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Building Construction Materials

Insulating Materials
By:
Alka Shah
Civil Engineering Department
Institute of Technology
Nirma University
Insulating Materials-BCM

Content

 Introduction

 Types of insulating materials

 Description of all type of material


Insulating Materials-BCM

Introduction

All those material that control or stop the flow of

 Heat
 Electricity
 Sound
Are broadly classified as insulators or insulating materials
Insulating Materials-BCM

Introduction

Insulations are also defined as those materials or combinations of materials


which retard the flow of heat energy by performing one or more of the
following functions:

 Conserve energy by reducing heat loss or gain

 Control surface temperatures for personnel protection and comfort

 Facilitate temperature control of process

 Prevent vapour flow and water condensation on cold surfaces.


Insulating Materials-BCM

Introduction

 Increase operating efficiency of heating/ventilating/cooling, plumbing,


steam, process and power systems found in commercial and industrial
installations

 Prevent or reduce damage to equipment from exposure to fire or corrosive


atmospheres

 Assist mechanical systems in meeting criteria in food and cosmetic plants

 Reduce emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere


Insulating Materials-BCM

Introduction

 In civil engineering, wide application of insulating materials

 While designing public, residential building etc., much importance needs to


given to heat, sound and electrical insulation to save energy and to provide
comfort, efficiency to work and economical
Insulating Materials-BCM
Classification of Insulation Materials

Classification according to

Internal Structure Forms Transmission of energy


Insulating Materials-BCM

Types of Insulating Materials – Internal Structure

Types of Insulator classified according to internal structure in to three category:

I. Fibrous Insulation

II. Cellular Insulation

III. Granular Insulation


Insulating Materials-BCM

Fibrous Insulation

 Composed of small diameter fibres


 The fibres may be perpendicular or parallel to the surface being insulated, and
they may or may not be bonded together
 Silica, rock wool, slag wool and alumina silica fibres are used
 The most widely used insulations of this type are glass fibres and mineral wool
 Glass fibres and mineral wool products usually have their fibres bonded together
with organic binders that supply the limited structural integrity of the products
Insulating Materials-BCM

Fibrous Insulation
Insulating Materials-BCM

Manufacturing of Glass Fibre Insulator


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Cellular Insulation

 Composed of small individual cells separated from each other

 The cellular material may be glass or foamed plastic


Insulating Materials-BCM

Granular Insulation

 Composed of small nodules which may contain voids or hollow spaces


 It is not considered a true cellular material since gas can be transferred between
the individual spaces
 This type may be produced as a loose or pourable material
Insulating Materials-BCM

Granular Insulation
Insulating Materials-BCM

Granular Insulation
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Granular Insulation
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Types of Insulating Materials - Forms
Insulations are produced in a variety of forms suitable for specific functions and
applications. The combined form and type of insulation determine its proper method of
installation. The forms most widely used are:

1. Rigid boards, blocks, sheets, and pre-formed shapes such as pipe insulation, curved
segments, lagging etc. Cellular, granular, and fibrous insulations are produced in
these forms

2. Flexible sheets and pre-formed shapes - Cellular and fibrous insulations are
produced in these forms
Insulating Materials-BCM
Types of Insulating Materials - Forms
Insulations are produced in a variety of forms suitable for specific functions and
applications. The combined form and type of insulation determine its proper method of
installation. The forms most widely used are:

3. Flexible blankets - Fibrous insulations are produced in flexible blankets

4. Cements (insulating and finishing) - Produced from fibrous and granular


insulations and cement, they may be of the hydraulic setting or air drying type

5. Foams - Poured or froth foam used to fill irregular areas and voids. Spray used for
flat surfaces.
Insulating Materials-BCM

Types of Insulating Materials

Types of Insulator classified according to transmission of energy in to three


category:

I. Thermal Insulators

II. Sound Insulators

III. Electrical Insulators


Insulating Materials-BCM

Thermal Insulators

Building Energy Consumption

 Air conditioning - 57 %

 Lighting - 22%

 Ventilation Fans - 16%

 Miscellaneous - 5%
Insulating Materials-BCM

Thermal Insulators

Due to high heat and etc. Resulting in:

 Increase in temperature inside the Buildings

 Inside Temperature is likely to go above than the Outside Ambient

 Higher Air Conditioning Loads and increased running time of the Compressors

 Higher Energy cost


Insulating Materials-BCM

Thermal Insulators

So to save energy and human effort this are the importance of insulating materials

 Energy Conservation – Reduces the heating / cooling load

 Human Comfort – improves the efficiency of the workmanship


Insulating Materials-BCM

Thermal Insulators
Requirement of a good thermal insulating materials;

 Thermal stability
 Low thermal conductivity
 Resistance to moisture
 Resistance to vibrations and shock
 Non-inflammability
 Porous and fibrous texture
 economical
Insulating Materials-BCM

Thermal Insulators

Some important thermal insulator:

 Cork
 Glass wool
 Rock wool
 Asbestos
 Thermocal
 Vermiculite
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Thermal Insulators
Insulating Materials-BCM

Thermal Insulators
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Thermal Insulators
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Thermal Insulators
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Thermal Insulators
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Sound Insulators
The material which offer good resistance to transmission of sound

Requirement of good sound insulating materials:

 Able to absorb noise


 Resistance against insects etc.
 Fire resistance
 Easy to work
 economical
Insulating Materials-BCM

Sound Insulators
Some sound insulating materials:

 Sound proof Foam Panels


 Sound proof window
 Sound proof paint
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Sound Insulators
Some sound insulating materials:

 Sound proof Curtains


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Electrical Insulators
The material which offer very large resistance to flow of current and provide
proper path to conductor

Requirement of good sound insulating materials:

 Poor electrical conductivity


 Low thermal expansion
 Non inflammebility
 Durable
Insulating Materials-BCM

Electrical Insulators
Some commonalty used electrical insulator:

 Mica
 Asbestos
 Rubber
 Paper
 Porcelain
 Glass
 Cotton
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Electrical Insulators
Insulating Materials-BCM

Electrical Insulators
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Electrical Insulators