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What is Protection System ?

Def: A COMPLETE ARRANGEMENT OF PROTECTION


EQUIPMENT AND OTHER DEVICES REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE A
SPECIFIED FUNCTION BASED ON A PROTECTION PRINCIPLE.

Need: WHEN EQUIPMENT FAILS, THE ENERGY IS RELEASED


AND EVERY COMPONENT IN THE SYSTEM IS AT RISK. THE
PROTECTIVE RELAYING SYSTEM MONITORS THE SYSTEM
AND INITIATE ACTION ACCORDINGLY.

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Purpose of Protection System:
The protective relaying system senses the abnormal condition of power
system and gives an alarm or isolates the defective system from the
healthy system.
A fault in an electrical system is defined as a defect in its electrical
circuit due to which the current is diverted from the intended path.
Faults are generally caused by breaking of conductors or failure of
insulation. Some other causes of fault conditions include:
 Mechanical failure
 Environment disturbances
 Excessive internal & external stresses
 Operating error
 Equipment malfunctions
The fault impedance being low, the fault current are relatively very
high and flows towards the fault.
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Requirements of Protection system:

Selectivity - ability to select the faulty part of in system &


disconnect the faulty part without disturbing rest of the
healthy system.
Speed of Operation– The faulty section should be isolated
as fast as possible to minimize the damage to equipments
and increase the stability of operation of healthy system.
Sensitivity - ability to operate with low value of actuating
quantities.
Reliability - ability to operate under the faulty conditions
only.

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Types of Protective equipment
FUSES

MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKERS (MCB)

PROTECTIVE RELAYS

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FUSES
A Fuse is a short piece of metal,
inserted in the circuit, which melts
when excessive current flows
through the circuit and thus breaks
the faulty circuit.
The fuse element is generally made of material having low
of low melting point, high conductivity and least
deterioration due to oxidation, e.g. silver, copper etc. it is
inserted in series in the circuit to be protected.

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Classification of Fuses:

i. Low-voltage fuses
• Semi-enclosed rewirable fuse
• High rupturing capacity (HRC) cartridge fuse
• HRC fuse with tripping device

ii. High-voltage fuses


• Cartridge type
• Liquid type
• Metal clad fuses

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Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCBs)

MCBs is a type of switch with thermal contacts. It can


open or close a circuit under all conditions viz. no load, full
load or fault conditions. It can be operated manually
under normal conditions and automatically under fault
conditions.

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Protection Relay
A protection relay is a device that detects the fault and
initiates the operation of the circuit breaker to isolate the
defective system from the rest of the healthy system.
The relay detects the abnormal condition by constantly
measuring the electrical quantities e.g. – voltage, current,
frequency, phase angle, status of circuit breakers , etc.
In changes of one or more quantities, the relay senses the
faults, its type and location of the fault.

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Essential Requirements of Protective
System:-
1. Current Transformers or CT :-
CT,s are required to scale down the
primery current to suitable level so that
relay can use it. CT,s can be single core
or multi core. Each core can be single
ratio or multi-ratio. Separate cores are
needed for metering or protection
purposes. Normally secondary current is
1A or 5A as per requirement.

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2. Potential Transformers or Voltage
Transformers or PT/ VT,s :-

PT,s are needed to scale down the


Primery voltage to suitable level so that
it is useful for the relay. Normally
secondary voltage is 110 V or 110/√3
Volts as per requirement. PTs or VT,s
are of single or three phase system.

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3-Auxiliary AC or DC Supply:-

Reliable and steady auxiliary supply is needed so


that in all adverse operating conditions, it is
available to the protective system to detect the
faulty condition, and the relay could isolate the
faulty system from the healthy system with the
aid of circuit breakers.
Normally DC with battery chargers are used as
reliable and steady auxiliary supply system.
Normally 12 V, 24 V, 48 V, 110 V or 220 V DC
auxiliary supply system are used.

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4. Circuit Breakers:
Circuit breakers or CB,s are very much needed to
operate the electrical circuits in all the operating
conditions i.e. on no-Load, on Full-load.
CB are also required to isolate the faulty system
from healthy system on receipt of command from
the protective system in the shortest possible
time.
CB status is also available to the protective system
to properly take the decision of the fault.

