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Classification des Sols

Sols ?

 Processus pédogénétiques
Par les forces extérieures ou internes (variation de la
température ou de la pression, action du vent ; force de la
gravité ; écoulement des eaux, etc.)

Transformation d’un massif de roches ou de matériaux


sains en sols selon plusieurs étapes :
- transformation sur place,
- transformation après transport
Sols ?
 Processus pédogénétiques

 Matériaux divers
- Origine sédimentaire (généralement pour la plupart)
- Sols résiduels (par exemple, les latérites)
- Sols d’altération d’origine plutonique ou volcanique
Sols ?
 Processus pédogénétiques

 Matériaux divers
- Origine sédimentaire (généralement pour la plupart)
- Sols résiduels (par exemple, les latérites)
- Sols d’altération d’origine plutonique ou volcanique

 Répartition granulaire variée


- grosses particules : quartz, feldspath, etc.
- particules fines : minéraux des argiles (ex. smectite,
montmorillonite, haolinite, attapulgite, etc.)

 Espace poreux entre les particules


Aragonite x 2000
Sable à ciment calcaire
Besoins pour une Classification simple
 Usually soil on site has to be used.
– Soils differ from other engineering materials in that
one has little control over their properties

 Extent and properties of the soil have to be determined

 Cheap and simple tests are required to give an indication


of engineering properties, e.g. stiffness, strength, for
preliminary design

The classification must use core samples obtained from the ground.
This information is often supplemented by in-situ tests such as cone
penetration tests.
Classification based on Particle Size
 Particle size is used because it is related to mineralogy
– e.g. very small particles usually contain clay minerals

 Broad Classification

– Coarse grained soils


» sands, gravels - visible to naked eye
Classification based on Particle Size
 Particle size is used because it is related to mineralogy
– e.g. very small particles usually contain clay minerals

 Broad Classification

– Coarse grained soils


» sands, gravels - visible to naked eye

– Fine grained soils


» silts, clays, organic soils
Analyse granulomètrique
 Granulomètrie - Particules > 75 mm ou (> 80 mm)

 Analuse densimètrique – Petites particules (fines)


– Analyse basée sur la Loi de Stoke, la vitesse de sédimentation est
proportionnelle au dimatètre des grains
Analyse granulomètrique
 Granulomètrie - Particules > 75 mm ou (> 80 mm)

 Analuse densimètrique – Petites particules (fines)


– Analyse basée sur la Loi de Stoke, la vitesse de sédimentation est
proportionnelle au dimatètre des grains

Schèma de l’analyse sédimentomètrique


Analyse granulomètrique
 Granulomètrie - Particules > 75 mm ou (> 80 mm)

 Analuse densimètrique – Petites particules (fines)


– Analyse basée sur la Loi de Stoke, la vitesse de sédimentation est
proportionnelle au dimatètre des grains

Schèma de l’analyse sédimentomètrique


Courbes granulomètriques

100

80
% Fines

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Tailles des particules (mm)
W Bien gradué (granulomètrie étalée et continue)
Grading curves
100

80
% Fines

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Tailles des particules (mm)
W Bien gradué (granulomètrie peu étalée et continue)
U Uniforme (courbe ou granulomètrie serrée)
Grading curves
100

80
% Fines

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Tailles des particules (mm)
W Bien gradué (granulomètrie peu étalée et continue)
U Uniforme (courbe ou granulomètrie serrée)
P Pauvrement (ou Mal) gradué / Graulomètrie étalée et discontinue
Grading curves
100

80
% Fines

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Tailles des particules (mm)
W Bien gradué (granulomètrie peu étalée et continue)
U Uniforme (courbe ou granulomètrie serrée)
P Pauvrement (ou Mal) gradué / Graulomètrie étalée et discontinue
C Bien gradué avec peu d’argile / granulomètrie étalée et continue
Grading curves
100

80
% Fines

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Taille des particules (mm)
W Bien gradué (granulomètrie peu étalée et continue)
U Uniforme (courbe ou granulomètrie serrée)
P Pauvrement (ou Mal) gradué / Graulomètrie étalée et discontinue
C Bien gradué avec peu d’argile / granulomètrie étalée et continue
F Bien gradué avec un excès de fines
Classification simple
 En général, les sols présentent une large gamme de tailles de particules.
 Un système de classification devrait tenir compte de cette varièté, donc de la
distribution entre sable/silt/argile.
Classification simple
 En général, les sols présentent une large gamme de tailles de particules.
 Un système de classification devrait tenir compte de cette varièté, donc de la
distribution entre sable/silt/argile.

