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Welcome to IIMB!

Managerial Communication

Term 1

Rakesh Godhwani
Plan for this Session
• About
– Managerial Communication 1

• Communication Overview
– What is Communication?
– Communication Skills
– What is Business Communication?

• JAM workshop
Contact Me
• Location
– First Floor Faculty Block B, Room # 104
• Telephone
– IIMB: (2699) 3448
• E-mail:
– Rakesh.godhwani@iimb.ernet.in
• Request and set up a meeting by mail,
phone or in person. Best days Wednesday
Man Comm : Course Objectives
• Align and fine tune your communication skills in the
managerial or business context
– Written, Spoken and Interactive

• Learn the basics of communicating solutions to problems in

the business context

• Leverage practical and experiential communication

opportunities as a learning aid

• Focus on developing communication skills which are:

– Quick, High Quality and Effective
Course Schedule

• Regular Sessions
– Monday 1200 – 1330 hrs

• Workshops
– Weekday afternoons 1430 hrs
– Either plenary, or in groups

• Detailed Schedule in Course Description

– Changes, if any, will be notified by PGP Office
Grading & Evaluation
• Grading Scheme
– As per the Course Description document

• Submissions and Assignments

– Schedule as per Course Description
– Hardcopy to be submitted to the PGP Office
– E-mail address for soft copy submission: rakesh.godhwani@iimb.ernet.in
Provide Roll No-Name-Assignment No in the Subject Line of
the E-Mail message
e.g. 0711xxx-Vinay Kumar-Assignment 1
– Late Submissions: will be penalized

• Ethical Practices
– Will be dealt with sternly
– If in doubt, ask!
– The intention is for you to learn, not to lean..
Course Material
• Reading Material and Handouts
– Will be given to you as the course progresses

• Text Books/ Recommended Reading

– Handbook for Writers & Editors, S Sreenivas Rao
– Lesikar Rentz

• Video Tapes/Disks for recording your presentations will be provided

by the Institute.

• Slideware
– You will receive softcopies of the slides used via e-mail after every session
How do we learn to communicate?
How do we learn?
What is Communication?
What is Communication?
• Communication’ derives from the Latin word for
‘common’ or ‘shared’

• Communication is a Process

• The activity by which people, organisations, and all living creatures exchange
information amongst themselves.

• The average person spends 70% of his or her waking hours communicating in
one form or the other
A simple model we will follow
What employers want from you (2014 GMAC

Copyright Rakesh Godhwani 14

Is found less common and is desired more
Applications of this topic


Sales &
Manage Marketing


Advertising Journalism


Copyright Rakesh Godhwani 16

Lets play a game!
Communication Process & Skills
Use of technology

Sender Information Receiver


(Encode & (Receive &

Transmit) Decode)
Skills: Skills:
Writing Listening
Speaking Reading
Synthesizing Analyzing
Types of Communication
• Graphic or symbol – based
• Verbal
– Written, Spoken, Multimedia

• Non-Verbal or Meta Communication

– Physical Appearance Of Information:
(Format, Font, Paper, Printing, Color, Design,
Of Sender:
(Clothes, Hair, Perfume)

– Body Language Facial Expression, Eye Contact,

Tone of Voice, Posture, Gestures,
Movements, Head Position
– Space: Proximity, Physical Touch
– Time: Punctuality, Reminders
Remember Swades?
Everything communicates
Everything communicates
Sender’s and Receiver's Roles
• Sender’s Role
– Select the type of message
– Analyse the Receiver and compose accordingly
– Provide for feedback
– Remove/ minimise barriers to communication

• Receiver’s Role
– Listen or read carefully
– Be open to different types of senders and new ideas
– Make notes when necessary
– Provide appropriate feedback to sender
– Ask questions to seek clarification

When Aeschines spoke, they said

“How well he speaks”

When Demosthenes spoke, They said

“Let us march against Philip”
Effective Communication
• …….and gets “ALL” in return…
– Listening vs. Hearing
– Looking vs. Seeing
– Action vs. Acquiescence

• The “Sender” must ensure :

– Purpose
– Audience (target) should have interest /
– Medium is appropriate
– Physical message is properly constructed
– Existence of a response or feedback
– Right timing
Why is Communication Ineffective?

Sender Receiver


Encode & Receive &

Transmit Feedback Decode

Barrier Barrier
How Projects Really Work

Barriers to Communication

• Language
– word choice, spelling, grammar, pronunciation, accent
• International and Cross-Cultural Differences
– connotation, social norms, cultural differences, values
– non-verbal communication differences
• Message – wrong type
• Physical Constraints
– poor line quality, background noise, distractions
Barriers to Communication - 2

• Audience (target) capability

– language, knowledge level, emotional state,
• Lack of interest
– bias or prejudice
Communication Skills and You…

• Technical Skills & Knowledge are expected

• The ability to Communicate determines


• Executives rank Communication as the Top

Skill needed for career progression
Business Communication

“…as the number of people increases,

so does the likelihood of being
-Peter Drucker
Communication is Business

• 80% of employee time is spent communicating

• Communication enables every facet of

organisational activity

• Communication is the ultimate competitive

Business Communication

• Flows of information within the business


– Multi-directional

– Internal and External to the organisation

– Formal as well as informal

Types: Organisational Communication

• One-to-one:
– Interviews, Appraisals, Sales Calls, Surveys

• One-to-many:
– Seminars, Conferences, Press Conferences,

• Many-to-many:
– Meetings, Discussions, Brainstorming sessions
A basic communication process
1. Analyze your audience
2. Identify an objective/purpose of the communication
3. Prepare your communication script (either on paper
or your mind)
4. Understand and choose the best medium
5. Deliver your message
6. Wait for a response

• If the response was as per the objective – end

• If not – revisit the steps all over again till objective is

What makes a good communicator?

Oral Written
Academic Writing
Revision and editing
Audience Awareness
Critical Reading
Critical Listening
Presentation of Data
Body Language

Audience Awareness
Personal Presentation
Body Language

What makes a good communicator?

In other words...

• An active listener

• An effective presenter(using different media)

• A quick thinker

• A win-win negotiator

We will be examining each of these areas in detail over the coming weeks
(Except Negotiation)
About MC1 and MC2

• MC 1 – 13 sessions 2 • MC2 – 7 sessions 1

Credits Credit
• Focus on • Builds on MC1. Focus
– Logical thinking and on
analysis – Persuasive Presentations
– Overcoming – Persuasive writing
glossophobia and (proposals)
building confidence
– Verbal Presentations
– Written Communication
(reports, emails)

• Communication
– Is a process
– Consists of verbal & non-verbal components
– Requires awareness and development of skills
– Is effective only when the desired response is received
– Barriers to communication inhibit effective communication

• Managerial or Business Communication

– Is a key managerial function
– Is a source of competitive advantage
A short quiz

• What are the different parties of a

communication process?

• What are some of the barriers to


• What are the various applications of

communication you will learn in this course

• What is the value of Pi to the 10th decimal?

Just kidding!
Brief for Just – A - Minute Workshop
JAM Brief
• The Section is split into two Groups
Group 1 Group 2
Section C 1430 – 1515 hrs 1530 – 1615 hrs

• It is mandatory to attend your group

session; you may additionally opt to sit in
as observer in the other session.
JAM Brief - 2
• Your topic is in the JAM Brief Handout that
list that will be e-mailed to you on Saturday.

• You are required to speak for a full one

minute on the topic allotted to you.

• You are not allowed to use any notes whilst


• This exercise will not be graded

JAM Preparation

• Read the topic given to you carefully. Research and

make notes on the topic.

• Write out the script. Read and check for timing. Edit
as required

• Practice the speech at least twice

• Rehearse in front of a full-length mirror at least once

Managerial Communication

Jam Feedback, Overcoming

Glossophobia, Structuring your

Rakesh Godhwani
Plan for this Session

• JAM Feedback
• Overcoming the fear of speaking in front of an
audience - Glossophobia
• Structuring your thoughts
– The Case Method
– Nine Steps Framework
– Illustrative Example: Varun Nagar
JAM Feedback
A basic communication framework
A basic communication framework

• Apply the communication framework

– Understand the audience, context
– Visualize your objective and make it clear
– Prepare the content
– Be aware of the channel and deliver the message
– Be aware of the reaction of the audience
JAM - Relevance
• Also known as “Elevator Pitch” ...

• Happens very often

Your objective should be to get a reaction of “I

need to talk some more with this person!”
Class Performance

What you did well Improvement Areas

• Language and content • SMILE please
• Delivery • Opening and closing
• Hand Usage courtesies!
• Posture : Good • Eye contact
• Enthusiasm, confidence
• Speed, clarity and
• Time management
Stand on both feet, erect (but not frozen or
stiff) – looking confidant

Put your hands in your pocket(s) !!!

