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# MODULATION

1. What is modulation?
1. What is modulation?

## • Modulation is the process of putting information

onto a high frequency carrier for transmission
(frequency translation).
• Once this information is received, the low frequency
information must be removed from the high frequency
carrier. This process is known as “ Demodulation”.
2. What are the reasons for
modulation?
2. What are the reasons for
modulation?

## 1. Frequency division multiplexing (To support multiple

transmissions via a single channel)

To avoid interference
M1(f)

M(f) Multiplexed
f
signal
0

+
M2(f)

0 f1 f2
f

f
0
2. Practicality of Antennas

## Transmitting very low frequencies require antennas with

miles in wavelength
3.What are the Different of
Modulation Methods?
3. What are the Different of
Modulation Methods?
1. Analogue modulation- The modulating signal and
carrier both are analogue signals
Examples: Amplitude Modulation (AM) , Frequency
Modulation (FM) , Phase Modulation (PM)
2. Pulse modulation- The modulating signal is an
analogue signal but Carrier is a train of pulses
Examples : Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), Pulse
width modulation (PWM), Pulse position modulation
(PPM)
3.What are the Different of
Modulation Methods?

## 3. Digital to Analogue modulation- The modulating

signal is a digital signal , but the carrier is an
analogue signal.
Examples: Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), FSK, Phase
Shift Keying (PSK)

4. Digital modulation -
Examples: Pulse Code Modulation, Delta
ANALOG AND DIGITAL

## Analog-to-analog conversion is the representation of

why we need to modulate an analog signal; it is
already analog. Modulation is needed if the medium is
bandpass in nature or if only a bandpass channel is
available to us.
Topics discussed in this section:
Amplitude Modulation
Frequency Modulation
Phase Modulation
Figure Types of analog-to-analog modulation
Figure Amplitude modulation
Note

## The total bandwidth required for AM

can be determined
from the bandwidth of the audio
signal: BAM = 2B.
Figure AM band allocation
Note

## The total bandwidth required for FM can

be determined from the bandwidth
of the audio signal: BFM = 2(1 + β)B.
Figure Frequency modulation
Figure FM band allocation
Figure Phase modulation
Note

## The total bandwidth required for PM can

be determined from the bandwidth
and maximum amplitude of the
modulating signal:
BPM = 2(1 + β)B.
4. What are the Basic Types of
Analogue Modulation Methods ?
4. What are the Basic Types of
Analogue Modulation Methods ?
Consider the carrier signal below:
sc(t ) = Ac(t) cos( 2fc t +  )
1. Changing of the carrier amplitude Ac(t) produces
Amplitude Modulation signal (AM)
2. Changing of the carrier frequency fc produces
Frequency Modulation signal (FM)
3. Changing of the carrier phase  produces
Phase Modulation signal (PM)
Analogue Modulation Methods
5. What are the different Forms
of Amplitude Modulation ?
5. What are the different Forms
of Amplitude Modulation ?

## 1. Conventional Amplitude Modulation (DSB-LC)

(Alternatively known as Full AM or Double Sideband
with Large carrier (DSB-LC) modulation

modulation

## 4. Vestigial Sideband (VSB) modulation

Conventional Amplitude Modulation
(Full AM)
6. Derive the Frequency Spectrum for Full-AM
Modulation (DSB-LC)
6. Derive the Frequency Spectrum for Full-AM
Modulation (DSB-LC)

## 2 In the same way, a modulating signal (information

signal) can also be expressed as

sm (t )  Am cos  mt
3 The amplitude-modulated wave can be expressed as

## s(t )  Ac  sm (t )cos(ct )

4 By substitution

## 5 The modulation index.

Am
m 
Ac
6 Therefore The full AM signal may be
written as

## cos A cos B  1 / 2[cos( A  B)  cos( A  B)]

mAc mAc
s(t )  Ac (cos  ct )  cos( c   m )t  cos( c   m )t
2 2
7. Draw the Frequency Spectrum of the above AM
signal and calculate the Bandwidth
7. Draw the Frequency Spectrum of the above AM
signal and calculate the Bandwidth

fc-fm fC fc+fm
2fm
8. Draw Frequency Spectrum for a complex input
signal with AM
8. Draw Frequency Spectrum for a complex input
signal with AM

fc-fm fc fc+fm
Frequency Spectrum of an AM signal

three parts:

## 1. A component at the carrier frequency fc

2. An upper side band (USB), whose highest frequency
component is at fc+fm
3. A lower side band (LSB), whose highest frequency
component is at fc-fm
The bandwidth of the modulated waveform is twice the
information signal bandwidth.
• Because of the two side bands in the frequency spectrum its
often called Double Sideband with Large Carrier.(DSB-
LC)

## • The information in the base band (information) signal is

duplicated in the LSB and USB and the carrier conveys no
information.
Example
We have an audio signal with a bandwidth of 5 KHz.
What is the bandwidth needed if we modulate the signal
using AM?
Example
We have an audio signal with a bandwidth of 5 KHz.
What is the bandwidth needed if we modulate the signal
using AM?