0
100
10
90
20
80
30
70
40 Argile
60
50
50
60
Argile sableuse Argile silteuse 40
70
30
80 Sable argileux Silt argileux
20
90
Sable silteux Silt sableux 10
100 Sable
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Pourcentage de Silt (%)
Une classification simple
 En général, les sols présentent une large gamme de tailles de particules.
 Un système de classification devrait tenir compte de cette varièté, donc de la
distribution entre sable/silt/argile.
0
100
10
90
20
80
30
70
40 Argile
60
50
50
60
Argile sableuse Argile silteuse 40
70
30
80 Sable argileux Silt argileux
20
90
Sable silteux Silt sableux 10
100 Sable
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Pourcentage de Silt (%)

 Noter l’importance de l’argile – Un pourcentage > à 20 % contrôle le


comportement du sol.
Example: Pourcentage égal de sable/silt/argile
0
100
10
90
20
80
30
70
40 Argile
60
50
50
60
Argile sableuse Argile silteuse 40
70
30
80 Sable argileux Silt argileux
20
90
Sable silteux Silt sableux 10
100 Sable
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0
Pourcentage de Silt (%)
Example: Pourcentage égal de sable/silt/argile
0
100
10
90
20
80
30
70
40 Argile
60
50
50
60
Argile sableuse Argile silteuse 40
70
30
80 Sable argileux Silt argileux
20
90
Sable silteux Silt sableux 10
100 Sable
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0
Pourcentage de Silt (%)
Example: Pourcentage égal de sable/silt/argile
0
100
10
90
20
80
30
70
40 Argile
60
50
50
60
Argile sableuse Argile silteuse 40
70
30
80 Sable argileux Silt argileux
20
90
Sable silteux Silt sableux 10
100 Sable
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Pourcentage de Silt (%)
Limites d’Atterberg
 L’analyse granulomètrique est beaucoup plus utile pour les matèriaux
granulaires
Limites d’Atterberg
 L’analyse granulomètrique est beaucoup plus utile pour les matèriaux
granulaires

40
Volume
30
20
10
0
SL PL LL
0 20Teneur40 60
en eau (%)

Teneur en eau en fonction du volume de sol pendant le sèchage


Limites d’Atterberg
 L’analyse granulomètrique est beaucoup plus utile pour les matèriaux
granulaires

40
Volume
30
20
10
0
SL PL LL
0 20Teneur40 60
en eau (%)

Teneur en eau en fonction du volume de sol pendant le sèchage

 SL - Shrinkage Limit
 PL – Limite de Plasticité (Wp)
 LL – Limite de Liquidité (Wl)
Atterberg Limits
SL - Shrinkage Limit
PL (Wp) - Limites de Plasticité
LL (Wl) - Limites de Liquidité

Poids de l’eau
Teneur en eau =
Poids des grains
Atterberg Limits
SL - Shrinkage Limit
PL - Plastic Limit
LL - Liquid limit

mass of water
Moisture content =
mass of solids

Plasticity Index = LL - PL = PI or Ip
Atterberg Limits
SL - Shrinkage Limit
PL - Plastic Limit
LL - Liquid limit

mass of water
Moisture content =
mass of solids

Plasticity Index = LL - PL = PI or Ip

Liquidity Index = (m - PL)/Ip = LI


Classification Systems
 Used to determine the suitability of different soils

 Used to develop correlations with useful soil properties

 Special Purpose (Local) Systems


– e.g. PRA system of AAHSO
» 1. Well graded sand or gravel: may include fines
» 2. Sands and Gravels with excess fines
» 3. Fine sands
» 4. Low compressibility silts
» 5. High compressibility silts
» 6. Low to medium compressibility clays
» 7. High compressibility clays
» 8. Peat and organic soils
Unified Soil Classification
 Each soil is given a 2 letter classification (e.g. SW). The
following procedure is used.
Unified Soil Classification
 Each soil is given a 2 letter classification (e.g. SW). The
following procedure is used.

– Coarse grained (>50% larger than 75 mm)


Unified Soil Classification
 Each soil is given a 2 letter classification (e.g. SW). The
following procedure is used.

– Coarse grained (>50% larger than 75 mm)

» Prefix S if > 50% of coarse is Sand


» Prefix G if > 50% of coarse is Gravel
Unified Soil Classification
 Each soil is given a 2 letter classification (e.g. SW). The
following procedure is used.

– Coarse grained (>50% larger than 75 mm)

» Prefix S if > 50% of coarse is Sand


» Prefix G if > 50% of coarse is Gravel

» Suffix depends on %fines


Unified Soil Classification
 Each soil is given a 2 letter classification (e.g. SW). The
following procedure is used.

