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UNIT 3

3.2
Class: Daikon
Prepared by :
OPERATION of 1. Afiqah Binti Azhar
2. Nur Syafiqah Binti Husairi
MATRICES 3. Razana Binti Zakaria
4. Siti Aisyah Binti Zainul Abidin
1.ADDITION
2.SUBTRACTION
3.MULTIPLICATION
• (A) Determining whether addition or subtraction can be
performed on two given matrices
• 1. Two matrices can be added or subtracted if both matrices
have the same order.
2. The addition or subtraction of two matrices is performed
by adding or subtracting the corresponding elements of the
matrices.
Example 1:
State whether the following matrices can be added or subtracted.
Give reason to your answer.

2 Cannot , matrices not of the same order! 


a) 3
and ሺ1 8ሻ
1 2 10 0 Can, matrices are of the same order 
b) and
7 1 −3 −1
c) ሺ𝑝 2 4ሻ and ሺ2 6 𝑞ሻ Can, matrices are of the same order 

~In other words, each matrices both need to have the same number of rows and columns~
Example 2:
Express each of the following matrices as a single matrix.
3 −5
𝑖𝑓 𝐴 = 2
and 𝐵 = 1
, then
(a) 𝐴 + 𝐵 = 32 + −5 1
3 + ሺ−5ሻ
=
2+1

−2
=
3

3 −5
(b)𝐴 − 𝐵 = 2
− 1
3 − ሺ−5ሻ
=
2−1

8
=
1
Example 3:
Express each of the following matrices as a single matrix.

𝐴=
1 2 3 5 6 7
7 8 9
B=
3 4 5

ADDITION:
𝐴+𝐵
ሺ1 + 5ሻ ሺ2 + 6ሻ ሺ3 + 7ሻ
=
ሺ7 + 3ሻ ሺ8 + 4ሻ ሺ9 + 5ሻ
6 8 10
=
10 12 14

SUBTRACTION:
𝐴−𝐵
ሺ1 − 5ሻ ሺ2 − 6ሻ ሺ3 − 7ሻ
=
_ሺ7 − 3ሻ ሺ8 − 4ሻ ሺ9 − 5ሻ
−4 −4 −4
=
4 4 4
2 −3 5 2
1. 1 4 + −2 1
5 −7 7 −3

−7 3 0 −3 −5 8
2. − −
1 2 2 1 −6 −7

25 −10 35 −25 10 −35


3. − +
−85 40 −15 85 −40 15
−25 10 −35 1 30 5
+
85 −40 15 2 4 60
Answers: 2 −3 5 2
1. 1 4 + −2 1
5 −7 7 −3
2+5 −3 + 2
= 1 + ሺ−2ሻ 4+1
5+7 −7 + ሺ−3ሻ
7 −1
= −1 5
12 −10

−7 3 0 −3 −5 8
2. − −
1 2 2 1 −6 −7
−7 − 0 3 − ሺ−3ሻ −5 8
= −
1−2 2−1 −6 −7
−7 6 −5 8
= −
−2 1 −6 −7
−7 + 5 6 − 8
=
−2 + 6 1 + 7
−2 −2
=
4 8

25 −10 35 −25 10 −35 −25 10 −35 1 30 5


3. − + +
−85 40 −15 85 −40 15 85 −40 15 2 4 60
50 −20 70
=
−170 80 −30
25 −10 35
=
−85 40 −15
26 20 40
=
−85 44 45
• 1. Two matrices can be multiplied when the number
of columns for the first matrix is the same as the number
of rows for the second matrix.

• For instance, if A is a m × n matrix and B is a n × t matrix, then
the product of P = AB. The order of matrix P is m × t
Understanding product of matrix
• a ሺ𝑎 𝑏ሻ 𝑑𝑐 = ሺ𝑎𝑐 + 𝑏𝑑ሻ 0 9
𝑑 6 8
=
1×2 2×1 1×1
2×1 2×1
row x column
1≠ 2
∴ 𝑐𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑏𝑒 𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑
𝑎 𝑏 𝑒 𝑎𝑒+𝑏𝑔
• b =
𝑐 𝑑 𝑓 𝑐𝑒+𝑑𝑓
• 2×2 2×1 2×1

• c 𝑎
𝑏
ሺ𝑐 𝑑ሻ = 𝑎𝑐 𝑎𝑑
𝑏𝑐 𝑏𝑑
• 2×1 1×2 2×2
What is the product of matrix if a×b multiply with c×f
1. 3 × 2 and 2 × 2 = 3 × 2
2. 3 × 3 and 3 × 1 = 3 × 1
3. 1 × 4 and 4 × 3 = 1 × 3
Which of the following matrices can be multiply?
1 2
1. 6 5 No
3 4
1 2 3 10
2. 4 5 6 11 Yes
7 8 9 12
1
3. 1 2 3 2 Yes
3
0 1 2 6 7
𝐴= 𝐵= 8 9
3 4 5
10 11
2x3 3x2

AB?

0 × 6 + 1 × 8 + ሺ2 × 10ሻ 0 × 7 + 1 × 9 + ሺ2 × 11ሻ
=
3 × 6 + 4 × 8 + ሺ5 × 10ሻ 3 × 7 + 4 × 9 + ሺ5 × 11ሻ

28 31
𝑨𝑩 =
100 112

2x2
2 2 4
9 5a
3 3 5
= 9×2 5𝑎 × 2 5𝑎 × 4
9×3 =
18
5𝑎 × 3 5𝑎 × 5
= 10𝑎 20𝑎
27 =
15𝑎 25𝑎
More examples:
1
1. 1 2 3 2
3
= 1 × 1 + 2 × 2 + ሺ3 × 3ሻ
= 14

1 2 3 10
2. 4 5 6 11
7 8 9 12
1 × 10 + 2 × 11 + ሺ3 × 12ሻ
= 4 × 10 + 5 × 11 + ሺ6 × 12ሻ
7 × 10 + 8 × 11 + ሺ9 × 12ሻ
68
= 167
266
What is the answer for
3 −1 7
1.
−5 −8 −4
𝟐𝟓
=
−𝟑

10
2. 8 1 −2 9
−6
𝟏𝟎 −𝟐𝟎 𝟗𝟎
= 𝟖 −𝟏𝟔 𝟕𝟐
−𝟔 𝟏𝟐 − 𝟓𝟒

3
5 −2 9 3 −7
3.
6 2 −6 −4 0
1
𝟑𝟐
=
𝟎