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2IC601 – RESEARCH

METHODOLOGY (RM)
MODULE-1:
INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
Dr. Shrikant Kulkarni
shrikant.kulkarni@walchandsangli.ac.in
Content
• What is research ?
• Literature survey and review.
• Types of research
• The process of research,
• What’s for next session
– Module-2 overview
What is research?
• It is a way of examining your practice…
– Research can be one of the most interesting features
of any degree course as it offers you a measure of
control and autonomy over what you learn.
– It gives you an opportunity to confirm, clarify, pursue
– or even discover – new aspects of a subject or topic
you are interested in.
– More than a set of skills, it is a way of thinking or
examining critically the various aspects of your
academic/professional work.
– It is a habit of questioning “what you do?”, and a
systematic examination of the observed information
to find answers with.
What is research? …
• Definitions of research
– Research is a detailed study of a subject,
especially in order to discover (new) information
or reach a (new) understanding (Cambridge Dictionaries
Online,© Cambridge University Press 2003.

– Research is the detailed study of something in


order to discover new facts, especially in a
university or scientific institution (Macmillan Publishers
Ltd. 2002)
What is research? …
• Definitions of research …
– Making a rigorous and relevant contribution to
knowledge.
– Understanding of a cause and effect relationship of a
given phenomenon or uncovering a new
phenomenon.
– Organized inquiry to provide information for the
solution to a problem.
– A careful and systematic investigation in some field of
knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles
– Scientific or scholarly inquiry or investigation and the
proper communication of the findings.
What is research? …
• Definitions of research …
– It uses blend of assorted resources, such as
classical or modern theories, state-of-the-art
technology, statistical technology, and engineering
techniques, to uncover previously unknown facts
and principles.
– Process of searching for (general) answers in any
field of study, or the solution of just one particular
problem.
– Systematic, controlled, empirical, rigorous, and
precise methods are used to obtain solutions or to
discover and interpret new information.
What is research? …
• When you say that you have undertaken a
research study to find answers to a question,
you are implying a process -
– that is being undertaken within a framework of a
set of philosophies (approaches);
– that uses procedures, methods and techniques
that have been tested for their validity and
reliability;
– that is designed to be unbiased and objective .
What is research? …
• Philosophies means approaches e.g. qualitative,
quantitative and the academic discipline in which you
have been trained.
• Validity means that correct procedures have been
applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers
to the quality of a measurement procedure that
provides repeatability and accuracy.
• Unbiased and objective means that you have taken
each step in an unbiased manner and drawn each
conclusion to the best of your ability and without
introducing your own vested interest.
– Bias is a deliberate attempt to either conceal or highlight
something.
• Adherence to the three criteria mentioned above
enables the process to be called ‘research’.
Characteristics of a research
• To qualify as research, the process must have
certain characteristics: it must, as far as
possible, be controlled, rigorous, systematic,
valid and verifiable, empirical and critical.
– ‘Control’ implies that, in exploring causality in
relation to two variables (factors), you set up your
study in a way that minimizes the effects of other
factors affecting the relationship.
– ‘Rigorous’ means you must be scrupulous in
ensuring that the procedures followed to find
answers to questions are relevant, appropriate
and justified.
Characteristics of a research …
– ‘Systematic’ implies that the procedure adopted
to undertake an investigation follow a certain
logical sequence.
– ‘Valid and verifiable’ implies that whatever you
conclude on the basis of your findings is correct
and can be verified by you and others.
– ‘Empirical’ means that any conclusion drawn is
based upon hard evidence gathered from
information collected from real life experiences or
observations.
– ‘Critical’ means critical scrutiny of the procedures
used and the methods employed is crucial to a
research enquiry.
Literature survey and review
• Literature Survey is done to know
– What approach have others used?
– Why are these approaches unsuitable? (gaps)
– How is your problem different from those of others?
– What can we learn from
• other approaches to similar problems?
• or similar approaches to other problems?
– How to Set our work into context
– How to avoid wasting effort when problem has
already been solved (duplication)?
– What controversial results may need to be checked?
– What is a state-of-the art and what you can extend &
build on the work of others?
Literature survey and review …
• Reviewing the literature:
– Essential preliminary task in order to acquaint yourself
with the available body of knowledge in your area of
interest.
– Literature review is integral part of entire research
process and makes valuable contribution to every
operational step.
– Reviewing literature can be time-consuming, daunting
and frustrating, but is also rewarding. Its functions
are:
• Bring clarity and focus to your research problem;
• Improve your methodology;
• Broaden your knowledge;
• Contextualize your findings.
Literature survey and review …
• Literature Survey in thesis writing context
– Thesis should be based on original research
– Avoiding unintentional duplication that may result in
invalidation of your work.
