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Ch4 Measures of Center, Spread,

and Box-Plots Examples


Warm-Up:
1. Mr. Garcia’s math class of 30 students had an average of 85
on the Chapter 1 test. Mrs. Garcia’s class of 16 students had
an average of 90 on the same test. What would the average
be of the two classes combined?
30(80)  16(90)
83.48
30  16

2.A teacher recorded 5 test scores for a student one


semester: 54, 67, 75, 82, 97. Looking back at her records
she realized that the 54 really should be a 45. After making
the correction, what would happen to the mean score for this
student? What would happen to the median?
The mean will go down, the median will stay the same
Measures of Center: x   x
n
1. Mean –
where n is the # of observations
arithmetic mean, NOT resistant to outliers (it does get affected by outliers)
2. Median –
50th percentile, middle value, resistant to outliers (it doesn’t get affected by outliers)
3. Mode –
Most occurring value, resistant to outliers
4. Quartile 1 (Q1)-
25th percentile, middle of 1st half, resistant to outliers
5. Quartile 3 (Q3)-
75th percentile, middle of 2nd half, resistant to outliers
In a symmetric distribution the mean, median, In a skewed distribution the mean is
and mode are all the same. always “pulled” towards the tail.
3) Last year a small accounting firm paid each of its five clerks $22,000, two junior
accountant $50,000 each and the firm’s owner $270,000. What is the mean salary
paid to this firm? How many employees earn less than the mean? What is the median
salary? How could an unethical recruiter use statistics to mislead prospective
employees?
5(22K )  2(50K )  270K median = $ 22,000
x  $60, 000
5  2 1
Since the word average can refer to both the mean or the median, the recruiter could
say that they “average” salary is $60,000, but out of the 8 employees 7 of them earned
less than the $60,000
4) Faculty salaries at a college have a median of $32,500 and a mean of $38,700.
What does this indicate about the shape of the salary distribution?
It is skewed right because the mean is > than the median and the mean is always
pulled towards the tail
5) The mean and median salaries paid to major league baseball players in 1993 were
$490,000 and $1,160,000. Which of these numbers is the mean, and which is the
median? Explain.
Salaries are most likely skewed right since most player make less than 1 million dollars
and a few make way more than that, so then the $1,160,000 is the mean since the
mean is always pulled towards the tail
Outlier fences: < Q1 – 1.5(IQR) or > Q3 + 1.5(IQR)
6) 18 first year college women and 20 first year college men completed a Survey of
Study Habits and Attitudes (this psychological test measures motivation, study habits,
and attitudes toward school). Descriptive statistics (in points) for the two groups are
shown below.
a) Use the same scale to draw box-plots for the scores for women and men.
Step 1: label and scale the x-axis
Step 2: draw a box from Q1 to Q3 and
put the median
Step 3: calculate the outlier fences
Step 4: extend a line from Q1 to the min as
long as the min is still “inside” the lower outlier
fence (as long as the min is greater than that
fence)
Step 5: since the max is “outside” the upper outlier fence, then extend a line from Q3 to the next
highest number besides the max, so in this case 178, and then mark the max (200) as an outlier

Women
Outlier fences: < Q1 – 1.5(IQR) or > Q3 + 1.5(IQR)
6) 18 first year college women and 20 first year college men completed a Survey of
Study Habits and Attitudes (this psychological test measures motivation, study habits,
and attitudes toward school). Descriptive statistics (in points) for the two groups are
shown below.
a) Use the same scale to draw box-plots for the scores for women and men.
Repeat for the males using the same axis
Describing box-plots:
Center:
Use the median for skewed graphs, and the mean for symmetric graphs
Shape:
Symmetric:

Skewed right:

Skewed left:
Spread:
Usually we use the IQR for spread, but you can still use the range or spread
Unusual:
Any outliers
b) Write a few sentences comparing the distributions.
The women’s median score of 138.5 points is higher than the men’s of 114.5 points.
Both graphs are fairly skewed right, and the women have an outlier at 200 points. The
women have a smaller IQR of 28 points compared to the men’s of 45 points.
7) The weights of 20 randomly selected juniors at CHS are
recorded below:
121 126 130 132 134 137 141 144 148 205
125 128 131 133 135 139 141 147 153 213
Construct a box-plot for the above data.
Type in data into a spreadsheet on the calculator, label the column x, then insert a
graph by pressing DOC 4-insert 7-data & statistics, click on the x-axis to add the x-
variable, then press MENU 1-plot type 2 box plot.
Done! So much easier than the last problem.

Make sure to include your work for the outlier fences, and record the 5# summary
(min, Q1, median, Q3, max) and outliers on the graph.