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# Numerical modeling:

Tube-wave reflections in
cased borehole

Alexandrov Dmitriy,
Saint-Petersburg State University
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Limitations Conclusions

Outline

 Modeling approaches:
 1D effective wavenumber approach
 finite-difference
 Wave field in cased borehole
 wave field in isotropic homogeneous fluid
 wave field in isotropic homogeneous elastic media
 Reflection from geological interfaces behind casing;
 Reflection from corroded section of the casing;
 Response of perforation in cased borehole:
 Idealized disk-shaped perforation
 Idealized zero-length disk-shaped perforation
 1D approach limitations;
 Conclusions.

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Introduction

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Limitations Conclusions

Modeling approaches

##  Finite-difference (FD) code

 flexible
 little analytical insight
 1D effective wavenumber approach
 Attractive for analysis
 Approximate
 Validity for cased borehole is
unknown
 Validate 1D approach using FD code

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## 1D effective wavenumber approach

 Helmholtz equations:
�2f ( z )
+ 1 f ( z) = 0 z < 0, z > L
2
2
k
� z
�2f ( z )
+ 2f ( z) = 0 0< z<L
2
2
k
� z
df ( z )
P = r f w 2f U=
dz
Solution form:

## f1 =eik1z + R1e - ik1z ,

f2 =T2 eik2 z + R2e - ik2 z , f3 =T3eik3 z

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## 1D effective wavenumber approach

Boundary conditions:

##  continuity of pressure: P1 (0) = P2 (0), P2 ( L) = P3 ( L)

uruu
r
 continuity of fluid flow: �
V NdS = 0
S

## 2i (k22 s22 - k12 s12 )sin(k2 L)

R1 =
(k2 s2 + k1s1 ) 2 e - ik2 L - (k2 s2 - k1s1 ) 2 eik2 L
4k2 s2 k1 s1 e - ik1L
T3 = 2 - ik2 L
, s1,2 = p R1,2
2

2 ik2 L

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## 1D effective wavenumber approach

 Multilayered model
�2fi ( z ) - iki z B1 AN
2
+ k i fi ( z ) = 0
2
fi =Ai e iki z
+ Bi e R= , T =
�z A1 A1
Boundary conditions: �Bi � �Bi +1 �
 continuity of pressure: �A �= Gi �A �
Pi ( zi ) = Pi +1 ( zi ) � i � � i +1 �
 continuity of fluid flow: �B1 � �B2 � �BN � �BN �
uruu
r = G
� � 1� � = ... = G G
1 2 ...G N -1 � � = GT � �
A A
�1 � � 2 � A
�N � �AN �

V NdS = 0
S
(GT )12 1
BN = 0 � R = , T=
(GT )22 (GT ) 22

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## Wave field in isotropic homogeneous fluid

x3

Motion equation: r
r
x2
n
�2ui �
tik x1 ur
rf 2 = tik = l f d ik divu = - pd ik T
�t �
xk
r
�u 2 r
r f 2 = l f grad div u Ti = tik nk
�t

1 2
Dp( x, y, z , t ) - 2 �t p( x, y, z , t ) = d (t )d ( x, y, z )
vf
r 1 lf
p = -div u, =
vf r f
2

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## Wave field in isotropic homogeneous fluid

w2
DP(r , k , w ) + 2 P(r , k , w ) = d (r )
vf

i (2) k2 1
P(r , k , w ) = C f J 0 (-ia f r ) + H 0 (-ia f r ), af =w 2 - 2
4 w vf

Ur �
� a
�f 1J ( - ia f r ) � 1 a f H1 (-ia f r ) �
� (2)

� �= C f �- - a �- 2 �
� �

U
�z� � kJ 0 ( i f r ) � 4 r f w -
� 0kH (2)
( -ia f r ) �
Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole
AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## Wave field in isotropic homogeneous elastic media

Motion equation:
�2ui �
t r 1 �� uk �
ui �
r f 2 = ik tik = l f d ik divu + 2me ik , e ik = � + �
�t �
xk 2 ��
xk � xi �
r
�u 2 r r
r 2 = (l + 2m )grad div u - m rot rot u
�t

