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Measurement Processing

CHAPTER 4

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


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© NOKIA
session for development of groups without the prior written
BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3
Module Objectives
• Explain the coding of RX level and RX quality measurements and the mapping of bit
error and frame erasure measurements to RX qualities
• Discuss the execution of measurements by the MS, when it is in idle or dedicated
mode
• Indicate the criteria to add adjacent cell data to the enhanced measurement report
• Give an overview about the processing of measurement data obtained by the MS or
BTS
• Explain the pre-processing of measurement data by the BTS
• Discuss the normal averaging performed by the BSC for normal and DTX traffic
• Describe the fast averaging performed during call set up, after handover and after
power control
• Explain the book keeping options to reduce the amount of measurement data

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing Introduction

Measurement Measurements
Report

Standard Enhanced Idle mode Dedicated mode

Rx level + DL frame erasure rate MS listens MS sends DL report


Rx quality + DTX bit error probability to BCCH on SACCH
Level of up to + real time difference BTS performs UL
6 neighbours serving – adjacent cell measurements
+ 3G cells

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing Coding of RX Level

P (dBm) P (dBm) LEV


No offset 10 dB offset

-110 -100 0
-109 -99 1
-108 -98 2
. . .
. . .
. . .
-49 -39 61
-48 -38 62
-47 -37 63

Activation of offset to code high levels


scaleOrd (SCO)(SEG)(0,1,2)(0)

0 = no offset used
1 = offset used in general
2 = MS decides automatically about offset

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing Coding of RX Quality

BER (%) BER (%) QUAL

RANGE MEAN
< 0.2 0.14 0
0.2-0.4 0.28 1
0.4-0.8 0.57 2
0.8-1.6 1.13 3
1.6-3.2 2.26 4
3.2-6.4 4.53 5
6.4-12.8 9.05 6
> 12.8 18.1 7

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing
Mapping of Bit Error Probability
to RX Quality

BEP BER (%) QUAL

VALUE RANGE
22..31 < 0.2 0
19..21 0.2-0.4 1
16..18 0.4-0.8 2
13..15 0.8-1.6 3
10..12 1.6-3.2 4
7..9 3.2-6.3 5
4..6 6.3-12.6 6
0..3 > 12.6 7

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing
Mapping of Frame Erasure Rate
to RX Quality

X axis: frame erasure rate (< 1%, 1-5 %, 5-10 %, 10-15 %, > 15 %)
Y axis: RX quality (0..7)
Z axis: Percentage of measurements for each FER category
Frame Erasure Rate for Handover / Power Control Decision
fepInPcHoUse (FPHO)(BSC)(Y,N)(N)
© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3
Measurement
Processing
MS Measurement Execution
(Idle Mode)

• Decoding of BCCH
• for serving (camped) cell every 30 s
• for adjacent cells every 5 min
• Pre-synchronization and decoding of BSIC
• for adjacent cells every 30 s
• Adjacent cell list
• Updating every 60 s
• BCCH decoding of new cell in 30 s

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing
MS Measurement Execution
(Dedicated Mode I)
SACCH PERIOD = 480 ms

26 FRAME MULTIFRAME = 120 ms

TDMA FRAMES
TDMA FRAMES
4.615 ms TCH SACCH IDLE

RX TX MEAS RX TX MEAS RX TX MEAS


• BSIC decoding for at least one adjacent cell
• Pre-synchronization on SCH
• Measures frequencies of adjacent cells
• Measures RX level and quality for serving cell
• Detects whether DTX is used

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing
MS Measurement Execution
(Dedicated Mode II)

• Pre-synchronisation and decoding of BSIC


• for adjacent cells every 10s
• New adjacent cell
• Pre-synchronisation and decoding of BSIC in 5s
• If not successful -> old adjacent cell list + new try
• Measurement results of best adjacent cells sent to BSC every SACCH period 480 msec

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing
Measurement Report
(Adjacent Cell Categories)
Standard Report Enhanced Report

