive ID of Scrambling Code Group
Output
Remember, no cyclic shift of any SSC is equal to any other SSC

time

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Random Access 3GPP TS 25.211 ¶ 7.3

• Random Access Attempt and AICH Indication

RACH

AICH

4096 chips
(1.066 msec) Pre- RACH
Pre- amble
Pre- amble message part
UE amble (UE Identification)

BS No No Acq.
Ind. Ind. Ind.

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Random Access Procedure 3GPP TS 25.214 ¶ 6.1

• Prior to initiating a Random Access attempt,


the UE receives:

 The preamble spreading code for this cell

 The available random access signatures

 The available spreading factors for the message part

 The message length (10 ms or 20 ms)

 Initial preamble transmit power

 Power ramping factor

 The AICH transmission timing parameter

 The power offset DPp-m between preamble and the message part.

 Transport Format parameters

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Random Access Preamble Signatures 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 4.3.3.3

Random Access Preamble Signature Symbols


Signature P0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1
2 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1
3 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1
4 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
5 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
6 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1
7 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1
8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
9 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1
10 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1
11 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1
12 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1
13 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1
14 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1
15 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1

• Preamble codes are 16-long Orthogonal Walsh Codes.

• Preamble = [ P0, P1, … P15 ] repeated 256 times (4096 chips total).

• Preamble codes help the BS distinguish between UE making simultaneous Random Access Attempts.

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Random Access Scrambling Codes 3GPP TS 25.213 ¶ 4.3.3

• Random Access Preamble Scrambling Codes

 Preamble Scrambling Code is a 4096-chip segment of a 225-long Gold Code

 The UE targets one BS by using the BS’s indicated preamble scrambling


code

“All UE accessing this cell “All UE accessing this cell


shall use Random Access shall use Random Access
Preamble Spreading Code n1 ” Preamble Spreading Code n2 ”

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Acquisition Indication Channel 3GPP TS 25.211¶ 5.3.3.6

• Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH)


 Transmits Acquisition Indicators in response to UE Access Attempts

 AI’s are derived from the UE’s Access Preamble Signature


Identifies the UE which is the target of the AICH response
AI part 1024 chips
15
a j   AI s bs , j a0 a1 a2 a30 a31 (Transmission Off)
s 0

AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS #i AS #14 AS #0

20 ms

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Random Access Message 3GPP TS 25.211¶ 5.2.2

• Random Access Message


 Sent only after positive AICH indication

RACH Data Slot (0.666 mSec)

Random Access Message (10, 20, 40, or 80 bits per slot) I

RACH Message Slot (0.666 mSec)

Pilot (8 bits) TFCI (2 bits) Q

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 mSec

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Random Access Offset Timing 3GPP TS 25.211 ¶ 5.2.2.1.1

• Random Access Procedure


Available RACH time slots determined by upper layers, sent over BCH
UE selects slot based on pseudo-random algorithm

P Message
P = Random Access Transmission
P

radio frame: 10 ms radio frame: 10 ms

5120 chips

#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14

Access slot #0 Random Access Transmission

Access slot #1 Random Access Transmission

Access slot #7 Random Access Transmission

Access slot #8 Random Access Transmission

Access slot #14

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Acquisition and Synchronization
• Physical Layer Procedures P-CCPCH

1) UE Acquisition and Synchronization (PSC + SSC + BCH)

Initiate Cell Synchronization

UE Monitors Primary SCH code, detects peak in matched filter output

Slot Synchronization Determined ------>

UE Monitors Secondary SCH code, detects SCG and frame start time offset

Frame Synchronization and Code Group Determined ------>

UE Determines Scrambling Code by correlating all possible codes in group

Scrambling Code Determined ------>

UE Monitors and decodes BCH data

BCH data, Super-frame synchronization determined ------>


UE adjusts transmit timing to match timing of BS + 1.5 Chips

Cell Synchronization Complete

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Random Access
P-CCPCH
• Physical Layer Procedures (PSC + SSC + BCH)

2) UE Requests System Access and Registration

Cell Synchronization Complete

UE Reads Random Access parameters from BS;


Calculates Random Access probe power

Initiate Random Access Attempt;


Respond to Authentication challenge

When system Registration is complete,


UE enters Idle mode

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Establishing a Dedicated Channel 3GPP TS 25.214 ¶ 4.3.2

• Physical Layer Procedures


3) Establishing a Dedicated Channel

UE in Idle Mode

BS Begins transmission of downlink DPCCH/DPDCH

UE Establishes chip and frame sync to UTRAN

UE begins transmission of Reverse Link Channel,


Responds to TPC bits from BS

UTRAN establishes Reverse Link chip and frame sync,


Responds to TPC bits from UE

UE and BS notify upper layers


that synchronization is complete

Dedicated Channel Established

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Packet Channel Access 3GPP TS 25.211 ¶ 7.4

AICH
DPCCH

CCC (CPCH Control Commands)


e.g., Start-of-Message , Emergency-Stop
CPCH
DPCCH
DPDCH
DL-DPCCH Slot (SF=256)
TPC TFCI CCC Pilot

CSICH AP-AICH CD/CA-ICH

PCPH PC-Preamble Slot (SF=256) DPCCH Slot (SF=256)


Pilot TFCI FBI TPC Pilot TFCI FBI TPC

DPDCH (Data); SF 4 to 256

AP CDP
AP

PCPCH
Power Control Uplink Data Packet
Preamble ‘N’ x 10 msec Frames
(0 or 8 slots)

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Packet Channel Access 3GPP TS 25.211 ¶ 7.4

• Prior to Packet Access, the UE receives from the UTRAN:


 UL Access Preamble (AP) scrambling code.