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5.Precautions while developing/ studying
schematics:
- All the schematics are made without
any ac/dc supplies,
- All the pressure switches are in zero
pressure state,
- All relays are in non-operating state and
their contacts are in normal state,
- No current/ voltage from CT/ PT is
available.

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Various types of Relays according to principle
of operation are as follows:
1) Electromagnetic Attraction Relay
i. Attracted armature type
ii. Solenoid type
iii. Balanced beam type

The relay operates by virtue of a plunger being attracted into a


solenoid or an armature being attracted towards the pole of
an electromagnet which in turn operates the associated
contacts bank. These types of relays may be operated by dc
or ac quantities like as voltage, current etc. Normally this
type of relays are used for supply status, CB status, Contact
multiplication etc. 16
2) Electromagnetic Induction Relay
These relays operate on the principle of Induction motor and
are widely used for protective relaying purposes
involving a.c. quantities. An Induction relay essentially
consists of a pivoted aluminium disc placed in two
alternating magnetic fields of same frequency but
displaced in time and space. The torque is produced in
the disc by the interaction of one of the magnetic fields
with the currents induced in the disc by the other.
In order to obtain the phase difference in the flux and hence
the operating torque, following three types of structures
are used:
a) Shaded-pole structure
b) Watt-hour meter structure
c) Induction cup structure.
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Electromagnetic Induction Relay

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STATIC RELAY

In Static Relays, the measurement is performed by


electronic/magnetic/optical or other components
without mechanical motion. Static relays have
versatile characteristics, offer low burden and
incorporate several protective/control/monitoring
functions in one compact unit.

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MICROPROCESSOR based Numerical Relays:
In 1980s, programmable static relays incorporating
Microprocessor have been introduced.
A programmable protection & control system has a
Microprocessor or Microcomputer in its circuit. With
the help of the logic and the Microprocessor, the
integrated system can perform several functions of
Data acquisition, Data processing, Data transmission,
protection & control.
Earlier for each of these functions, separate
Electromagnetic or Static units were used along with
complex inter module wiring.

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Block Diagram of a simple Microprocessor based Digital Static Relay

CB
CT

VT Trip coil
Input Unit

Input Unit A/D MICROPROCESSOR


Converter

Setting Data Request


& Display

Data Logger
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Relay Based on actuating parameters

-Over-current Relays,
-Under/ Over voltage relays,
-Over/ under frequency relays,
-Power directional relays,
-Over-fluxing relays etc.

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Relays based on Operating
Characteristics:-

-Instantaneous Relays,
-Definite time delay relays,
-Inverse definite minimum time delay
relays (IDMT),
-Voltage restraint over current relay,

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Relays based on their uses:
1-Differential Protection Relay
2.Restricted E/F Relay,
3.Distance Protection Relay,
4. Negative Phase Sequence Relay,
5. Neutral Over-current Relay,
6. Neutral Voltage Displacement Relay,
7. Over Fluxing Relay,
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8. Over/ under voltage Relay,
9. Over-current Relay,
10. Bus-bar Protection Relay,
11. Breaker Failure Relay,
12.Direction O/C & Directional E/F
Relays
13.Over/ Under Frequency Relay,

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Other type devices used as Relays:
- Oil Temperature Relays,
- Winding Temperature Relays,
- Oil surge Relays (OSR),
- Buchholtz Gas Relay,
- Pressure Relief valves (PRV),
- Pressure Switches,
- Level Gauges,
- Flow meters, etc
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The Protection scheme of Vishnuprayag
Hydro Power Project(4x100MW) is
classified as :
 Generator Protection
 Generator Transformer Protection
 Bus-bar Protection
 Bus Coupler protection
 Transmission Line Protection
 Shunt Reactor protection
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Generator/ Unit Protections
Relay : Model-REG216, Make-ABB
Main-I (GRP-1) Protection comprising :
i. Generator Differential
ii. Under Impedance
iii. Negative Phase Sequence
iv. Gen. Over Current (Inst. & IDMT type)
v. 100% Stator Earth Fault
vi. Reverse Power
vii. Over Voltage
viii. Loss of Excitation
ix. Balance Voltage
x. Gen. Thermal Protection
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Main-II (GRP-2) Protection comprising :

i. Gen.-transformer Over all Differential


ii. 95% Stator Earth Fault
iii. Under Frequency
iv. Over Frequency
v. Under Voltage
vi. Over Flux
vii. UAT Restricted Earth Fault
viii. UAT Over Current
ix. UAT Earth fault