Six best adjacent 2G cells Best adjacent 2G and 3G cells


according 4 categories

Category Cell Type BSIC Frequency RX threshold

1 2G known + valid serving cell yes


2 2G known + valid other yes
3 3G yes
4 2G/3G for 2G only valid VCC no

RX Level Offset

Can be used for cells of categories 1-3


Gives cells higher preference
Reduced Reporting Rate

Can be used for cells of category 4


© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3
Measurement
Processing
Measurement Report
(Parameters)
Number of adjacent cells to be added to enhanced report

servingBandReporting 0..3 cells of category 1


multiCellBandReporting 0..3 cells of category 2
fddMultirateRep 0..3 cells of category 3
invalidBsicReporting 0..1 cells of category 4 with invalid BSIC

RX level threshold to be exceeded by cells of category 1-3

reportingParamsXXX cells of category 1 and 2


XXX stands for GSM band (850, 900, 1800, 1900)
3 kinds of settings: cell added to category 1/2 anyhow
cell must exceed threshold of 6..36 dB
cell not added to category 1/2 at all

reportingParamsFdd cells of category 3


3 kinds of settings like for category 1 and 2

RX level offset for cells of category 1-3

reportingParamsXXX cells of category 1 and 2


XXX stands for GSM band (850, 900, 1800, 1900)
offset between 0..42 dB
reportingParamsFdd cells of category 3
offset between 0..42 dB

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing Measurement Processing Overview
Power
control ?

MS + BTS

Measurements Averaging by BSC

Normal or fast

Independently for handover and


power control
Averaging by BTS
Over 1-4 SACCH periods For normal and DTX traffic Handover ?
For RX level, RX quality and
Distance between MS and BTS

Measurements Averaging by BSC

For all or currently best cells


MS
With / without elimination of
zero results
Bookkeeping

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing Pre-processing by the BTS

• Both for MS and BTS measurements


• Averaging over 1-4 SACCH periods
• Delay of (btsMeasAver - 1) * 480 ms
• Reduced transmission and processing load in BSC (-> Abis interface when 16
kbit signalling is used)
• No sliding window

BTS averaging controlled by

btsMeasAver (BMA)(SEG)(1..4)(1)

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement Slow Averaging in the BSC
Processing
(Normal Traffic)
8 SACCH

45 35 50 25 20 20 10 15

2 SACCH Average = 39

Average = 33
btsMeasAver = 2
Average = 29
ho/pcAverageLevDL/UL = 4
-> 8 / 2 = 4 BTS samples per window Average = 19

Average = 16

Size of sliding window (SACCH periods)

hoAverageLevDL/UL 1..32 for Rx level for handover


hoAverageQualDL/UL 1..32 for Rx quality for handover
pcAverageLevDL/UL 1..32 for Rx level for power control
pcAverageQuakDL/UL 1..32 for RX quality for power control
msDistanceAveragingParam 1..32 for distance MS-BTS for MS distance handover

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement Slow Averaging in the BSC
Processing
(DTX Traffic)
DTX Y N N Y N N Y Y

Weight 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1
btsMeasAver = 1
45 35 50 25 20 20 10 15 ho/pcAverageLevDL/UL = 4
Average = (1*45 + 2*35 + 2*50 + 1*25) / 6 = 40

Average = (2*35 + 2*50 + 1*25 + 2*20) / 7 = 34

Average = (2*50 + 1*25 + 2*20 + 2*20) / 7 = 29

Average = (1*25 + 2*20 + 2*20 + 1*10) / 7 = 16

Average = (2*20 + 2*20 + 1*10 + 1*15) / 6 = 15

Weight of BTS sample

hoAverageLevDL/UL 1..3 for Rx level for handover


hoAverageQualDL/UL 1..3 for Rx quality for handover
pcAverageLevDL/UL 1..3 for Rx level for power control
pcAverageQuakDL/UL 1..3 for RX quality for power control

DTX Control
dtxMode 0..2 0 = optional, 1 = mandatory, 2 = not used
© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3
Measurement Fast Averaging in the BSC
Processing
(After Handover)
8 SACCH Handover

