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Numerical modeling:

Tube-wave reflections in
cased borehole

Alexandrov Dmitriy,
Saint-Petersburg State University
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Limitations Conclusions

Outline

 Modeling approaches:
 1D effective wavenumber approach
 finite-difference
 Wave field in cased borehole
 wave field in isotropic homogeneous fluid
 wave field in isotropic homogeneous elastic media
 Reflection from geological interfaces behind casing;
 Reflection from corroded section of the casing;
 Response of perforation in cased borehole:
 Idealized disk-shaped perforation
 Idealized zero-length disk-shaped perforation
 1D approach limitations;
 Conclusions.

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Introduction

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Limitations Conclusions

Modeling approaches

 Finite-difference (FD) code


 flexible
 little analytical insight
 1D effective wavenumber approach
 Attractive for analysis
 Approximate
 Validity for cased borehole is
unknown
 Validate 1D approach using FD code

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

1D effective wavenumber approach


 Helmholtz equations:
�2f ( z )
+ 1 f ( z) = 0 z < 0, z > L
2
2
k
� z
�2f ( z )
+ 2f ( z) = 0 0< z<L
2
2
k
� z
df ( z )
P = r f w 2f U=
dz
Solution form:

f1 =eik1z + R1e - ik1z ,


f2 =T2 eik2 z + R2e - ik2 z , f3 =T3eik3 z

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

1D effective wavenumber approach

Boundary conditions:

 continuity of pressure: P1 (0) = P2 (0), P2 ( L) = P3 ( L)


uruu
r
 continuity of fluid flow: �
V NdS = 0
S

2i (k22 s22 - k12 s12 )sin(k2 L)


R1 =
(k2 s2 + k1s1 ) 2 e - ik2 L - (k2 s2 - k1s1 ) 2 eik2 L
4k2 s2 k1 s1 e - ik1L
T3 = 2 - ik2 L
, s1,2 = p R1,2
2

(k2 s2 + k1s1 ) e - (k2 s2 - k1s1 ) e


2 ik2 L

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

1D effective wavenumber approach


 Multilayered model
�2fi ( z ) - iki z B1 AN
2
+ k i fi ( z ) = 0
2
fi =Ai e iki z
+ Bi e R= , T =
�z A1 A1
Boundary conditions: �Bi � �Bi +1 �
 continuity of pressure: �A �= Gi �A �
Pi ( zi ) = Pi +1 ( zi ) � i � � i +1 �
 continuity of fluid flow: �B1 � �B2 � �BN � �BN �
uruu
r = G
� � 1� � = ... = G G
1 2 ...G N -1 � � = GT � �
A A
�1 � � 2 � A
�N � �AN �

V NdS = 0
S
(GT )12 1
BN = 0 � R = , T=
(GT )22 (GT ) 22

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Wave field in isotropic homogeneous fluid


x3

Motion equation: r
r
x2
n
�2ui �
tik x1 ur
rf 2 = tik = l f d ik divu = - pd ik T
�t �
xk
r
�u 2 r
r f 2 = l f grad div u Ti = tik nk
�t

1 2
Dp( x, y, z , t ) - 2 �t p( x, y, z , t ) = d (t )d ( x, y, z )
vf
r 1 lf
p = -div u, =
vf r f
2

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Wave field in isotropic homogeneous fluid

w2
DP(r , k , w ) + 2 P(r , k , w ) = d (r )
vf

i (2) k2 1
P(r , k , w ) = C f J 0 (-ia f r ) + H 0 (-ia f r ), af =w 2 - 2
4 w vf

Ur �
� a
�f 1J ( - ia f r ) � 1 a f H1 (-ia f r ) �
� (2)

� �= C f �- - a �- 2 �
� �

U
�z� � kJ 0 ( i f r ) � 4 r f w -
� 0kH (2)
( -ia f r ) �
Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole
AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Wave field in isotropic homogeneous elastic media

Motion equation:
�2ui �
t r 1 �� uk �
ui �
r f 2 = ik tik = l f d ik divu + 2me ik , e ik = � + �
�t �
xk 2 ��
xk � xi �
r
�u 2 r r
r 2 = (l + 2m )grad div u - m rot rot u
�t