Be mobile, but not too much.. (for short talks)

For longer presentations – move a little to

involve the audience, break the monotony and
bring energy
Use of Hands

• Avoid too many actions

• Use hands to
– complement the words
– Describe a situation
– Point to a person respectably
• Too many hand movements may signal
nervousness and may distract audiences

On the content

• Grammar
• Structure
• Logic/Flow
• Impact

• You are expected to be grammatically correct

– Please use grammarly.com available freely at IIMB
• Short sentences – thumb rule is 15
words/sentence max
• No spelling mistakes
• Kindly read – Strunk Guide to writing
• Take up any free course from British Council
on effective grammar usage

• Every communication has a structure

• Opening – tell them what you want to tell
them. Has a clear objective
• Body – Tell them with examples and logic
• Conclusion – Tell them what you told them.
Summarize the objective again
• Paragraphs and breaks
Content – Logic, argument

• Argument – a group of sentences to prove

• We are very logical. We understand reasoning
• Comes from philosophy
• Human mind tends to apply reasoning and
logic – so do your audiences.
• Your goal is to logically convey your message
Some techniques

• Problem – Solution
• Cause – Effect
– Example – Proof
– Data – Proof
– Anecdote/story – proof
• What others say – what I feel
• Past-present-future
Steps to create content

1. Visualize the topic and the content

1. Apply mind maps. See the problem first.
Communicate to yourself first
2. Apply Minto Pyramid . Break complex issues in 2-
3 sub parts
2. Draft the content
3. Apply “polishing your prose”. Short concise
4. Revisit your draft again and again

• Smile! exude Enthusiasm

• Be Positive, Confident

• Sincerity must come through


• Apply the communication framework

– Understand the audience, context
– Visualize your objective and make it clear
– Prepare the content
– Be aware of the channel and deliver the message
– Be aware of the reaction of the audience
Fear of facing the audiences
Presentation is like a performance

• Audience perceives
every move you make
• They “Judge” you
• Tell yourself “I am
performing in front of
an audience”
• This is an act – a stage.
It needs rehearsals,
practice and
The number 1 fear : Public
50 Heights

40 Insects
Financial problems

Sickness Deep water
Dogs Loneliness
This is where panic strikes

• Physiological processes • Mental/cognitive processes

– Sweating – I will make a fool of myself
– Shivering – I will fail
– Coldness in fingers, spine – I will be reprimanded
– No control over body – Am I doing the right thing
– No control over mind – “I must….” sentences running
– Blankness “Frozen” in your mind
– Some people even faint • I must be perfect
• I must ace this
– You feel like running away
• I must be a rock star
– • I must make everyone agree
with me
• I must be flawless
• …
Beware of the “Panic Monkey”

• This monkey creates

havoc in your brain
• It shuts down everything
because it doesn’t let any
other mental process to
• Your goal is to minimize
the damage caused by
this monkey to your brain
• Everyone has to deal with
this monkey. For some it
is not so bad. For some, it
can be extreme
3 steps to minimize the panic monkey

1. Breathe – deep
breathing 3 to 5 times
2. Think happy thoughts –
calm your mind and
gain control
3. Finish your
presentation –
whatever happens,
make sure you finish
the presentation. The
audience loves a fighter
Some other things to keep in mind

• The more you practice,

the more you can fight
the monkey
• The more you feel
confident, the more you
can fight the monkey

• Its all about the attitude

Appearances matter!!!

• What do you want your

face to express?
• What do you want your
clothes to express

Copyright Rakesh Godhwani 77

Which one would you hire as COO?

Copyright Rakesh Godhwani 78

You want the audience to “perceive” you as
confidant? Just do this – The 4-step confidence
• Stand Straight
• Give them eye contact
• Smile at them
• Greet them with an
energetic voice
• Start your presentation
Check out TED talk by Amy Cuddy
Embrace Failure

• Things will go wrong

• Embrace them
• Laugh about them
• No-One can be a
perfect manager.
• Learn from your
• Introspect
• Improve

• Communication is like a
performance in front of
an audience
• Focus on your objective
of your communication
• Prepare and Deliver
• If it works, great. If it
doesn’t, you know what
not to do next time

• Apply the communication framework

– Understand the audience, context
– Visualize your objective and make it clear
– Prepare the content
– Be aware of the channel and deliver the message
– Be aware of the reaction of the audience
July 8th
What makes a good communicator?

Oral Written
Academic Writing
Revision and editing
Audience Awareness
Critical Reading
Critical Listening
Presentation of Data
Body Language

Audience Awareness
Personal Presentation
Body Language

Basic communication framework - AIM

Know your Spell out Deliver the
Audience your Intent Message
A basic communication process


A basic communication process
1. Analyze your audience
2. Identify an objective/purpose of the communication
3. Prepare your communication script (either on paper
or your mind)
4. Understand and choose the best medium
5. Deliver your message
6. Wait for a response

• If the response was as per the objective – end

• If not – revisit the steps all over again till objective is
Effective Presentations

‘Many careers have been

compromised by poor presentations,
and many causes lost.’
Presentation Skills

• Workshops

• Presentation practice
– Just-A-Minute [Not-graded]
– Case Presentations [Not-graded]
– Team presentations [Graded: 20%]
– Individual presentations [Graded: 30%]
You Will Learn To:
• Develop your presentations with a focus on the context,
audience and purpose

• Select, design and use visual aids

• Finish within the specified time

• Handle interaction & questions appropriately

• And therefore, deliver effective presentations

What is a Presentation?
• An audio-visual interaction

• Contains expository material

• Often persuasive

• Involves the use of graphics and audio-visual


• Individual or group effort

Why are Presentation Skills Important?

• The norm in day-to-day corporate life

– Within the organisation
• For your Function
• For you personally

– In the Competitive context

• for the Organization
• for your career
Ask 5 questions to prepare

– What is the purpose of the presentation?

– Who is/are the audience?
– Where is the presentation?
– How long should the presentation be?
– When is the presentation?
Write your speeches first
The Script-writing process

• Speed of speaking/minute S = 150 words/min

• Total time allotted to you = T (say 5 minutes)
• Max number of words in script N = S * T
• But….the formula above works in classrooms. In
real life, there is lot of friction due to unknown
factors. Audiences are from all over the world.
• So the new speed nS = 120 words/min
• New time that you can speak on nT = .8*T (keep a
buffer of 20%)
• Max number of words in script nN = nS * nT
An example of script-writing in movie making

• Dustin Lance Black –

Oscar winning
• http://www.youtube.co
Time per slide – make this after your script is

• What is a good thumb rule for

the average time per slide?
• 1 to 2 minutes

• So a 15 minute presentation has NO MORE

than 7 or 8 slides

• Remember N = T/2
Basic communication framework - AIM

Know your Spell out Deliver the
Audience your Intent Message
Understand your audience

This was an ad for a cola. It flopped

terribly. WHY?
Audience analysis

• Backgrounds
• Beliefs
• Languages
• Likes/Dislikes
• Age
• Sex
• Etc…
Have a SMART Intent “Objective)

Know your Spell out Deliver the
Audience your Intent Message
• Your speech must have a “Central/Core Message”
– Specific
– Measurable
– Achievable Tip: Say your objective in the
– Realistic opening, then again in the
– Timely middle and then again in the

• “In the next 2 minutes, I will prove that this

recommendation is the best for the case”
• “I need to hire 2 people for 3 months starting July 15th

Preparing a script of the presentation

State your objective precisely

Jot down ideas and facts
Decide structure and sequence
Know your Spell out Prepare the
Script the opening Audience your Intent Message

Develop the body

End effectively
Time per slide
• What is a good thumb rule for the average
time per slide?

• 1 to 2 minutes

• So a 15 minute presentation has NO MORE

than 7 or 8 slides

• Remember N = T/2
A good message has 3 parts
Preparing a script of the presentation

• 1. Ask key questions

2. State your message precisely
3. Jot down ideas and facts
4. Decide structure and sequence
5. Script the opening
6. Develop the body
7. End effectively
Elements of a good opening
• A good opening has four elements.

• - Courtesies
- Attention getter
- Purpose and background
- Outline
Some tips for creating your body

• Be logical and coherent

• Interpret facts
• Add examples and
• Use tie-ins with the
• Use transitions
• Use interim summaries
• Use humour
How to conclude your talk

• A brief summary

• Restatement of main

• Emotional / persuasive

• Strong exit line

The end result is a script of your message that
you will speak
Anil Kumble’s notes for his speech
Remember – audience is distracted easily
• Research has shown that an average adult
audience has a limited attention span of
about 45 minutes. During that time they
will absorb only about a third of what is
said, and can handle a maximum of seven


numbers will be much less now
Sample exercise

• You are Management Trainee in a respected and established

family- managed company that is now moving towards more
professional and modern methods of management. Your
recruitment is part of their move towards professionalism.
The Managing Director has asked you to make a presentation
to the company’s managers, on ‘My contribution to the Team’.