Solution
An AM signal requires twice the bandwidth of the
original signal:
BW = 2 x 5 KHz = 10 KHz
9.Modulation
What is theIndex (m)
significance of modulation index ?

## • m is merely defined as a parameter, which determines the

amount of modulation.

## • This is important for successful retrieval of the original

transmitted information at the receiver end.
9.Modulation
What is theIndex (m)
significance of modulation index ?
• If the amplitude of the modulating signal is higher than the
carrier amplitude, which in turn implies the modulation
index m  1.0(100%). This will cause severe distortion to the
modulated signal.
Power
10. distribution
Calculate in full
the power AM
efficiency of AM signals
10. Calculate the power efficiency of AM signals

## • The ratio of useful power, power efficiency :

sidebands power m2 / 2 m2
 
total power 1  m / 2 2  m2
2

## • In terms of power efficiency, for m=1 modulation, only

33% power efficiency is achieved which tells us that only
one-third of the transmitted power carries the useful
information.
Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier
(DSB-SC) Modulation

## • The carrier component in full AM or DSB-LC does not convey any

information. Hence it may be removed or suppressed during the
modulation process to attain higher power efficiency.

## • The trade off of achieving a higher power efficiency using DSB-SC

is at the expense of requiring a complex and expensive receiver due
to the absence of carrier in order to maintain transmitter/receiver
synchronization.
11. Derive the Frequency Spectrum for Double Sideband
Suppressed Carrier Modulation (DSB-SC)

## 1 Consider the carrier

sc (t )  Ac cos(ct ) where c  2f c
2 modulated by a single sinusoidal signal
sm (t )  Am cos  mt where  m  2f m
3 The modulated signal is simply the product of these two
s (t )  Ac cos( c t ) Am cos( m t )
 Ac Am cos( c t ) cos( m t )

## since cos A cos B  cos( A  B )  cos( A  B ) 

1
2
Am Ac Am Ac
 cos( c   m )t  cos( c   m )t
2   2  
USB LSB
sc (t )  Ac cos  ct

## Frequency Spectrum of a DSB-SC AM Signal

fc-fm fc fc+fm
• All the transmitted power is contained in the two sidebands
(no carrier present).

## • USB displays the positive components of sm(t) and LSB

displays the negative components of sm(t).
Generation and Detection of DSB-SC

## • The simplest method of generating a DSB-SC signal is

merely to filter out the carrier portion of a full AM (or
DSB-LC) waveform.

## • Given carrier reference, modulation and demodulation

(detection) can be implemented using product devices or
balanced modulators.
BALANCED MODULATOR

Sm(t) S1(t)
AM Modulator 1

Sm(t) Accos(ct)
S(t)
Carrier
DSB-SC
Accos(ct)

AM Modulator 2
-Sm(t) S2(t)
• The two modulators are identical except for the sign
reversal of the input to one of them. Thus,

s1 (t )  Ac (1  m cos( mt )) cos( ct )

s2 (t )  Ac (1  m cos( mt )) cos(ct )

s(t )  s1 (t )  s2 (t )
 2mAc cos( mt ) cos( ct )
COHERENT (SYNCHRONOUS) DETECTOR OR
DSB-SC (PRODUCT DETECTOR)

v(t) vo(t)
DSB-SC Signal s(t) X LPF

Cosct

Local Oscillator

## • Since the carrier is suppressed the envelope no longer

represents the modulating signal and hence envelope
detector which is of the non-coherent type cannot be used.
v(t )  s (t ) cos( c t )  2mAc cos( mt ) cos( c t )cos( c t )
Am
2 Ac cos( mt ) cos ( c t )
2

Ac
 1  cos 2 c t 
 2 Am cos( mt ) 
 2 
 Am cos( mt )  Am cos( mt ) cos( 2 c t )
since sm (t )  Am cos( mt )
 sm(t)  sm(t ) cos ( 2 c t)
 