– Coarse grained (>50% larger than 75 mm)

» Prefix S if > 50% of coarse is Sand


» Prefix G if > 50% of coarse is Gravel

» Suffix depends on %fines

» if %fines < 5% suffix is either W or P


» if %fines > 12% suffix is either M or C
» if 5% < %fines < 12% Dual symbols are used
Unified Soil Classification
To determine if W or P, calculate Cu and Cc
D60
Cu =
D10 x% of the soil has particles
D302 smaller than Dx
Cc =
( D60  D10 )
Unified Soil Classification
To determine W or P, calculate Cu and Cc
D60
Cu =
D10 x% of the soil has particles
D302 smaller than Dx
Cc =
( D60  D10 )
100

80
% Finer

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Particle size (mm)
Unified Soil Classification
To determine W or P, calculate Cu and Cc
D60
Cu =
D10 x% of the soil has particles
D302 smaller than Dx
Cc =
( D60  D10 )
100

80
% Finer

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Particle size (mm)
Unified Soil Classification
To determine W or P, calculate Cu and Cc
D60
Cu =
D10 x% of the soil has particles
D302 smaller than Dx
Cc =
( D60  D10 )
100

80
% Finer

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Particle size (mm)
D90 = 3
mm
Unified Soil Classification
To determine W or P, calculate Cu and Cc
D60
Cu =
D10

D302
Cc =
( D60  D10 )

If prefix is G then suffix is W if Cu > 4 and Cc is between 1 and 3


otherwise use P

If prefix is S then suffix is W if Cu > 6 and Cc is between 1 and 3


otherwise use P
Unified Soil Classification
Coarse grained soils
To determine M or C use plasticity chart
60
Comparing soils at equal liquid limit
50 Toughness and dry strength increase
ine
with increasing plasticity index A "l
"
40
Plasticity index

CH
30

20 OH
CL or
10 CL OL
or MH
ML
0 ML
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Liquid limit
Plasticity chart
Below A-line use
for suffix
laboratoryM - Silt of fine grained soils
classification

Above A-line use suffix C - Clay


Unified Soil Classification
– Fine grained soils (> 50% finer than 75 mm)
– Both letters determined from plasticity chart
60
Comparing soils at equal liquid limit
50 Toughness and dry strength increase
l ine
with increasing plasticity index "
"A
40
Plasticity index

CH
30

20 OH
CL or
10 CL OL
or MH
ML
0 ML
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Liquid limit
Plasticity chart
for laboratory classification of fine grained soils
Unified soil classification (including identification and description)

Field identification procedures Group Information required for Laboratory classification


(Excluding particles larger than 75mm and basing fractions on symbols Typical names describing soils criteria
estimated weights) 1

Depending on percentages of fines (fraction smaller than .075mm


D

Bordeline case requiring use of dual symbols


Wide range of grain size and substantial GW Well graded gravels, gravel-
Gravels with Clean gravels

C U = --- 60 Greater than 4

Determine percentages of gravel and sand from grain size curve


Give typical names: indicate ap-
(little or no

amounts of all intermediate particle sand mixtures, little or no proximate percentages of sand D10
fines)

sizes fines 2
and gravel: maximum size: (D30 )
More than half of coarse

C c = ---------------------
fraction is larger than

Predominantly one size or a range of angularity, surface condition, Between 1 and 3


GP Poorly graded gravels, gravel- D10 x D60

sieve size) coarse grained soils are classified as follows


sizes with some intermediate sizes sand mixtures, little or no and hardness of the coarse
More than half of material is larger than

missing fines grains: local or geological name Not meeting all gradation requirements for GW
2.36mm
Gravels

and other pertinent descriptive


amount of fines)

Use grain size curve in identifying the fractions as given under field identification
Non-plastic fines (for identification GM Silty gravels, poorly information and symbol in
(apreciable

procedures see ML below) graded gravel-sand-silt mixtures parentheses. Atterberg limits below Above "A" line with
fines
The .075mm sieve size is about the smallest particle visible to the naked eye
Coarse grained soils

"A" line or PI less than 4 PI between 4 and 7


.075mm sieve size

Plastic fines (for identification pro- GC Clayey gravels, poorly graded For undisturbed soils add infor- are borderline cases
Atterberg limits above "A" requiring use of dual

GM, GC, SM, SC


cedures see CL below) gravel-sand-clay mixtures mation on stratification, degree

GW, GP, SW, SP


of compactness, cementation, line with PI greater than 7 symbols
Wide range in grain sizes and sub- moisture conditions and drain- D
SW Well graded sands, gravelly
C U =--- 60 Greater than 6
Clean sands
(little or no

stantial amounts of all intermediate age characteristics.


particle sizes sands, little or no fines D 10
fines)
More than half of coarse

(D 30 )2
fraction is smaller than

Example:
Predominantely one size or a range of SP Poorly graded sands, gravelly C c = --------------------- Between 1 and 3
Silty sand, gravelly; about 20% D 10 x D60
sizes with some intermediate sizes missing sands, little or no fines hard angular gravel particles
2.36mm
Sands