• What would you choose as the central message of your

Sample exercise

• You are a company’s Sales Manager for

Karnataka. You are required to present next
year’s sales targets to your sales team. The
company is looking for high growth.

a) Ask a direct question (non- rhetorical) as an

b) Compose a closing line
Sample exercise

• You are the Brand Manager of a company.

You have to make the customary Brand
Review presentation to the company’s senior
management team at the upcoming
quarterly Marketing Conference. You are the
sixth presenter of the day.

• Give an interesting statistic as an opening

Sample exercise

• You are a Client Servicing Executive in an

advertising agency.

Your creative team has just come up with two

great campaigns for one of your most important
clients. You are now going to present these
campaigns to the client.

What do you see as the purpose(s) of your

Sample exercise

• You have been invited by Action Aid to make a

presentation to villagers on ‘Preventing the
Spread of AIDS’.

• What questions would you ask about the

target audience, and why? [At least 5
questions are to be asked]
Target audience … (14)
• Answer

Questions include:

1. Age, gender, education etc

2. Language
3. Knowledge of subject
4. Prejudices, attitudes etc
5. Self-interest in the context of the presentation
6. Relationship with one another and with Action Aid?
Sample exercise

• You have been invited by Action Aid to make a

presentation to villagers on ‘Preventing the
Spread of AIDS’.

• You are going to inspect the venue, which is

outdoors. What are the things you will check
for at the venue, and why? [At least 5 relevant
Things available at the venue …

• Check for -
1. Open air, closed space etc
2. Platform / floor
3. Acoustics, availability of equipment
4. Lighting , projection equipment
5. Electricity etc
6. A/V equipment
Sample exercise

• You have been invited by Action Aid to make a

presentation to villagers on ‘Preventing the
Spread of AIDS’. You have three things to do:
– Get a local politician to speak
– Make a presentation using power point
– Show a five-minute film clip

• What could be an optimal sequence to

schedule these three activities? Why?
Use the AIM framework and plan your presentation for the following
topics(they had come in JAM as well)
• The three most important things in Life

• The genius of A R Rahman

• Is the Paperless Office a myth?

Problem Solving & The Case Method
Problem Solving - Importance

• Every business has its objectives - e.g. to generate revenues or


• Objectives may be thwarted by problems or issues

• Problems/issues could relate to manpower, money, materials

or other factors.

• Managers at various levels need to tackle these issues and

solve problems to facilitate decision making
Problem Solving – Importance - 2

• Solutions need the approval of senior management, as well as

a ‘buy-in’ from peers and subordinates

• The higher the level of management, the more holistic the

approach, and therefore, the solution

• The challenge is two-fold

– Arriving at sound problem-solving decisions

– Communicating the decisions in a convincing manner

What You Will Learn
• How to approach and analyse decision or
problem-solving situations

• How to communicate problem-solving

decisions in written form
Clear thinking

Clear writing and/or speaking

Clear Communication
What is a Case?
• A factual account of the events and
organizational circumstances relating to a
managerial situation

• Not written as a figment of the writer’s

imagination, but derived from real-life
Why Cases?

• Simulate real-life problems from the business world

• Help in developing analytical and judgmental skills in

a variety of managerial situations

• They are exercises in learning by doing

• In most cases, not a ‘back-of-the-book’ right answer

The Case Method
• The process is more important than the

• The writing/communication is equally

important - sharing your thought process
logically on paper or otherwise

• Limits on time (deadlines) and space (length of

report) must be adhered to
A Caveat

• Whilst using the Case Methodology,

preparation is essential to

– Understand & learn

– Participate & contribute
– Do well in terms of Grades
The Nine-Step Approach:
A Structured Communication
The Nine Steps

1. Situational Analysis
2. Problem Definition
3. Statement of Objectives
4. Criteria for Evaluating Options
5. Generation of Options
6. Evaluation of Options
7. Decision Making
8. Action Plan
9. Contingency Planning
Step 1: Situational Analysis

• The Process

– Identification of relevant case facts

– Analysis to arrive at relevant facts and identify key issues

– May involve establishing linkages, drawing inferences and making


– Should logically lead to problem definition

Step 1: Situational Analysis (2)

• The Writing

– Assume that the reader has read the case, unless otherwise instructed

– NOT an exercise in précis writing

– Must show that the situation has been analyzed (and not just
summarized )

– Provide evidence for inferences arrived at

– Focus on what is and not what it should be

Step 2: Problem Definition

• The Process

– Identification of the ‘problem’ or primary decision situation in the case

– Should flow logically from a good situational analysis

– Multiple ‘symptoms’ could point to one (or more) underlying problem

Step 2: Problem Definition (2)

• The Writing

– Should be clearly defined in one or two sentences

– No lengthy paragraphs

– Associated minor problems or issues may be briefly mentioned, but

the main problem is what your report will focus on
Step 3: Statement of Objectives

• Provides the broad framework within which

we are to seek problem resolution

• To ensure that your decisions and actions are

in line with organizational objectives

• Articulate the organisational objectives :

– In the short term
– In the long term
Step 3: Statement of Objectives (2)

• Sometimes objectives are provided in the case

– Identify and state them

• Often they are not explicitly provided

– Suggest appropriate objectives

• Differentiate between short term and long term

– Typically not more than one or two objectives for each
Step 4: Criteria for Evaluation

• Yardsticks or measures on which the generated

options will be evaluated
• Constraints vs. Criteria
• Both must be stated in specific, measurable terms
• Criteria must be prioritized in decreasing order of
• You could define a single composite criterion
Step 5: Generation of Options

• The Process
– Thorough, detailed analysis of case facts

– Look at all possible options for resolving the problem

– Eliminate trivial options

– Shortlist the ones which are feasible and relevant

– Options may be either stand-alone or overlapping

Step 5: Generation of Options (2)

• The Writing

– Include only short listed options - these will be

carried forward for more rigorous analysis

– A complete list of options could be included as an


– Typically 2 to 4 options will be short listed

Step 6: Evaluation of Options
• Evaluate each option thoroughly against criteria and
constraints developed in Step 4
• In presenting your evaluation, what do you do?
• Start with -
– the least acceptable and work your way up to the most acceptable
– Start with the recommended option and work your way down
• Options need to be analysed in comparison / relative to
the others
• Present the options in a table in the main document!
Step 7: Decision Making
• Based on Step 6, decide the option to go with
• Ideal solutions are rare; pick the most optimal
• The decision should:
– Satisfy objectives
• Long Term : MUST
• Short Term : Must have grounds for deviation
– Satisfy most, if not all, the prioritized criteria
• In the report, briefly re-state or summarize the
option selected in full [Not “Option ‘x’ stated
above is recommended / selected”]
Step 8: The Action Plan
• How is the decision to be implemented?

– State precisely the steps to be taken

– Must be both feasible and viable

– Suggest clear-cut time-frames for implementation

– Indicate who is responsible for what action(s)

Action ----- Time Frame ----- Responsibility
Step 9: Contingency Planning

• Identify possible weak links in the Action Plan

– Often these arise from shaky assumptions made
• Suggest contingency or back-up plans to tackle
each of the weak links
– Avoid trivial suggestions
• Remember, a contingency plan is :
– Only an alternative action plan for the same solution
– Not an alternative solution to the problem
– Should not change the decision taken in Step 7
– Not always necessary
Recap: The Nine Steps

1. Situational Analysis
2. Problem Definition
3. Statement of Objectives
4. Criteria for Evaluating Options
5. Generation of Options
6. Evaluation of Options
7. Decision Making
8. Action Plan
9. Contingency Planning
General Tips

• Assumptions must be
– Realistic
– Clearly stated at the appropriate place

• Inferences must be supported using case data

• Use appropriate tools as and when required:

– Cost-Benefit Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, Decision
Trees, Decision Tables, SWOT...
General Tips (2)

• The relative importance of individual steps

may vary across problem situations

• Communicate your assumptions, analysis,

conclusions and recommendations effectively

• Link the nine steps logically: the sequence of

your thought process must be clear
General Tips (3)

• Understand the implications or impact of your

decision in financial or other terms
• Presentation is important: keep your report
– Readable
– Well formatted
– Professionally appealing
– Free of creative gimmickry, please!
• Are not essential: if used, must be relevant
• Must be labeled (see S. S. Rao, Chapter 9)
• Usually consist of supplementary analysis
– Mention key figures or conclusions from the
exhibits in your main report
– Exhibits are usually supplementary attachments
– Do not count towards word limit
– Must not be misused to overcome word limit
• (Rarely) may be integral part of main report
– Must be clear and brief
– If so, will count towards word limit
Recap: The Nine Steps