Ur �
� �a p H1(2) (-ia p r ) � �-kH1(2) (-ia s r ) �
� �= C p �
� �

+ Cs � (2) �
�-kH 0 (-ia p r ) � � a s H 0 (-ia s r ) �
(2)
Uz �

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Boundary conditions
 Continuity of displacement:
U r ( R + 0) = U r ( R - 0)
ur ur
U ( R + a + 0) = U ( R + a - 0)
 Continuity of stress vector:
trr R+0
= trr R -0
trr R+a+0
= trr R + a -0

trz R+0
= trz R -0
trz R+a+0
= trz R + a -0

ur ur ur � ur
M
MC = D � C = D,
det M
ur
C = { C f , C pc + , C pc - , Csc+ , Csc- , C pe + , Cse+ }

Dispersion equation:
det M = 0 � k = k (w )

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Reflection from geological interfaces behind casing

Reflection coefficient for tube wave

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Reflection from corroded section of the casing

Reflection of tube wave from three


different types of corroded section.

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Idealized perforation in cased borehole


Considered models:
 Finite-length perforation
(10 cm)

 Zero-length perforation
(break in casing)

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Idealized perforation in cased borehole

Reflection of the tube wave from Reflection of the tube wave


perforation with 10 cm length . from zero-length perforation.

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Limitations
Low frequency approximation
for tube-wave slowness
(White J.E. 1984):

�1 1 �
cT = r � + �
�B M �
ur p
- =0
R 2M

ur p
-
deviation = 2 R 2M
�u p �
max � r - �
�2 R 2 M �

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Limitations
Relative error defined as:
fmax

2
� |R
fmin
1D ( f ) - RFD ( f ) | df
fmax
� (R
fmin 1D ( f ) + RFD ( f ) ) df
Considered model:

Relative error of 1D approach

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Reflection coefficients

Finite-difference code h = 0.5


1D approach R
Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole
AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Reflection coefficients

Finite-difference code h =2
1D approach R
Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole
AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Reflection coefficients

Finite-difference code h =4
1D approach R
Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole
AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Conclusions
 Validated 1D approach for
 multi-layered media (cased boreholes)
 inhomogeneous borehole casing
 idealized perforations in cased borehole
 Defined the limitations for 1D
approach

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Wavefield in cased borehole Results Limitations Conclusions

Thank you for attention!

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Limitations Conclusions

References
 References
 Bakulin, A., Gurevich, B., Ciz, R., and Ziatdinov S., 2005, Tube-wave reflection from a
porous permeable layer with an idealized perforation: 75th Annual Meeting, Society of
Exploration Geophysicists, Expanded Abstract, 332-335.
 Krauklis, P. V., and A. P. Krauklis, 2005, Tube Wave Reflection and Transmission on the
Fracture: 67th Meeting, EAGE, Expanded Abstracts, P217.
 Medlin, W.L., Schmitt, D.P., 1994, Fracture diagnostics with tube-wave reflections logs:
Journal of Petroleum Technology, March, 239-248.
 Paige, R.W., L.R. Murray, and J.D.M. Roberts, 1995, Field applications of hydraulic
impedance testing for fracture measurements: SPE Production and Facilities, February,
7-12.
 Tang, X. M., and C. H. Cheng, 1993, Borehole Stoneley waves propagation across
permeable structures: Geophysical Prospecting, 41, 165-187.
 Tezuka, K., C.H. Cheng, and X.M. Tang, 1997, Modeling of low-frequency Stoneley-
wave propagation in an irregular borehole: Geophysics, 62, 1047-1058.
 White, J. E., 1983, Underground sound, Elsevier.
 Winkler, K. W., H. Liu, and D.L. Johnson, 1989, Permeability and borehole Stoneley
waves: Comparison between experiment and theory: Geophysics, 54, 66–75.

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
Outline Modeling approaches 1D effective wavenumber approach
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Limitations Conclusions

Formation parameters
Longitudinal Shear velocity Density
velocity (m/s) (m/s) (kg/m3)
Elastic half- 3500 2500 3400
spaces
Fluid 1500 - 1000
Casing 1 6000 3000 7000
(steel)
Casing 2 2840 1480 1200
(plastic)
Layer 1 3100 1800 2600
Layer 2 3700 2400 3000
Corroded 1200 600 1400
section 1
Corroded 3000 1500 3500
section 2
Corroded 4200 2100 4900
section 3

Tube-wave reflections in cased borehole


AlexandrovDmitriy, StPSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.