Unwanted term(removed by LPF)
• It is necessary to have synchronization in both frequency
and phase between the transmitter (modulator) & receiver
(demodulator), when DSB-SC modulation ,which is of the
coherent type, is used.
Both phase and frequency must be known to demodulate
DSB-SC waveforms.
LACK OF PHASE SYNCHRONISATION

## Let the received DSB-SC signal be

sDSB SC (t )  sm (t ) cos ct   Ac
if  is unknown,
v(t )  sDSB SC (t ) cos  ct
 Ac sm (t ) cos ct    cos  ct

sm (t )cos  cos2 ct   
Ac

2
Output of LPF
Ac
vo (t )  sm (t ) cos
2
But we want just
Ac
vo (t )  sm (t )
2
Due to lack of phase synchronization, we will see that the
wanted signal at the output of LPF will be attenuated by an
amount of cos.
In other words, phase error causes an attenuation of the
output signal proportional to the cosine of the phase error.
The worst scenario is when =/2, which will give rise to
zero or no output at the output of the LPF.
LACK OF FREQUENCY SYNCHRONISATION

## Suppose that the local oscillator is not stable at fc but at

v(t )  sDSB SC (t ) cos c  D t
fc+D f, then

 Ac sm (t ) cos  ct cos c  D t

## sm (t )cos Dt  cos2 ct  D 

Ac

2
Output of LPF
Ac
vo (t )  sm (t ) cos Dt
2
Thus, the recovered baseband information signal will vary
sinusoidal according to cos D t
This problem can be overcome by adding an extra
synchronization circuitry which is required to detect  and
D t and by providing the carrier signal to the receiver.

## A synchronizer is introduced to curb the synchronization

problem exhibited in a coherent system.

## Let the baseband signal be

sm (t )  Am cos  mt
s(t )  Ac sm (t ) cos  ct
SYNCHRONISER

( )2 PLL BPF 2

## Mathematical analysis of the synchronizer is shown below:

s 2 (t )  Ac2 Am2 cos 2  mt cos 2  c t
Ac2 Am2
 1  cos 2 mt 1  cos 2 ct 
4
Ac2 Am2
 1  cos 2 mt  cos 2 ct  cos 2 mt cos 2 ct 
4
Ac2 Am2  
 1  cos 2 t  cos 2 t 
1
cos 2   t 
1
cos 2   t
4 
m c c m c m 
2 2 

## Output of BPF Ac2 Am2

cos 2 ct
4
Output of frequency divider
k cos  ct
where k is a constant of proportionality.

## • The frequency and phase of the local oscillator signal must

be very precise which is very difficult to achieve.

## It requires additional circuitry such as synchronizer circuit

and hence the cost is higher.
Single-Sideband Modulation
Single Side Band Modulation (SSB)

## How to generate SSB signal?

• Generate DSB-SC signal
• Band-pass filter to pass only one of the sideband
and suppress the other.
For the generation of an SSB modulated signal
to be possible, the message spectrum must have
an energy gap centered at the origin.
• Example of signal with -300 Hz ~ 300 Hz energy gap
Voice : A band of 300 to 3100 Hz gives good
articulation
• Also required for SSB modulation is a highly selective filter
• Vestigial
VestigialSideband Modulation
Side Band Modulation (VSB)
Instead of transmitting only one sideband as SSB, VSB
modulation transmits a partially suppressed sideband and a
vestige of the other sideband.
Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods
Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods

## Full AM (or DSB-LC)

- Sidebands are transmitted in full with the carrier.
- Simple to demodulate / detect
- Poor power efficiency
- Wide bandwidth ( twice the bandwidth of the information
signal)
Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods

DSB-SC
- Less transmitted power than full AM and all the transmitted
power is useful.
- Requires a coherent carrier at the receiver; This results in
increased complexity in the detector(i.e. synchroniser)
- Suited for point to point communication involving one
transmitter and one receiver which would justify the use of
Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods

SSB
- Good bandwidth utilization (message signal bandwidth =
modulated signal bandwidth)
- Good power efficiency
- Demodulation is harder as compares to full AM; Exact
filter design and coherent demodulation are required
- Preferred in long distance transmission of voice signals
Comparison of Amplitude Modulation methods

VSB
- Offers a compromise between SSB and DSB-SC
- VSB is standard for transmission of TV and similar signals
- Bandwidth saving can be significant if modulating signals
are of large bandwidth as in TV and wide band data
signals.
• For example with TV the bandwidth of the modulating
signal can extend up to 5.5MHz; with full AM the
bandwidth required is 11MHz