45 35 50 25 40 45 30 35 50

2 SACCH Average = 39

40 / 1 = 40
btsMeasAver = 2
(40+45) / 2 = 43
ho/pcAverageLevDL/UL = 4
-> 8 / 2 = 4 BTS samples per window (40+45+30) / 3 = 39

(40+45+30+35) / 4 = 38

(45+30+35+50) / 4 = 40

Fast Averaging during Call Set Up


enaFastAveCallSetup (EFA)(HOC)(Y/N)(N)

Fast Averaging after Handover


enaFastAveHO (EFH)(HOC)(Y/N)(N)

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement Fast Averaging in the BSC
Processing
(RX Level after Power Control)
8 SACCH Power Increase 10 dB

45 35 50 25 30 30 20 25

2 SACCH measured values

55 45 60 35
Scaled values

(45+35+50+25) / 4 = 39

(45+60+35+30) / 4 = 43
btsMeasAver = 2
(60+35+30+30) / 4 = 39
ho/pcAverageLevDL/UL = 4
-> 8 / 2 = 4 BTS samples per window (35+30+20+25) / 4 = 28

(30+30+20+25) / 4 = 27
Fast Averaging after Power Control
enaFastAvePC (EFP)(HOC)(Y/N)(N)

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement Fast Averaging in the BSC
Processing
(RX Quality after Power Control)
8 SACCH Power Control

4 3 4 4 2 1 1 0 1

2 SACCH Average = 39

2/1=2
btsMeasAver = 2
(2+1) / 2 = 2
ho/pcAverageLevDL/UL = 4
-> 8 / 2 = 4 BTS samples per window (2+1+1) / 3 = 1

(2+1+1+0) / 4 = 1

(1+1+0+1) / 4 = 1

Fast Averaging after Power Control


enaFastAvePC (EFP)(HOC)(Y/N)(N)

© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3


Measurement
Processing
Modified Average Window
due to MS Speed
btsMeasAver = 1
BTS ho/pcAverageLevDL/UL = 4
msSpeedDetectionState = 100
Slow MS -> window size = 4
Large average window
Slow mobile
BSC

Fast MS
Small average window BTS Fast mobile
Scaling 50%
btsMeasAver = 1
ho/pcAverageLevDL/UL = 4
msSpeedDetectionState = 50
-> window size = 2

Enable Modified Window Size


msSpeedDetectionState (SDS)(HOC)(0..100)(0)

0 = MS speed used to decide about macro / micro cell handover


1..100 = no handover due to MS speed
scaling of average window to indicated percentage
© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3
Measurement
Processing
Book Keeping
BSC can maintain up to 32 last measurements for up to 32 adjacent cells

allAdjacentCellsAveraged (AAC)(HOC)(Y/N)(N)
N = MS sends data for currently 6 best 2G cells only (other data set to zero result)

allUtranAdjAver (UAAC)(HOC)(Y/N)(N)
N = MS sends data for currently 3 best 3G cells only (other data set to zero result)

numberOfZeroResults (NOZ)(HOC)(0..7)(2)
Maximum number of 2G zero results to be ignored for BSC averaging

noOfZeroResUtran (UNOZ)(HOC)(0..32)(5)
Maximum number of 3G zero results to be ignored for BSC averaging

BTS Sample -> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Average


btsMeasAver = 1 Cell 1 -65 -67 -71 -69 -72 -70 -73 -71 -70
->

ho/pcAverageLevDL/UL = 8 2 -73 -75 -74 -75 -76 -77 -75 -77 -76
3 -77 0 -80 -79 -81 -79 0 -80 -79
allAdjacentCellsAveraged = N 4 -85 -83 -87 -88 -84 0 -86 -87 -86
numberOfZeroResults = 2 5 -90 -94 -91 -90 -95 -93 -92 -90 -92
6 -97 -99 -98 -99 -96 -97 0 0 -98
© NOKIA BSSPAR / 10.05.2006- V3