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Single Line Diagram of Protection scheme of
Generator Unit

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Single Line Diagram of Protection scheme of
Generator Unit

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Trip Logic of Protection scheme of GRP-1 (Main-I)

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LED Indications provided on GRP-1 (Main-I)

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Details of LED Indications provided on GRP-1 (Main-I)

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Trip Logic of Protection scheme of GRP-2 (Main-II)

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LED Indications provided on GRP-2 (Main-II)

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Details of LED Indications provided on GRP-2 (Main-II)

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Unit Protection Settings

Main-1 Settings ( GRP-1 Panel )


LED
Sl.No. Protection Function Curve/Setting Time Delay
No.
1 Over Voltage Stage-1 (59) 06 Alarm 1.15 Un 2.00 sec
2 Over Voltage Stage-2 (59) 23 ESD 1.25 Un Inst.
3 Under Voltage (27) 07 Alarm 0.70 Un 2.00 sec
4 Balance Voltage-1 (60) 05 Alarm 0.20 Un 0.04 sec
5 Balance Voltage-2 (60) 28 PSD 0.20 Un 1.00 sec
6 Inst. Over current (50) 21 ESD 1.60 Un 0.50 sec
7 Time Delayed Over Current (51) 22 ESD 1.30 In 2.00 sec
8 UAT E/f Protn. (51) 31 PSD 5.00 In 0.02 sec
9 UAT O/C Protn (Inverse time) (51) 30 PSD IB =0.50 In, k=0.05 IDMT
10 Definite Time NPS-1 (46) 04 PSD I2 =0.05 In 5.00 sec
11 Inverse Time NPS-2 (46) 26 PSD IB =0.78 In IDMT
12 Reverse Power (32) 25 PSD -0.05 PN 3 sec

13 Loss of Excitation (40) 32 ESD XA = -1.11 Un/In 0.2 sec


XB = -0.18 Un/In
14 GT Restricted E/F Protn. (51 N) 29 ESD IB =0.10 In As per curve
T/f ratio-50
15 100% Stator E/F(64 S) 24 ESD 1 sec
REs-0.91kΩ
16 Under Impedance (21) 18 ESD 0.176 Un/ In 3 sec

17 Gen Differential (87 G) 17 ESD


g setting = 0.10 In
Inst. 39
v setting = 0.25
Unit Protection Settings

Main-2 Settings : ( GRP-2 Panel )

Sl.No LED
Protection Function Curve/Setting Time Delay
. No.

1 Over Voltage Stage-1 (59) 03 Alarm 1.15 Un 2.00 sec


2 Over Voltage Stage-2 (59) 17 ESD 1.25 Un 0.00 sec
3 Under Voltage Stage-1 (27) 04 Alarm 0.85 Un 10.0 sec
4 Under Voltage Stage-2 (27) 20 ESD 0.80 Un 3.20 sec
5 Over Frequency Stage-1 (81) 07 Alarm 52.0 Hz 1.00 sec
6 Over Frequency Stage-2 (81) 23 PSD 52.5 Hz 1.00 sec
7 Under Frequency Stage-1 (81) 06 Alarm 48.5 Hz 1.00 sec
8 Under Frequency Stage-2 (81) 22 PSD 47.0 Hz 2.00 sec
9 Over Fluxing Stage-1 (24) 05 Alarm 1.15 Un/fn 2.00 sec
10 Over Fluxing Stage-2 (24) 21 PSD 1.1 UB/fn 0.05 min
11 UAT Restricted E/F Protn. (51 N) 26 PSD IB =0.4 In, k=0.01 As per curve