– Should gain knowledge and to establish context within
which research will be carried out
– Allow to pin-point questions, anomalies, or gaps in
existing knowledge
– Should help
• To establish scope, context & parameters of study
• To discuss/theorize/offer opinion/comment, and speculate,
even present new information as a result of study
• To build supporting structure of information which is
essential for your research.
Literature survey and review …
• Primary sources
– The “bread and butter” of the researcher.
– Most up-to-date information.
– Written for the expert reader ⇒ often not easy to
read/comprehend.
– Contains building blocks to build upon.
– For checking whether your results have been
published by others already.
– Gives latest results or 1st recording: available by
researcher who found result first.
Literature survey and review …
• Examples for primary sources
– Scientific journals or magazines
– Proceedings of scientific meetings
– Patents
– Technical reports
– Dissertations
– Student theses
– Books
– “non-literature” resources
Literature survey and review …
• Secondary sources
– Good as starting point if area is new for you.
– Useful to overview primary literature.
– Good source for helpful results from other
disciplines.
– Usually contain comprehensive literature lists.
– Often assesses value of primary sources.
– Gives report about results, commented results;
usually not by original researcher.
Literature survey and review …
• Examples for secondary sources
– Monographs
– (text)Books
– Some journal articles (survey papers, etc.)
– lecture notes
– Manuals
– Encyclopedias
– Handbooks
– Dictionaries
Literature survey and review …
• Properties of representative resources
– Journal paper
• Exact and qualitative research result
• Published after strict review by other experts
• May be results a few years ago
– Conference paper
• Less strict review
• May be results a few months or at most a year ago
• Can hear the author’s talk directly in the meeting
– Book or book chapter
• Written by experts
• Gathered and explained previous results by experts
Literature survey and review …
• Searching for books
– Bowker’s Books in Print www.booksinprint.com
– Library of Congress www.loc.gov
– www.amazon.com
– books.google.com
– www.intechopen.com
– www.it-ebooks.info
–…
Literature survey and review …
• Searching for scientific articles
– http://portal.isiknowledge.com
– http://www.scirus.com
– http://ieeexplore.ieee.org
– http://www.sciencedirect.com
– http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/
–…
Literature survey and review …
• Searching for patents
– IBM on-line patent search
• http://www.patents.ibm.com
– United states patent and trademark office
• http://www.uspto.gov/
– European patent office
• http://ep.espacenet.com/
Types of research
• Exploratory research
• Descriptive research
• Theoretic research
• Analytical research
• Predictive research
• Applied research
• Quantitative/ Qualitative research
• Deductive & Inductive research
Types of research …
• Exploratory research (Feasibility Study)
– Exploratory research is undertaken when few or
no previous studies exist.
– The aim is to look for patterns, hypotheses or
ideas that can be tested and will form the basis for
further research.
– Typical research techniques would include case
studies, observation and reviews of previous
related studies and data.
Types of research …
• Descriptive research
– Descriptive research can be used to identify and
classify the elements or characteristics of the subject,
e.g. ‘number of days & revenues lost because of bad
weather’.
– Quantitative techniques are most often used to
collect, analyze and summarize data.
– Requires description of phenomena or a situation,
giving a true picture of the topic by carrying out
survey/interview and observations, asking the
questions about what and how.
• Helps for formulation of more precise questions from which
one can do further research.
Types of research …
• Exploratory research (Feasibility Study)
– Exploratory research is undertaken when few or
no previous studies exist.
– The aim is to look for patterns, hypotheses or
ideas that can be tested and will form the basis for
further research.
– Typical research techniques would include case
studies, observation and reviews of previous
related studies and data.
Types of research …
• Analytical research
– Analytical research often extends the Descriptive
approach to suggest or explain why or how
something is happening, e.g. underlying causes of
industrial action.
– An important feature of this type of research is in
locating and identifying the different factors (or
variables) involved.
Types of research …
• Predictive research
– The aim of Predictive research is to speculate
intelligently on future possibilities, based on close
analysis of available evidence of cause and effect,
e.g. predicting when and where future action
might take place
Types of research …
• Theoretic (or Pure) research
– Advances fundamental knowledge
– Concerned with knowledge that is ”irrefutable“
– Contributes largely to theory formation
– The stuff that applied research is built upon
– Theoretic research is also problem solving but in a
different sense.
• It aims to solve perplexing questions (that is, problems)
of a theoretical nature that have little direct impact on
action, performance, or policy decision.
Types of research …
• Applied research
– Concerned with the application of knowledge
– Solving particular problems
– Applied research has direct applicability to the
real world
– Applied research has a practical problem-solving
emphasis.
• It is conducted to reveal answers to specific questions
related to action, performance, or policy needs.
Types of research …
• Quantitative research
– The emphasis of Quantitative research is on
collecting and analyzing numerical data;
• It concentrates on measuring the scale, range,
frequency etc. of phenomena.
– This type of research, although harder to design
initially, is usually highly detailed and structured
and results can be easily collated and presented
statistically.