1. Situational Analysis
2. Problem Definition
3. Statement of Objectives
4. Criteria for Evaluating Options
5. Generation of Options
6. Evaluation of Options
7. Decision Making
8. Action Plan
9. Contingency Planning
Moving Forward
• MC1- WS - 03 Workshop :
Monday – both groups ? 15th July

• Case for Analysis:

– Presentations of case analysis in teams of five or six
– Prepare a written analysis before attempting to plan a
– At least two team members to present
– 8 minutes per team, including Q & A, if any
Managerial Communication

Effective Presentations - 2
We Will Look At
• Types of commonly used Visual Equipment
– Advantages & disadvantages
– When & How to best use them

• Using visuals

• Designing visual elements

– Textual
– Graphic
Recap: Use and Design of Visual Aids

• How to Use Visual Aids & Equipment

• Designing Textual Slides

• Design Graphics
Recap: Three Stages in Making a Presentation

• Preparing the Presentation

• Creating Visual Aids

• Delivering the Presentation

Moving Forward

• MC1- WS - 05 Workshop : Delivering a


– Tue, July 27, 2009 1415 hrs

• Reading – will be sent in soft copy via e-mail

– Designing an Influential Presentation
– 117 Ideas for Better Business Presentations
– How to Conquer Public Speaking Fear
Managerial Communication
Delivering the presentation
Three Stages in Making a Presentation


• Preparing the Presentation Develop


• Creating Visual Aids

• Delivering the Presentation

Plan for this Session

• Discussion & Exercises :Delivering the

Let’s take a look at this presentation

• https://youtu.be/_ZBKX • While watching this

-6Gz6A video, take notes on
– Content of the speech
– Style of delivery
– Impact on you as an
Delivering the Presentation

• Using Voice Effectively

• Body Language

• Handling Nerves
Using Voice Effectively

• Breathing
• Pronunciation
• Intonation
• Speed
• Volume
• Pausing

• Most people do not breathe correctly

• Breathing affects voice quality

– Speed, volume, sustainability, timing

• Learn to ‘Project’ your voice

• Diaphragm breathing
Good Pronunciation Involves

• Getting the phoneme


• Word Stress

• Fullness or Articulation
• https://www.youtube.c
What is a Phoneme?

• Phonemes are the basic units of sound in any

• Different languages have different sets of
phonemes. Some overlap, others are distinctive
to that language.
• We often translate phonemes from our native
language into other languages
– Particularly when the other language has phonemes
that we are not familiar with
Getting the Phoneme Right!

Have you heard the

• Tamil word for ‘banana’?

• Malayali say ‘law college’?
• Punjabi say ‘bedroom’, ‘measure’?
• Gujarati say ‘snack’?
• Bengali say ‘very good’, ‘certificate’?
• Tamilian say ‘Gopalakrishna Gokhale’?
• Telugu say ‘Raju went to the zoo’?
Getting the Phoneme Right

Have you heard the Westerner say

• ‘bindi’
• think
• daisy
• told
• potter
Getting the Phoneme Right

How would you say ………….?

• Swan
• Bruise
• Either
• Food
• Guillotine
• Sir Thomas Wriothesley
Word Stress

How Do You Say These Words ?

• Desert
• Dessert
• Develop
• Interesting
• Engineer
• Industry

Nouns vs. Verbs

Contrast vs. Contrast
Present vs. Present
Correct Pronunciation

• Find out the correct pronunciation of a word

• A good dictionary has

– A pronunciation table
– The phonetic spelling of every word
– Stress indicators for every word
– Audio clip with correct pronunciation
• www.m-w.com

• The ‘fullness’ of each syllable

• Leaving enough space for each word

• No ‘swallowing’ of sounds/syllables

• Never hurrying to the finish


“Radha had not quite finished her letter by 4


• ...but it was ready for the post by five.”

• ...but Krishna was already out playing football.”
• ...but her diary was certainly completed.”
• ...but she had helped her brother to do his.”
• ...but at least she was well started on it.”

Say the following to effectively convey their


• It’s a wonderful day!

• It’s a miserable day.

• Good to see you!

• Thank you for trusting me with this job.


In how many different ways can you say these?

• Hello
• Goodbye
• Yes
• Why me
• I think so
• Only tomorrow

In how many different ways can you say :

• You are coming home with me today?

• We have to learn Managerial Communication

in the first term?

• Vary speed
– Speed up for excitement
– Slow down for emphasis


“You can learn all about marketing, finance,

accounting, production, operations, statistics...
but finally, the most important skill is
• Control your volume :
– Increase to gain attention
– Decrease to create drama
– Breathing..


A wise old owl sat on a tree.

The more he heard, the less he spoke.
The less he spoke, the more he heard.
Why can’t we all be like the wise old owl?

• For audience attention

• For audience absorption
• For emphasis and drama


“The better I listen

the more I learn
how little I know.”

Using intonation and pausing, can you suggest

two different meanings to each of these

• The inspector says the boy is a fool.

• She is not married happily.

• Alfred the alligator is sick.

Delivering the Presentation

• Using Voice Effectively

• Body Language

• Handling Nerves
Why is Body Language Important?

A presentation’s impact comes from:

– Verbal 7%

– Vocal 38 %

– Non-Verbal 55 %
Elements of Body Language

• Posture

• Gestures

• Eye Contact

• Smile
Handling Nerves

• Channelise your nervousness

• Practice, practice... & more practice!
• Focus on a good [memorised] beginning
• Start with the friendly faces
• Breathing is the key
• Muscle relaxation exercises
• Use positive visualization
Recap - 3 Stages in a Presentation

• Preparing the Presentation

• Creating the Visuals

• Delivering the Presentation

Follow and Learn

A great way to learn and master Presentation

Skills is

• To see and hear

• The right people
• Understand their strengths
• And try to follow them
Follow and Learn

A great way to learn and master Presentation

Skills is

• To see and hear

• The right people
• Identify what they doBallmer
• And try to emulate those…
Gallo on Jobs
Team Presentations:
General Brief
Team Presentations
• Project a professional image
– Tone must be appropriate
– Team interaction must be professional
– Timing must be adhered to
• Permissible range: 4½ - 5½ minutes
• Penalties for less or more
• Movement is allowed
• Scan the entire audience
• State your assumptions at the beginning, if any
• No Q&A
• Appearance will not be evaluated
Thank You !

All The Best

Your Mid-term Exams!!
Written Business Communication
Why Written Communication?

• Considered a product of conscious and deliberate

• A written record
– Repeated access
– Ease of editing
• Can be transmitted easily
• Restricted or widespread circulation possible
• Legally valid if signed properly

• Thus more credible

Types of Written Communication

• By Purpose • By Tone
– Informative – Positive
– Instructional
– Persuasive – Negative
– Commercial
– Decision Support – Neutral
– Goodwill
– Personal
The Executive Summary
The Importance of an ES

“The motivation of the reader – your

superior[s], client or evaluator – to read all the
contents of your analysis/report, depends on
the conciseness and attractiveness of your
Executive Summary, otherwise it (your report)
will be thrown into the nearest dust-bin!!”
- Prof. S. Sreenivas Rao
Types of Summaries
• General or Standard Summaries
– Summaries of someone else’s published work
– Written for a variety of purposes
• Abstracts
– Summaries that highlight the major points of a long piece
– Written mainly to allow the reader to decide whether to
read the longer text
• Executive Summaries
– Summaries designed to facilitate decision making by
The Executive Summary

• A Snapshot of a Report, to give the reader a quick

preview of its contents

• Purpose(s):
– To consolidate the principal points of a document in
one place
– To save time and effort

• Target Audience: senior managers and decision

An Executive Summary is:

• A stand-alone document that usually precedes

a longer Report, Proposal or Business Plan

• Written after the report is completed and

recommendations decided upon

• Not more than 10 – 15 % of the original

document, limited to a max of 10 pages in
length; usually 1-3 pages
An Executive Summary Will:
• Explain why the report was written: problem,
not situational, analysis

• Include brief, relevant background information

required to make the document stand-alone

• Summarise the conclusions or

recommendations made in concise and precise

• Be organised in the same sequence as in the

main report
An Executive Summary Will:
• Refer to relevant sections in the main body of the
report for details

• State any critical assumptions made in the source


• Include the ‘call for action’

• Be factual and accurate: decisions will be made based

on your summary, by people who may not read the
An Executive Summary Will:

• Provide a brief justification of the decision or


• Suggest an overview of the actions and time


• Include information on risks associated with the

An Executive Summary Won’t:

• List the alternatives or options generated

• Go into excessive detail

• Include exhibits as annexures

– The ES could, however, include small tables or
charts that might be vital or critical in nature
An Executive Summary Won’t:

• Provide detailed analysis or justification of


• Introduce any new information that is not in

the report
The Writing Process
• Scan your report:
– Content, structure, length
– Highlight key points
– Central theme
• Group ideas in logical sequence to form outline
– Keep report structure intact
• Edit outline to eliminate secondary or minor points
• Write the summary in your own words : avoid cut &
Polish your prose

• A wonderful book by Steven M. Cahn and Victor

L. Cahn
• Has the following message
1. Finish your draft
2. Eliminate words that don’t add any value
3. Shorten sentences to max 15 words or less if
4. Can you reword the sentence and make it simpler,
readable, powerful
5. Go to step 1
A powerful video on the writing process
Dustin Lance Black on how he writes for movies
What is a critique?


a detailed analysis and assessment of something, especially a literary,

philosophical, or political theory.
"a critique of Marxist historicism"
synonyms: analysis, evaluation, assessment, appraisal, appreciation,
review, write-up; More

evaluate (a theory or practice) in a detailed and analytical way.