12 GT/F Time Delayed O/C (51) 27 ESD 1.3 In 3.00 sec


13 Gen. Trans. Neu. O/C (51 N) 18 PSD IB =0.30 In As per curve

14 95% Stator E/F(59/27) 24 ESD 0.05 Un 0.05 sec


g setting = 0.20 In
15 Overall Differential (87 T) 25 ESD Inst.
v setting = 0.5 40
Generator Transformer
Protection :
i. Differential Protection
ii. Back-up Over Current
iii. Neutral Over Current
iv. Restricted Earth Fault
v. Winding Temperature High
vi. Oil Temperature High
vii. Buchholz Gas Relay
viii. Pressure Relief Valve

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Bus-Bar Protection & Breaker
failure Protection :
Relay : Model-REB500, Make-ABB

-Bus bar protection is provided so that in case


of fault on any of the bus-bar, the faulty
bus will be isolated and other bus will
continue to function without any
interruption.
- Breaker failure protection is provided to
isolate the faulty breaker from the system,
in case CB fail to isolate the fault.
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The Central unit & Bay relay comprising of :

i. Bus bar Differential protection,

ii. Breaker Failure Protection (LBB)

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Single Line Diagram of Protection scheme of Bus Bar

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Bus-Coupler Protection
Relay : Model-SPAJ140C, Make-ABB

Provided to trip the buscoupler CB in case


of over-loading of bus-coupler or fault
on any of the bus-bar

i . Over Current Protection,

ii. Earth Fault Protection

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Single Line Diagram of Protection scheme of Bus Coupler

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Trip Logic of Protection scheme of Bus Coupler

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Transmission Line Protections

Main-I (Relay-REL521), Main-II (Relay-REL316) &


Back-up (Relay-REX521) protection comprises of
following functions :
i. Under Impedance
ii. Over Voltage
iii. Back-up Over Current
iv. Back-up Earth fault
v. Breaker Failure protection
vi. Auto-Reclosure Scheme

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Single Line Diagram of Protection scheme of Transmission Lines

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Trip Logic of Protection scheme of Transmission Lines

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Setting Criterion of Line Protection:
1. Zone-1: 80% of Principal Line Section;

2. Zone-2: 100% of Principal Line Section


+ 50% of the Adjoining Shortest Line
(check that Zone-2 > 120% of Principal
Line Section

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3. Zone-3: 1.2 x (100% of Principal Line
Section + 100% of the Adjoining
longest Line )

4. Zone-4 : 1.2 x (100% of Principal Line


Section + Single T/F of remote end )

5. Reverse Zone: 25% of Zone-1

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Shunt Reactor Protection
Relay : Model-REG316, Make-ABB

i. Differential Protection
ii. Restricted Earth Fault
iii. Back-up Impedance Protection,
iv. Winding Temperature High
v. Oil Temperature High
vi. Buchholz Gas Relay protection
vii. Pressure Relief Valve

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Some Additional Features/ Schemes
Used in Protective Circuits:

1.Trip Circuit Supervision Scheme: It is


used to continuously monitor the
tripping circuit & trip coil of circuit
breakers,
2.Trip Coil supervision Scheme: It is used
to continuously monitor the trip coil of
the tripping relays,

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3.Pole discrepancy scheme : In single
pole circuit breakers, If due to any
reason, one or two poles of the CB
trips, the remaining pole trips after a
short time delay. Normally it is of the
order of 0.8 to 1.0 sec. It may be with
CB schematic or outside.
4. Auto-reclosing Scheme: On tripping of
Line CB on Temporary line fault, the
scheme provides auto Reclosure of Line
CB after a pre-set short time delay.

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The scheme may be single phase auto-
reclosing or three phase auto-reclosing
or both.
Normally single phase auto-reclosing
scheme are employed. Three phase
auto-reclosing scheme are best suited
for radial lines.

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5. Carrier Inter-tripping Schemes :-
Normally 80% of Principal Line Section is
covered by Zone-1 of the Line
protection, the rest of the 20% is
covered by Zone-2 protection with a
minimum delay of 0.4 sec.

To cover end 20% line fault in Zone-1


time also, Various carrier based carrier
inter-tripping schemes are used:-

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A. Permissive Under-reach carrier inter
tripping Scheme,
B. Permissive Over-reach carrier inter
tripping Scheme,
C. Carrier Blocking Scheme,
D. Carrier Acceleration Scheme

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Testing of Protective
Relays schemes
&
Associated Equipments.