12.5mm maximum size; rounded Not meeting all gradation requirements for SW

More than 12%


amount of fines)

Non-plastic fines (for identification pro- SM Silty sands, poorly graded and subangular sand grains
(appreciable

Less than 5%
Sands with

cedures, see ML below) sand-silt mixtures coarse to fine, about 15% non- Atterberg limits below Above "A" line with

5% to 12%
fines

plastic lines with low dry "A" line or PI less than 4 PI between 4 and 7
Plastic fines (for identification pro- SC Clayey sands, poorly graded strength; well compacted and are borderline cases
cedures, see CL below) sand-clay mixtures moist in places; alluvial sand; Atterberg limits above "A" requiring use of dual
(SM) line with PI greater than 7 symbols
Identification procedure on fraction smaller than .425mm
sieve size
Dry strength Dilatency Toughness
More than half of material is smaller than

Silts and clays

crushing (consistency
less than 50

(reaction
liquid limit

character- to shaking) near plastic


istics limit)
Inorganic silts and very fine sands, Give typical name; indicate degree
None to Quick to None rock flour, silty or clayey
ML
Fine grained soils

and character of plasticity,


.075mm sieve size

slight slow fine sands with slight plasticity 60


amount and maximum size of Comparing soils at equal liquid limit
Medium to None to very Inorganic clays of low to medium coarse grains: colour in wet con- 50 Toughness and dry strength increase
high slow Medium CL,CI plasticity, gravelly clays, sandy dition, odour if any, local or in
e
clays, silty clays, lean clays with increasing plasticity index "l
geological name, and other pert- "A
40

Plasticity index
Slight to Slow Slight Organic silts and organic silt- inent descriptive information, and
medium OL clays of low plasticity symbol in parentheses CH
30 CI
inorganic silts, micaceous or
Silts and clays

Slight to Slow to Slight to For undisturbed soils add infor-


greater than
liquid limit

medium none medium MH dictomaceous fine sandy or mation on structure, stratif- OH


silty soils, elastic silts 20
ication, consistency and undis-
50

High to very Inorganic clays of high or


None High turbed and remoulded states, CL OL
high CH plasticity, fat clays moisture and drainage conditions 10
MH
CL-ML or
ML
Medium to None to very Slight to Organic clays of medium to Example 0
high high medium OH high plasticity Clayey silt, brown: slightly plastic: 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Liquid limit
Readily identified by colour, odour small percentage of fine sand:
Highly organic soils spongy feel and frequently by fibrous Pt Peat and other highly organic soils numerous vertical root holes: firm Plasticity chart
texture and dry in places; loess; (ML) for laboratory classification of fine grained soils
Example
100

80
% Finer

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Particle size (mm)
Example
100

80
% Finer

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Particle size (mm)

• %fines (% finer than 75 mm) = 11% - Dual symbols required


Example
100

80
% Finer

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Particle size (mm)

• %fines (% finer than 75 mm) = 11% - Dual symbols required


• D10 = 0.06 mm, D30 = 0.25 mm, D60 = 0.75 mm
Example
100

80
% Finer

60

40

20

0
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Particle size (mm)

Particle size fractions: Gravel 17%


Sand 73%
Silt and Clay 10%
Of the coarse fraction about 80% is sand, hence Prefix is S
Cu = 12.5, Cc = 1.38
Suffix1 = W
From Atterberg Tests
LL = 32, PL = 26
Ip = 32 - 26 = 6
Example
60
Comparing soils at equal liquid limit
50 Toughness and dry strength increase
l ine
with increasing plasticity index "
"A
40
Plasticity index

CH
30

20 OH
CL or
10 CL OL
or MH
ML
0 ML
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Liquid limit
Plasticity chart
for laboratory classification of fine grained soils
Of the coarse fraction about 80% is sand, hence Prefix is S
Cu = 12.5, Cc = 1.38
Suffix1 = W
From Atterberg Tests
LL = 32, PL = 26
Ip = 32 - 26 = 6
From Plasticity Chart point lies below A-line
Suffix2 = M
Of the coarse fraction about 80% is sand, hence Prefix is S
Cu = 12.5, Cc = 1.38
Suffix1 = W
From Atterberg Tests
LL = 32, PL = 26
Ip = 32 - 26 = 6
From Plasticity Chart point lies below A-line
Suffix2 = M

Dual Symbols are SW-SM


Of the coarse fraction about 80% is sand, hence Prefix is S
Cu = 12.5, Cc = 1.38
Suffix1 = W
From Atterberg Tests
LL = 32, PL = 26
Ip = 32 - 26 = 6
From Plasticity Chart point lies below A-line
Suffix2 = M

Dual Symbols are SW-SM


To complete the classification the Symbols should be accompanied
by a description

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