"the authors critique the methods and practices used in the research"
Definition of a critic

a person who expresses an unfavourable opinion of something.
"critics of the new legislation say it is too broad"
synonyms: detractor, censurer, attacker, fault-finder, carper, backbiter, caviller,
reviler, vilifier, traducer, disparager, denigrator, deprecator, belittler; More
a person who judges the merits of literary or artistic works, especially one who
does so professionally.
"a theatre critic"
synonyms: commentator, observer, monitor, pundit, expert, authority, arbiter,
interpreter, exponent, expounder; More

indicate the faults of (someone or something) in a disapproving way.
"the opposition criticized the government's failure to consult adequately"
synonyms: find fault with, censure, denounce, condemn, arraign, attack,
lambaste, pillory, disapprove of, carp at, cavil at, rail against, inveigh against, cast
aspersions on, pour scorn on, disparage, denigrate, deprecate, malign, vilify,
besmirch, run down, give a bad press to; More
form and express a judgement of (a literary or artistic work).
"a literary text may be criticized on two grounds: the semantic and the expressive"
Critical review

• A critical review is the summarization and

evaluation of the ideas and information in an
article. It expresses the writer's (your) point of
view in the light of what you already know on
the subject and what is acquired from related
Confused???? Here is what I do to help myself
understand these terms
• Critical review = Critique
• Critique =NOT= Summary
• Critic is the person who writes the critical review
or the critique
• Critic may be derogatorily used as a “bad person”

• Basically – here is a simpler way – What is your

POV (Point of View) on someone’s piece
Writing a critique – things to keep in mind
• Who is the author, and what are his/her qualifications?
• What is the nature of the work (type, purpose, intended audience)?
• What is its significance? How does it compare to other material on the same
subject? By the same author?
• What is the author's claim in this piece?
• What is your POV on that claim?
• What is the organizational plan or method? Is it well conceived? Does it achieve
the author's objectives?
• What are the underlying assumptions? Are they stated or do they lurk behind a
stance of neutrality and objectivity?
• How do assumptions and biases affect the validity of the piece?
• Are arguments/statements supported by evidence? Is the evidence relevant?
• Is the author's methodology sound?
• What evidence or ideas has the author failed to consider?
• Are the author's judgments and conclusions valid?
• What rhetorical strategies does the author use? Are they effective?
Taken from - http://www.webster.edu/academic-resource-
A lovely view from Daniel Dennett

How to compose a successful critical commentary:

• You should attempt to re-express your target’s position
so clearly, vividly, and fairly that your target says,
“Thanks, I wish I’d thought of putting it that way.
• You should list any points of agreement (especially if
they are not matters of general or widespread
• You should mention anything you have learned from
your target.
• Only then are you permitted to say so much as a word
of rebuttal or criticism.
Criticism with kindness
Biography and Résumé Writing
Success in the Job Market
Three stages :

• Having the right background

– Factual, Track record

• Effectiveness in communicating this background

– Presentation, Persuasion, Differentiation

• Your performance in the selection process

The Résumé has to do with the first two steps.

Unless you get it right, you won’t get past the gate !
A Résumé is your Introduction

• The Résumé is the first exposure of the candidate to

the recruiter

• It is the only basis for first-level short listing

Answers sought from Résumés

• Does she have the “basic credentials” for the job?

• What more? does he bring to the table beyond the
basic credentials?
• Does she “seem to know” her job? Does he “seem to
be good” at it?
• What “kind of person” is he likely to be?
• Prima facie, is she likely to be a “good fit” in our
“ Can a good résumé surely get me the job I want ?

“ Perhaps not. But it can surely get you into the ring,
with a fighting chance ! ”
Biographies vs. Résumés

What’s the difference ?


• A Biography is a brief (200 –250 word) write-up

about a person

• It is meant to give the reader an overall glimpse of

the individual

• For example
– ‘Mr. Ramesh Kumar is currently COO of ABC Limited, and is
responsible for the Sales, Marketing and Operations in the
Asia-Pacific Region...’
Biography contd.
• Format
– Normally in running form
– (Very occasionally in telegraphic point form)
– Written in the Third Person
• Generally used for purposes other than
– Articles
– Speaker Introductions
– Press Releases
– Website Profiles, etc.
Structure of a Biography

• Para 1: Current Status

• Para 2: Background

• Para 3: Professional achievements

• Para 4: Personal information

Structure of a Biography

Para 1: Describes the present

Vivek Agarwal is the founder-President of Channel W, India’s first interactive

broadcasting corporation, which was set up in 2004. Today, Channel W is a Rs.
3,500 Crore diversified media house with interests in fourteen countries.

Para 2: Provides background

Prior to founding Channel W, Agarwal was the COO of END-TV from 1997 to
2004. Earlier, he held senior positions in Poopsie Cola India and Ohri &
Mathur Advtg.
Structure of a Biography

Para 3: Cites professional achievements

A Chemical Engineer from IIT – BHU, Agarwal graduated from the
Wheaton Business School in 1978. In 2009, the fifth year of Channel W, he
was named ‘Media Moghul of the Year’ by CNBC. An active proponent of
conservation, he established India’s first environmental impact
assessment organisation, “Raksha”.

Para 4: Gives personal information

An outdoor person by nature, Mr. Agarwal is an enthusiastic trekker and

scuba diver. He is married, has twins and lives in Versova, Mumbai.
Characteristics of a Biography

• Written in the third person

• Non-exhaustive
• Provides ‘non-specific’ information
• Allows for opinion or beliefs
• Is meant to be short and ‘interesting’
• Can be re-written (or customised) for the same person,
– depending on the occasion or nature of usage
– to highlight specific information of interest to the TA
Biography - Shripad Nadkarni

Shripad Nadkarni heads the marketing and branding activity of Coca Cola India, as its
Vice President – Marketing.

Shripad joined Coca Cola India in 2000 and has been largely responsible for
successfully repositioning Coca Cola with the “Thanda matlab Coca Cola” campaign.
Under his stewardship, Coca-Cola India has achieved leadership position in the Water
Business with Kinley and the Juice market with Maaza.

Shripad is an avowed Mumbaiya, born and brought up in the commercial capital of the
country. He did his Masters in Management at IIM-Bangalore and began his career as
a Management trainee at Johnson & Johnson where over a period of 17 years, he
handled various sales and marketing positions in the pharmaceutical and consumer
products divisions.

His passions include Indian Music and Writing Poetry. He is also an avid Cricket
follower as well as player, having cut his teeth on the Shivaji park grounds at Mumbai.
Big wall murals of Aishwarya and Bipasha keep him company at his office in Mumbai,
of course except when the real people themselves do !
Biography - Dr. Bob Hoekstra

Dr. Bob Hoekstra is the Chief Executive Officer of the Philips Software Centre, Bangalore,
which is 5 years old and has reached SEI-CMM level 5. It currently employs around 750
people at its Innovation Campus and has earned an enviable reputation as a competence
center among the Philips technical community worldwide.

Bob Hoekstra graduated from the Technical University Delft, The Netherlands, in 1968 with a
Masters in Technical Physics. He joined Philips in the same year, starting at the Research
Lab in Netherlands and was involved in fundamental research of magnetic materials. He
spent one year at Bell Labs in New Jersey, USA, on a scientific exchange programme in
1977. His research work at Philips earned him his Ph.D. in Physics in 1978.

He then moved on to product development, optical system, and component design of laser
disc players, and then to project management and development management positions in
Philips. Bob’s recent assignments have been as Vice President of Engineering for Philips
Televisions in North America for 5 years and Chief Technology Officer of the Philips Business
Unit Monitors, stationed at Taiwan for 3 years until 1999.