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Testing of Current Transformers :
- Insulation Test
1. Primary winding to Earth by 5kV
megger
2. Secondary winding to Earth (For
each core) by 250V or 500 V megger,
3. Primary winding to all the secondary
winding by 5kV megger,
4. Core to core of secondary windings
by 250V or 500 V megger,
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- Ratio Test of each core by Primary
injection,
- Polarity Test of cores,
- Magnetizing Characteristics or knee
point voltage test for identifying
metering/ Protection cores

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Testing of Potential Transformers:
- Insulation Test
1. Primary winding to Earth by 5kV
megger after isolating from earth
2. Secondary winding to Earth (For
each core) by 250V or 500 V megger,
3. Primary winding to all the secondary
winding by 5kV megger,
4. Core to core of secondary windings
by 250V or 500 V megger,
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- Ratio Test of each core by injecting
voltage on Primary terminal and
measuring voltages on secondary cores,
- Polarity Test of cores with reference to
Primary Terminal,

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Primary Injection of CT,s:

- Primary injection of current


transformers is carried out with the
help of Primary Injection Test Kits. The
current is measured in all the current
circuits of all the phases one by one to
ensure that during actual operation
current will flow only in the correct
phase and not otherwise,

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- During Primary injection we have to
ensure that the current in metering circuit
is flowing from the metering core only and
current in protection circuit is flowing from
the protection core only otherwise the
protection is likely fail during fault
conditions.

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Secondary Injection Of PT,s:
- Injection of Potential circuit is carried
out with the help of Secondary Injection
Test Kits or with the help of Single
phase variac, Rheostat etc. The voltage
is measured in all voltage circuits of all
the phases one by one to ensure that
during actual operation voltage will flow
in the correct phase only and not
otherwise,
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Checking of DC Schemes:

-The wiring of complete scheme is


checked and corrected according to
scheme.
- Auxiliary DC supply is given to the panel
and DC supply is checked at various
points in the scheme/ Relays
- The operation of DC relays checked as
per schematics.
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Testing Of Relays:
-All the relays are tested for operation on
various settings with the help of
Secondary Relay Testing Kit Like as
Doble, Omricon, TURH, ZFB etc.
-The operating time of the relays is also
measured to ensure the operation of
relays within permissible limits.

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Power System Simulator (DOBLE Test Kit)

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Power System Simulator (DOBLE Test Kit)

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Closing/ Opening operation of Circuit
Breakers:

-Closing/ Opening operation of Circuit


Breaker is checked from Control/Relay
Panels
- Tripping of Circuit Breaker is checked by
operation of Protective Scheme with the
aid of secondary injection test Kit.

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Checking of Alarm & Indications:
- All the alarms & Indications are
actuated one by one and their
operation is checked/ ensured on the
panels.
Checking of Stability of Relays :
- Check for the stability of Differential
Relays, Restricted Earth Fault Relays,
Bus-bar protection Relays etc.

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On load checking the system:
After the system is energized, the
following checks are required to be
carried out :-
- Checking of DC auxiliary supply at
various points in the panels,
- Checking of CT/ PT supplies to relays,
meters etc.,
- Checking of healthiness of relays
- Checking of proper operation of
voltmeter/ Ampere meter in all the
phases 75
- Operation of MW meter, PF meter,
Energy meter etc and their running in
proper direction,
- Trip circuit supervision in healthy state,
- Relays are measuring correct voltage &
currents as per load condition.

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Testing Of Transformers
Following Tests are performed to Check
the healthiness of Transformers:-
1.Insulation Resistance- HV-E, LV-E, HV-
LV by 5KV/ 10KV Megger.
2. Turn ratio Test
3. Open circuit Test from HV & LV side,
4. Short Circuit Test from HV to LV,
5. Magnetic Balance Test from Star side
6. Checking proper operation of OLTC.
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Testing Of Reactors:
Following Tests are performed to Check
the healthiness of Reactors:-
1. Insulation Resistance- HV-E by 5KV/
10KV Megger.
2. Open circuit Test from HV,

3. Magnetic Balance Test from HV

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THANK YOU
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