Types of research …
• Qualitative research
– Qualitative research is more subjective in nature
than Quantitative research and involves examining
and reflecting on the less tangible aspects of a
research subject, e.g. values, attitudes,
perceptions.
– Although this type of research can be easier to
start, it can be often difficult to interpret and
present the findings; the findings can also be
challenged more easily.
Types of research …
• Qualitative research
– Qualitative research is more subjective in nature
than Quantitative research and involves examining
and reflecting on the less tangible aspects of a
research subject, e.g. values, attitudes,
perceptions.
– Although this type of research can be easier to
start, it can be often difficult to interpret and
present the findings; the findings can also be
challenged more easily.
Types of research …
• Deductive & Inductive
research
– Deductive research moves
from general
ideas/theories to specific
particular & situations: the
particular is deduced from
the general, e.g. broad
theories.
– Inductive research moves
from particular situations
to make or infer broad
general ideas/theories.
The process of research
• The research process is similar to undertaking
a journey.
• For a research journey there are two
important decisions to make -
– What you want to find out about or what research
questions (problems) you want to address;
– How to go about finding their answers.
The process of research …
• Important stages
The process of research …
• Specific Steps in Research Process:
1. Formulating the Research Problem
2. Extensive Literature Review
3. Developing the objectives
4. Preparing the Research Design including Sample
Design
5. Collecting the Data
6. Analysis of Data & Generalization and
Interpretation of results
7. Preparation of the Report or Presentation of
Results-Formal write ups of conclusions reached.
The process of research …
• Step1. Formulating the research problem:
– Main function is to decide what you want to find out
about.
– The way you formulate a problem determines almost
every step that follows.
– Fixing the research area in terms of-
• Problems: issues, situations, associations, needs, profiles
• Program : content, structure, outcomes, attributes,
satisfactions, consumers, service providers, etc.
• Phenomenon: cause-and-effect relationships, the study of a
phenomenon itself
– In practice most research studies are based upon at
least a combination of two Ps.
The process of research …
• Step1. Formulating the research problem …
– It requires
• Getting to the bottom of the problem
• Redefining the problem (if necessary)
• Brainstorming
• Creative and logical thinking
• Discussing with others
• Background needed to solve the problem
– What I knew
– What I should learn
The process of research …
• Step 2. Reviewing the literature:
– Essential preliminary task in order to acquaint yourself
with the available body of knowledge in your area of
interest.
– Literature review is integral part of entire research
process and makes valuable contribution to every
operational step.
– Reviewing literature can be time-consuming, daunting
and frustrating, but is also rewarding. Its functions
are:
a) Bring clarity and focus to your research problem;
b) Improve your methodology;
c) Broaden your knowledge;
d) Contextualize your findings.
The process of research …
• Step 3 The formulation of objectives:
– Objectives are the goals you set out to attain in your
study.
– They inform a reader what you want to attain through
the study.
– It is extremely important to word them clearly and
specifically.
– Objectives should be listed under two headings:
• main objectives ( aims) :The main objective is an overall
statement of the thrust of your study. It is also a statement
of the main associations and relationships that you seek to
discover or establish.
• sub-objectives: The sub-objectives are the specific aspects of
the topic that you want to investigate within the main
framework of your study.
The process of research …
• Step 4. Preparing the research design:
– Research design is the conceptual structure within
which research would be conducted. The function of
research design is to provide for the collection of
relevant information with minimal expenditure of
effort, time and money.
– The preparation of research design, appropriate for a
particular research problem, involves the
consideration of the following :
1. Method of Data Collection to be adopted
2. Source of information—Sample Design
3. Tool for Data collection
4. Data Analysis-- qualitative and quantitative
The process of research …
• Step 5: Collecting the data:
– Once formulated the research problem,
developed a study design, constructed a research
instrument and selected a sample, you then
collect the data from which you will draw
inferences and conclusions for your study.
– Depending upon your plans, you might commence
interviews, mail out a questionnaire, conduct
experiments and/or make observations.
The process of research …
• Step 6: Processing and analyzing the data:
– Processing and analyzing data involves a number
of closely related operations which are performed
with the purpose of
• summarizing the collected data and
• organizing these in a manner that they answer the
research questions (objectives).
The process of research …
• Step 7: Preparation of the Report or
Presentation of Results-Formal write ups of
conclusions reached.
– Presentation
• Oral presentation(meeting, conference, and invitation)
– Time limitation
– Face-to-face
– Writing a report
• Writing down with full detail for the purpose of backup
• Data arrangement
– Experiment data and setting
– Program code for simulation
– Proof detail
Module 2 - Overview
• Research Procedures
– Formulation of a research problem.
– Experimental design & classification.
– Theoretical research,
– verification methods,
– Modeling and Simulations,
– Ethical aspects, IPR issues, Copyrights and
Patenting etc.