Living in Bangalore since 1999, Bob has really got to like this city. He enjoys visiting places,
exploring nature, reading books and mentoring young managers. Nandi Hills is one of his
favorite places. He is a fitness enthusiast and frequently cycles up the Nandi Hills. Word has
it that he once rode downhill and realising that he had left his water bottle behind, promptly
rode back up again !

• A Résumé (pronounced ‘raysyumay’), is a

formal application for a job or position

• It is a persuasive document - Provides

Presents information that helps ‘sell’ the
applicant to the recruiter
Résumés are :
• Factual
– Supported clearly with facts
– Verifiable data

• Structured and Categorised

– Follow a clear structure
– Grouped under headings
• like Qualifications, Experience,..

• Tabulated & Telegraphic

– Not written text in paragraphs
– More structured like tables
– Copy points often telegraphic
Components of a Résumé

• Heading ( Classification: Vital )

Résumé of

Sam Moorthy
Adarsh Garden Apartments
Jayanagar 8th Block
Bangalore - 560 082
Tel : +9180 2654 6574

– In case you are likely to be moving, provide

• ‘Address until’ and ‘Address from’, or
• ‘Current address’ and ‘Permanent address’
Components of a Résumé contd.

• Summarised Biography (Classification : Desirable)

– Sam Moorthy has a little over 5 years of experience.

An MBA from IIM Bangalore, he started his career in
market research with IMRB and subsequently has
been a sales manager at BPL Appliances. Currently
seeking a Marketing position in a multinational
consumer goods organisation. Presently based at
Bangalore but willing to relocate within India or
abroad, if required.
Components of a Résumé contd.

• Objective Statement (Class :


Seek a responsible marketing position in a consumer products


– Keep it
• Short
• Realistic
• Specific
• Carefully worded
Components of a Résumé contd.

• Education (Class:
– Reverse Chronology
• Highest Qualification First
– Information
• Degree or Diploma: PGDM
• When you received the degree or diploma: 1998
• Where you earned it: IIM Bangalore
• Major fields: Marketing
• Project or Course Work: Market Survey for Canned foods –
HLL Food Products
• Grade Point Average : 3.46 / 4.00 (74% aggregate)
• Rank (if any)
Components of a Résumé contd.

• Work Experience (Class: V)

– Reverse Chronology (Current assignment first)
• Date of employment: May 2000 – Present
• Job Title: Sales Manager - Televisions
• Name of Employer: BPL Appliances Ltd.
• Responsibilities: All-India sales through channels and institutional.
Managed a 30-strong sales force and 250 dealers
• Significant Accomplishments: Exceeded sales targets for the last 2
years. Awarded ‘Sales Manager of the Year’ in 2002
• (Repeat for the previous employment)
– Project Experience : In lieu or in addition to work
experience. Use a similar format.
Components of a Résumé contd.
• Honors and Awards (Class: V)
– Omit if no significant awards exist
– List only important awards - be choosy
– Avoid puffery - be factual
• Interests and Activities (Class: D)
– One Line only
• Reading, Mountaineering, Scuba Diving
• Special Skills (Class: V)
– If relevant
• Professional Memberships (Class: D)
– Be factual and concise
Components of a Résumé contd.
• Personal Information (Class: V)
– Age and Date of Birth
– Nationality
– Family Status
– Locational Preference or mobility
• References (Max 2 or 3) (Class: V/D)
– Types
• Professional (V)
• Character (D)
• Educational (D) (Vital for fresh graduates)
– Provide names and Titles
• Ashok Soota, Chairman, Mindtree Consulting
– Provide e-mail or phone at minimum
Resume of
Hemalatha P Nadkarni
Typical 2254, Vinoba Road, Mysore 570 005
Phone: +91 (0) 821 429 722
Résumé E-mail: hghema@yahoo.com

Hemalatha Nadkarni is in the first-year of the two-year Post Graduate Diploma in

Page :1 Management Sciences programme at the SDM Institute for Management
Development (SDM-IMD), Mysore. An Arts Graduate, she is working towards
building a career as a professional manager. With two years of working experience in
the field of sales, she believes she will contribute substantially to the organisation
that she may be a part of.

Professional Experience:

Organisation: MGB Manufacturing Private Limited, Mysore

Duration: July 2000 – May 2002

Title: Market Development Officer

Reporting to: Sales Manager, Southern Operations

Responsibilities: Channel management for MGB in Mysore District.

Organisational Profile: MGB is a diversified consumer product company,

dealing in soap, matches, perfumery and tobacco

Achievements: Achieved a growth 100% in revenues every year.

Received the Salesperson of the Year Award in

Educational Qualifications:

Level College & Diploma Specialisation Year of

University Graduation
st- SDM Institute for Post Graduate Marketing & 2004
aduate Management Diploma in Systems (Currently in the
Development Management (In Year 2) first year of a two-
Autonomous AICTE Sciences year programme.)
approved B-School
aduate Jyothi Nivas Bachelor of Arts English, History 2000
Women’s College, and Social
Bangalore Sciences
Bangalore University
e- Kendriya Vidyalaya, CBSE 12 Science 1997
niversity ASC Centre,
gh DM School, Regional CBSE 10 Science 1995
hool Institute of
Education, Mysore
Other Qualifications:

Computer Proficiency: Completed the three-year GNIIT Programme from

Typical Résumé NIIT Limited in parallel with her bachelor’s

Counselling Skills: Completed a ten-week programme in Adolescent

Page 2 Counselling by the National Institute of
Neurosciences and Mental Health (NIMHANS),
Bangalore in April-June 2000.

Extra-Curricular Activities:

Sports: Member of the Jyothi Nivas Throwball Team, 2001

Represented the college in State-level

Hobbies: Reading, Dancing and Rock Climbing

Student Memberships: Karnataka Youth Federation: 2000 to date.

Rotary Mid-Town District, Bangalore Services Sub-

Committee: 2000 to date.

Member, Jyothi Nivas Old Girls Association

Awards and Recognitions:

Awarded the Rashtrapathi’s Gold Medal for the Outstanding Cadet in the NCC: 2001

Awarded the Rotary President’s Medal for Social Service 2002

Personal Information:

Date of Birth: July 25, 1980

Language Proficiency:
Language Read Write Speak
English Yes Yes Yes
Marathi Yes Yes Yes
Hindi Yes Yes Yes

Locational Preference: None

Ms. Usha Rajagopalan Dr. A K Rao
Sales Manager Director, SDM-IMD,
MGB Manufacturing Private Limited, 2254, Vinoba Road
2253, Vinoba Road Mysore 570 005
Mysore 570 005 Phone: +91 (0) 821 429 722
Phone: +91 (0) 821 429 721 Fax: + 91 (0) 821 425 557
Fax: + 91 (0) 821 425 553 E-mail: akrao@sdm-imd.vsnl.net
E-mail: Ushar@mgbmp.com
Résumé Formats

• A very wide variety of formats are available

• Sometimes clear formats are provided and are

not flexible

• Sometimes only broad guidelines are given

and you are free to choose specific format
Résumé Formats contd.
Three categories of formats :

• Basic format
– Ideal for fresh graduates
• Chronological
– For those with extensive work experience in a limited
number of areas
• Functional
– For those with varied experience in different functions or
Résumé Formats contd.

• Large Companies often provide printed forms

– Sometimes only after the first shortlist
• Many Companies provide on-line Résumé formats on their
• All good job portals also have résumé builders
• On line/E-Mail submission is a major medium these days
– Caution : Attachments scare people; Many prefer ASCII Text
– If you do send as attachment, please convert to pdf file
– Safest : do both
To make your Résumé effective

• Present positive information with positive phrasing

• Write from the reader’s perspective

• List your résumé components in order of decreasing

reader importance

• Show your track record – what you are good at

should emerge clearly
To make your Résumé effective

• Avoid saying average things or being ‘weak’ –

differentiate yourself

• Be factual, consistent and balanced

• Review periodically and keep your résumé up-to-date

IIMB Format

• IIMB has a prescribed format in which you are

expected to write your Résumé - for both
summer & final placement

• You are required to only use this format



Format 1996–2000 Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
 Bachelor of Technology (Mechanical Engineering) CGPA 9.2/10.0
1996 St. Francis’ College, Lucknow (ICSE)
 Indian School Certificate Examination 92.0% Aggregate

OVERALL EXPERIENCE – 1 year 11 months
2000–2002 McKinsey & Co., Inc. New Delhi
Consultant - Business Analyst
 Consulted clients in 4 broad areas across 4 different industries while working within McKinsey
client service teams.
1. Pharmaceuticals Industry. Worked for a pharmaceutical manufacturing company to figure out
its long and short-term strategy in export markets. Studied the antibiotics markets of Latin
America and Eastern Europe to define the strategy in those markets.
2. Telecom Industry: Worked with a telecom manufacturing company in the area of operational
improvement – Supply Chain Improvement and Purchasing & Supply Management (PSM).
Succeeded in getting a cost saving of more than Rs. 55 crore from the project of which
nearly Rs 15 crore was from PSM – the area that I was heading.
3. Steel Industry: Worked with one of the largest steel producers of India to figure out the
strategy for each of its 13 subsidiaries.
4. White Goods Industry: Worked with one of the largest white goods company of India in
helping them build, grow and sustain a new Services Business.