Ur �
� �a p H1(2) (-ia p r ) � �-kH1(2) (-ia s r ) �
� �= C p �
� �

+ Cs � (2) �
�-kH 0 (-ia p r ) � � a s H 0 (-ia s r ) �
(2)
Uz �

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Boundary conditions
 Continuity of displacement:
U r ( R + 0) = U r ( R - 0)
ur ur
U ( R + a + 0) = U ( R + a - 0)
 Continuity of stress vector:
trr R+0
= trr R -0
trr R+a+0
= trr R + a -0

trz R+0
= trz R -0
trz R+a+0
= trz R + a -0

ur ur ur � ur
M
MC = D � C = D,
det M
ur
C = { C f , C pc + , C pc - , Csc+ , Csc- , C pe + , Cse+ }

Dispersion equation:
det M = 0 � k = k (w )

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## Reflection of tube wave from three

different types of corroded section.

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## Idealized perforation in cased borehole

Considered models:
 Finite-length perforation
(10 cm)

 Zero-length perforation
(break in casing)

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## Reflection of the tube wave from Reflection of the tube wave

perforation with 10 cm length . from zero-length perforation.

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Limitations
Low frequency approximation
for tube-wave slowness
(White J.E. 1984):

�1 1 �
cT = r � + �
�B M �
ur p
- =0
R 2M

ur p
-
deviation = 2 R 2M
�u p �
max � r - �
�2 R 2 M �

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Limitations
Relative error defined as:
fmax

2
� |R
fmin
1D ( f ) - RFD ( f ) | df
fmax
� (R
fmin 1D ( f ) + RFD ( f ) ) df
Considered model:

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Reflection coefficients

## Finite-difference code h = 0.5

1D approach R
Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole
AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Reflection coefficients

Finite-difference code h =2
1D approach R
Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole
AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Reflection coefficients

Finite-difference code h =4
1D approach R
Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole
AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Conclusions
 Validated 1D approach for
 multi-layered media (cased boreholes)
 inhomogeneous borehole casing
 idealized perforations in cased borehole
 Defined the limitations for 1D
approach

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Limitations Conclusions

References
 References
 Bakulin, A., Gurevich, B., Ciz, R., and Ziatdinov S., 2005, Tube-wave reflection from a
porous permeable layer with an idealized perforation: 75th Annual Meeting, Society of
Exploration Geophysicists, Expanded Abstract, 332-335.
 Krauklis, P. V., and A. P. Krauklis, 2005, Tube Wave Reflection and Transmission on the
Fracture: 67th Meeting, EAGE, Expanded Abstracts, P217.
 Medlin, W.L., Schmitt, D.P., 1994, Fracture diagnostics with tube-wave reflections logs:
Journal of Petroleum Technology, March, 239-248.
 Paige, R.W., L.R. Murray, and J.D.M. Roberts, 1995, Field applications of hydraulic
impedance testing for fracture measurements: SPE Production and Facilities, February,
7-12.
 Tang, X. M., and C. H. Cheng, 1993, Borehole Stoneley waves propagation across
permeable structures: Geophysical Prospecting, 41, 165-187.
 Tezuka, K., C.H. Cheng, and X.M. Tang, 1997, Modeling of low-frequency Stoneley-
wave propagation in an irregular borehole: Geophysics, 62, 1047-1058.
 White, J. E., 1983, Underground sound, Elsevier.
 Winkler, K. W., H. Liu, and D.L. Johnson, 1989, Permeability and borehole Stoneley
waves: Comparison between experiment and theory: Geophysics, 54, 66–75.

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Limitations Conclusions

Formation parameters
Longitudinal Shear velocity Density
velocity (m/s) (m/s) (kg/m3)
Elastic half- 3500 2500 3400
spaces
Fluid 1500 - 1000
Casing 1 6000 3000 7000
(steel)
Casing 2 2840 1480 1200
(plastic)
Layer 1 3100 1800 2600
Layer 2 3700 2400 3000
Corroded 1200 600 1400
section 1
Corroded 3000 1500 3500
section 2
Corroded 4200 2100 4900
section 3

## Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole

AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.