 UL Access Preamble signature set.

 The Access preamble slot sub-channels group.

 AP- AICH preamble Channelization code.

 UL Collision Detection(CD) preamble scrambling code.

 CD Preamble signature set.

 CD preamble slot sub-channels group.

 CD-AICH preamble Channelization code.

 CPCH UL scrambling code.

 DPCCH DL Channelization code.([512] chip).

 CSICH/CA message indicating channel availability

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CPCH Status Indication Channel 3GPP TS 25.211¶ 5.3.3.6

• CPCH Status Indication Channel (CSICH)


 Transmits Indicators to convey PCPH Channel Availability

1024 chips
8 bits/slot
4096 chips
SF = 256
Higher layers provide
mapping of status
(Transmission Off) b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7
indicators to availability
of CPCH resources

AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS #i AS #14 AS #0

20 ms

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Access Preamble Indication Channel 3GPP TS 25.211¶ 5.3.3.6

• Access Preamble Indication Channel (AP-AICH)


 Transmits Indicators in response to UE CPCH Access Attempt

 API’s are derived from the UE’s CPCH Access Preamble Signature
Identifies the UE which is the target of the AP-AICH response
15
a j   API s bs , j
s 0 1024 chips

a0 a1 a2 a30 a31 (Transmission Off)

AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS #i AS #14 AS #0

20 ms

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CD/CA Indication Channel 3GPP TS 25.211¶ 5.3.3.6

• Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indication Channel


 Transmits Acquisition Indicators in response to UE CD preambles

 CDI’s are derived from the UE’s CD Preamble Signature

 Optionally may transmit CPCH Channel Assignment Indicators


15 15
a j   CDI s bs , j   CAI s bs , j
s 0 s 0 1024 chips

a0 a1 a2 a30 a31 (Transmission Off)

AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS #i AS #14 AS #0

20 ms

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WCDMA Soft Handover
• Each cell uses a different Scrambling Code

• Each cell has an independent time reference

• CPICH and System Frame timing between cells is arbitrary

Originating BS SC5 Destination BS


SC6

SC1

SC7 SC8 SC4

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The WCDMA Soft Handover Problem...
• WCDMA Base Stations have Asynchronous timing references
IS-95/cdma2000 BS’s are synchronized to GPS!
0.666 msec DPCCH/DPDCH slot
Data 1 TPC TFCI Data 2 Pilot

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

10 msec DPCCH/DPDCH frame

BS 2
CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2
BS 1
10 msec DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH
frame

CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1


DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH

Toffset

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WCDMA Handover Scenarios
3GPP TS 25.832

Core Network
Iu Iu

RNS RNS
Iur
RNC RNC

UTRAN  Iub
Iub Iub Iub

Node B Node B Node B Node B

Inter-Node Inter-RNS Intra-Node


(Hard or Soft) (Soft with Iur; (Softer)
Hard with no Iur)

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WCDMA Soft Handover 3GPP TS 25.401 ¶ 9.0

• To facilitate asynchronous handover, timing adjustments are made


by the UE, the RNC, and the Core Network
Core Network

Vocoder

Time
Alignment
UTRAN

RNS RNS
RNC RNC

Transport Channel
Frame Alignment
Node B Node B Node B Node B Node B Node B

Radio
Synchronization
UE

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WCDMA Soft Handover
• Soft Handover Initiation
(1) (2) (3) (4)

UTRAN informs UE of UE measures UE Reports measurements to UTRAN decides


neighboring cell CPICH power and time delay UTRAN the handover
information from adjacent cells strategy

BS 2
CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2
BS 1
10 msec
frame

CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1


DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH

UE Reports Toffset Toffset


to UTRAN

UTRAN

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WCDMA Soft Handover
• Soft Handover Execution
(5) (6) (7) (8)

UTRAN Commands BS2 to UE Rake Receiver UE in soft handover When BS2 sufficiently
adjust DPCH timing by Synchronizes to BS2 with BS1 and BS2 strong, drop BS1.
Toffset DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH’s (Handover complete)

BS 2
CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2 CPICH 2
BS 1
10 msec DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH
frame

CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1 CPICH 1


Toffset
DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH DPCCH/DPDCH

UE Reports Toffset Toffset


to UTRAN

UTRAN Commands BS2


to adjust DPCH timing
UTRAN
by Toffset

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Inter-Frequency Handover
• Inter-frequency Handover

 To allow inter-frequency measurements, data is compressed in time so that


some of the 10 mSec frame is available for measurements.

8 to 14 slots per frame may be used

 Data compression can be accomplished by:

Decreasing the Spreading Factor by 2:1


– Increases Data Rate so bits get through twice as fast!

Puncturing bits
– weakens FEC coding

Higher layer scheduling


– Reduces available timeslots for user traffic

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Compressed Mode Operation 3GPP TS 25.212 ¶ 4.4.3

• 1 to 7 slots per frame diverted for hard handover processes


The complete TFCI word must be transmitted every frame, even in Compressed Mode.
Compressed Mode Slot formats (A,B) contain higher proportion of TFCI bits per slot compared with normal slots.

10 mSec Frames (15 slots)

Normal Operation
11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6

Compressed-Mode; single-frame method


11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6

Transmission Gap

Compressed-Mode; double-frame method


11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4 5 6

Transmission Gap

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Handover to/from GSM
• Handover to/from GSM
 GSM handover is an explicit requirement in WCDMA

 Facilitated by commonality of multi-frame structures

12 WCDMA 10 mSec Frames (120 ms)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

GSM 26-frame TCH multiframe (120 ms)

T T T T T T T T T T T S T T T T T T T T T T T T T I

T = Traffic Frame
S = SACCH Frame
I = Idle Frame

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