 Sole recipient of the “Ratan Swaroop Memorial Prize” for excellent all round performance in the
graduating class in all disciplines for the year 2000, at IIT Kanpur.
 Ranked amongst the top 20 students in IIM Bangalore on the basis of the Common Admissions
Test (CAT) 2001
 Certificate of Merit for academic excellence in the year 1997-1998, at IIT Kanpur


 Held the office of Student Coordinator of the Institute Counseling Service at IIT Kanpur in the
year 1999-2000. Led a team of 65 students guides and 6 assistant coordinators for a year to
manage various student related issues.
 Helped organize the annual national level sports festival “Udghosh – 2000” at IIT Kanpur as a
member of the Central Organizing Committee.

 Worked at the Saharanpur factory of ITC Ltd as a summer intern to study the maintenance
procedures, and recommend and implement measures to reduce down time, and improve
performance of the equipment. 70-75% of the recommendations were implemented



2005–2009 N I T, Warangal
Résumé in  Bachelor of Technology (Engineering Physics) CGPA 8.05/10.0 (Department Rank 6)

IIMB 2005
 All India Senior Secondary Certificate Examination
G.D. Public School, New Delhi
90.0% Aggregate (School Rank 3)

Format 2003
 All India Senior Secondary Examination
G.D. Public School, New Delhi
93.2% Aggregate (School Rank 3)
 Mutual Funds: Comparative performance analysis of the top 5 Mutual Funds using Ratio Analyses.
Equity, Balanced & Debt funds studied and results drawn on market condition based investment decisions.
 Designed & Fabricated a Fiber Optic Probe for Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai. Collection
efficiency of the prototype was enhanced by 200%. Presented a poster on it at Open House, NIT


 Winner of the Guelph Waterloo Perimeter Institute Poster Competition held at the University of
Waterloo, Canada in July 2007. Competitors were from the research groups of the top 5 Canadian
Universities and the poster was selected the best in the undergraduate category among 16 posters.
 Part of the only group out of about 20 to be awarded the ‘TDP-IAS Research Award’ by the IRD Unit,
NIT Warangal. The award was given for the best idea of a prototype having industrial applications.
 Secured an all India rank of 330 out of 200,000 students in the Joint Entrance Examination, in 2005.
 International Physics Olympiad 2005: Placed among the National top 1% out of 26,968 candidates.
 Secured a percentile of 99.80 out of 250,000 students in the CAT 2008. Quantitative Aptitude (99.83)
 International Competition for Schools: Awarded High Distinctions, Distinctions and Credits in Science,
Mathematics and English by The University of New South Wales, Australia from 1997 to 2001.
 As elected Convener of Engineering Physics, NIT Warangal, initiated an industrial trip for the batch
to Mumbai and Pune for 4 days and managed and organized stay, travel and visits to labs and industries.
 Elected Nucleus Committee Member, Physics Dept, Training and Placement Cell. Was responsible for
having ban on foreign internships revoked only for Physics Department, thus being the only dept to be
allowed foreign exposure at IIT. Arranged foreign internships for 20 of 38 students at top universities.
 Activity Head, Admin, Rendezvous 2007, Cultural Fest of NIT Warangal: Headed a team of 3 to
make arrangements and make a budget of Rs. 20,000 for food for 200 participants & organizers over 3
 Indian Vocal Music: In inter-hostel competitions held at NIT Warangal, Was the Winner of a Solo
Event in 2005, Secured Second place in a Dual Event in 2006 and Won the group singing event
in 2007.
 Successfully completed NCFM Module Tests for Financial Markets (88%) and Mutual Funds (86%).
 Directed and Participated in an English Play and in a Hindi Play at the Inter-Hostel Event at NIT


• Biographies and résumés are important documents
that ‘introduce’ a person

• Biographies are brief and textual - used for third person


• Résumés are detailed, structured and persuasive

documents - used to apply for jobs & assignments

• Effective résumés dramatically increase your chances

of getting into the consideration set
Any Questions?
Moving Forward

• Next Class: MC1-RS – 04

– Friday, August 20, 2010
• Team Presentation Feedback
• Individual Assignment Feedback
• Written Communication: Proposals
Proposals and their Writing
What is a Proposal?

• A proposal is an offer made by one party to

another to:
– Solve problems
– Provide services
– Sell goods

• Generally results in benefits for all parties

Proposals vs. Quotations

• What are the differences?

Parties involved in a Proposal
• Proposals involves two or more parties -
– The Recipient(s)
– The Proposer
• The Recipient:
– One or more parties
– Primary beneficiary (ies) of the proposal
– Likely to be the ‘disposer’ (decision-maker)
• The Proposer :
– Could be one party, one party as a prime
contractor/bidder/consortium leader/member of consortium
– Interested party
– Secondary beneficiary (from the acceptance of proposal)
Types of Proposals

There are many types of proposals :

• Administrative
• Business
• Research or Academic
• Personal (Marriage) proposals

Proposals in the organizational context

– We mainly deal with administrative / business /
research & academic proposals
Proposals - Organizational Context

• Proposals may be
– Formal
• Solicited (RFP, Tender), or Unsolicited
– Informal (budgetary or RFI)

• Most often, proposals involve presenting and

selling an idea to the recipient
– Therefore need to be persuasive
– Accurately present facts and support argument
– Define the ‘outcomes’ , ‘deliverables’, and,
– Call for a decision or action from the Recipient
Structure of a Proposal

• Title page
• [Executive summary]
• [Table of contents]

• Introduction
• Body
• Conclusion

• Appendix
Those in brackets indicate
they are optional sections
Structure of a Business Proposal

• Title page
• [Executive summary]
• [Table of contents]

• Introduction
• Body
• Conclusion

• Appendix
Title Page

• Project Title
• Identity of the Recipient/Recipient Co.
– Bigger than the Identity of Proposer
– Insert Logo
• Date of Proposal
• Identity of the Proposer

(Ref. Prof. Sreenivas Rao - page 57)

Structure of a Business Proposal

• Title page
• [Executive summary]
• [Table of contents]

• Introduction
• Body
• Conclusion

• Appendix

• Proposal background
– Explain your interest
• If solicited, mention the RFP (Request for Proposal)
• If unsolicited, explain your interest
• Your understanding of Recipient’s Needs and/or
– Avoid playing back too much of what is known already
– Don’t be too critical of current status
– Mask sources of sensitive information
The Body

The body of the proposal will contain :

– A description of proposed solution

– The methodology to be adopted
– The scope of, and project deliverables
– A calendarised schedule, with milestone dates
– The mutual responsibilities of both parties
– Acceptance parameters, if any
– Financial and commercial information
– Experience of similar work done (use with caution)
The components - 1
• Description of proposed project
– A persuasive outline of what you are proposing to do
to address the ‘Problem or Opportunity’ that you have

• Methodology or process to be adopted

For example:
– Data-gathering (mention proposed methods and
– Organization of data
– Analysis
– Reports
The components - 2

• Scope and deliverables of project

– Tangible steps and actions that are included and excluded in the
proposal. For example:
• ‘Market Research is part of the project’
• ‘No implementation support’
• ‘Travel and living costs will be extra on an actual basis’
– Project plan and schedule
– Interim report
– Final report
– Oral presentation of Report highlights
– IPR and rights to all primary data sources, transcripts of interviews,
The components - 3
• Calendarised schedule with milestone dates
– Realistic (and telescoped) timelines
• (Regular or Express charges?)
– Review meetings - dates and steps
– Completion deadlines
– Risks and dependencies, if any

• Mutual responsibilities
– Resources you expect
– Resources you are willing to commit
– Delegation of authority or permission required

• Parameters for acceptance, if any

– Performance based yardsticks
– Measurable outputs
The components - 4

• Financial information :
– Resource estimates (not always included)
– Project cost and pricing
• Project Fees
• Implementation or production costs
• Estimation of out of pocket expenses
– Payment & Commercial terms
• Advances
• Credit terms
• Payment schedules
The conclusion

• Repeat the main points and benefits of your


• Highlight key payoffs to the recipient

• Portray optimism and confidence - do not beg

• Keep it brief
Structure of a Business Proposal

• Title page
• [Executive summary]
• [Table of contents]

• Introduction
• Body
• Conclusion

• Appendix
The Appendix
• Detailed terms and conditions of doing business
– Bill of Materials or similar itemised list
– Payment details
– Legal issues, such as penalty clauses, or liquidated

• [Draft Contract]

• [Non-Disclosure Agreement]

• Profile of Organization, Relevant Person(s)

The Appendix - 2

• Assumptions [if any]

• List of customers and references

• Brochures and promotional material

• Response to RFP Proforma

The attributes of a good proposal

• Persuasive
– Sound, workable idea. No substitute for this.
– Establish credibility of proposer
– Moderate or reasonable approach
– Emotional appeal (subtle)
– Attractive ‘packaging’ (Presentation)
Attributes - 2

• Quality of content and presentation

– Determines whether your proposal is read or not

– Indicator of future quality
– Reinforce or reduce client confidence

• Quality of Executive Summary is a key

determinant of acceptance
Proposal Contents Checklist

1. Cover 7. List of illustrations

– If four or more
2. Title page
8. List of Annexures and
3. Covering letter Appendices
9. Proposal
4. Statutory
Declarations/Tender 10. Proforma as required
Receipts/Bank 11. Appendix
Guarantee/Bidder 7. Each section to be named
Information and (sequentially) numbered
12. List of References
5. Executive summary
6. Table of contents
Achtung! Individual Presentations

• Three Groups - 14:30 hrs onwards (2 or 3 cohorts

per day)
– Aug 31, September 02, 03
• Presentation of 4 minute duration
– Q&A
– Dress Code : Business Formal
– 30% weight
– External + Instructor evaluation
– You will receive a generic and specific brief next week
in staggered e-mails by groups
– Any Questions ?
Moving Forward
• Next Class
– Friday, August 27, 2009 1145 – 1315 hrs
• Handouts
– Sample proposals: will be sent to you via e-mail
Communication in different
Communication Skills

Reading, Listening & Questioning

Today’s Session

• Communication Skills
– Reading
– Listening
– Questioning

• Team Presentations – General Brief

Surprise Quiz
The Alfred Hattersley Test

• Developed in 1975, the test is designed to

measure the seven most important competencies
required of a manager. Over two million people
have taken this test thus far.

• All necessary instructions are on the sheet given

to you

• Time Limit: 300 seconds

What did you learn?
Major Communication Skills

• The Physical Skills • The Mental Skills

– Writing – Analysis

– Reading – Synthesis

– Speaking

– Listening

‘Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body’

English Proverb
Reading as a skill

• The English language does not have different terms for

Reading, as it does for Hearing and Listening

• The word ‘Reading’ covers both aspect of reading:

– Seeing, and
– Comprehending

• ‘Active reading’ involves the simultaneous acts of

seeing, analysing and understanding

• Reading is a very efficient means of

communication, if carried out well by both
sender and receiver

• Managers are required to process a lot of written

material; thus efficiency is key

• Effective reading skills

– Save time
– Improves efficiency
Reading and Efficiency

• Selective reading
– Do not attempt to read everything that comes
your way: Read less!
– Prioritize your reading
• What has to be read
• When it has to be read
– Develop your own personal strategy
Determining Reading Priority

Must Urgency

The Need for Speed

“I took a course in speed reading,

learning to read straight down the
middle of the page, and was able to
read ‘War and Peace’ in twenty

“It’s about Russia”

- Woody Allen
The Moral of the Story?

• Speed alone is not enough..

– Speed reading techniques may result in marginal
improvement, and may result in GIGO

• We need to focus on
– Comprehension, Retention and Recall
Strategies for Effective Reading

• Focus your attention

• ‘Preview’ the material first

• Stop talking to yourself

• Learn to Scan
Can You Read This?
How About This One?
Read to ‘Scan’

• The eyes take in information only when at rest

• The sequence is: move-stop-read

• Poor readers make many more ‘stops’

• We need to minimise the number of ‘moves’ and


• ‘Scan’ the material to take in groups of words

Scanning Groups vs. Words

• Reading is a skill that has to be developed and

practiced consciously

• Speed alone is not enough; work on improving

speed + comprehension + retention + recall

• Develop a reading strategy to improve

effectiveness and productivity
Listening Skills

‘The biggest block to personal

communication is man’s inability to listen
intelligently, understandingly and skillfully to
another person.’
- Anon.

• One of the four major communication skills

– Reading
– Writing
– Speaking
– Listening

• And perhaps the most neglected!

• Generally considered a purely physiological skill

– Hence, seldom taught
We will look at

• Why managers need to listen well

• Factors leading to poor listening

• How to be a good listener

Why do Managers need to Listen?

• Managers deal with complex information

– Figures, numbers, dates, times, locations

• Many instructions and agreements are verbal

• White collar workers: > 50% time listening

– Meetings, Presentations, Conferences,
Why do Managers need to Listen?

• Listening is a pre-requisite to problem-solving

• Effectiveness is about listening to and

understanding ‘customer’ needs and wants

• A manager who listens effectively

– Avoids costly mistakes
– Reduces paperwork
– Saves time
Listening to Customers
Research reveals that :

• For every one person who complains about your product or

service, there are 26 others who are equally unhappy but
won’t bother to complain

• 55–70 % of customers who complain will do business with you

again if you resolve their complaint

• Up to 40 % will do business with you again, even if they

believe that you have listened and responded to their
complaint !
What Leads to Poor Listening?

• The mind is faster than the tongue

– The speaker delivers at around 120 words/min
– The listener can process around 500 words/min

• This ‘idle capacity’ leads to

– Selective listening
• Hearing vs. Listening [physical vs. mental]
– Day dreaming & distraction
• Inner ‘television screens’
– Attempts to multi-task
– Evaluating the speaker’s delivery mechanisms
What Leads to Poor Listening?

• Listening requires minimal physical activity

– Less than speaking, writing, or reading
– Hence the whole body becomes conducive to
wandering away

• For literate people, reading is often easier

than listening
– May be suited to individual pace and convenience
What Leads to Poor Listening?

• Physical barriers
– Cell phones, inappropriate venues, noise

• Psychological barriers
– Antipathy towards speaker
– Lack of confidence
– Overconfidence
– Pre-conceived notions, ‘closed’ mind
The Good Listener

• Follows the 4 steps to effective listening

– Hearing, Understanding, Retaining & Recalling

• Uses his ‘idle capacity’ constructively

• Pays attention to the structure
• Listens for the idea rather than the words
• Summarizes and synthesizes
• Weighs the evidence and evaluates
The Good Listener

• Looks for both verbal and non-verbal clues

• Listens with an open mind

• Asks relevant questions

• Gives effective non-verbal feedback


• Listening is a key competency for managers

• Active listening is a must for effective

understanding, retention and recall

• Listen for total meaning

• Avoid the urge to interrupt unnecessarily

Categories of Questions

• Data gathering
– Get the other person to open up
• Probing
– Starts with a simple question and then drills down into
– You need to control the session..
• Stress
– Questions designed to check how one responds
• Personal
– May invade privacy
Types of Questions
• Open-ended
– Normally routine or standard questions
– You need to have prepared answers for these

• Direct or closed questions

– Used for probing
– Usually used when response to open-ended questions are not

• Indirect questions
– Disguised requests for information
– Can be prepared for…
Game: Guess the number

• Team of Three
– Elect a spokesperson
– Volunteer: A Recorder
• I will think of a number between 0 and 100
• The team has a max of five questions to ask
me and arrive at the number
• Prep: 3 minutes
The Funnel Technique

Start with open-ended


Get deeper with

probing questions

‘Specific’ questions

Better Questioning

• Be precise and brief

• Avoid making statements or voicing opinion
• Start with an open-ended question
• Be prepared to paraphrase

Back to The Past!

• You have listened to the passage The Board

That Conquered Everest

• Now answer some simple questions !

• You get five minutes to answer ten questions

Moving Forward

• MC1-S-09: Graded Team Presentations

• Monday, August 12, 2013

– Group 1: 1430 hrs.

– Group 2: 1700 hrs.

Team Presentations:
Generic Brief
Team Presentations

• Teams of two
• Duration – Five minutes
• Both members must present and speak for at
least 2 minutes each
• Brief & Topics will be e-mailed to you four
days in advance of your session
Team Presentations

• Project a professional • Address the entire

image audience; not just the
– Tone = appropriate instructor
– Team interaction to be • State assumptions, if
professional any, up-front
• Permissible timing • No Q&A
range: 4½ - 5½ minutes
• Dress code= Smart
• Movement allowed Business Casual
Team Assignments : Group 1
Team Assignments : Group 2
Thank You!
Course Wrap up