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Overview of the Research

Jose Roy S. Aguilar
Head Teacher V
Bato Rural Development HS
The High School Method:
 Pick a Topic
 Find Resources in the Library
 Prepare an Outline
 Write a Brilliant Essay
 So How Do We Get
From This:

 To This:
We Need a Science Research Process
 Identify
 Formulate
 Plan
 Conduct
 Process
 Evaluate
Identify a Research Problem
1) What are the possible sources of ideas when you scout for a
 Categories:
 People
 Places
 Things
2) How will you identify the problem?
 Consulting, interviewing or observing people
 Visiting facilities and places
 Reading materials
 Observing things
 Your interests and abilities
 Availability of the materials needed for investigation
 Particular needs of the community
 Socio-economic significance of the problem
 Topic is within your level of knowledge and experience
 The time element required to finish the project
 Safety measures to be undertaken during investigation
 Expenses involved in undertaking the project
 Generation of new information
Formulate a Research Problem
 What do you really want to know about the
identified topic?
 What are your aims/objectives in pursuing
the research problem?
 What is the scope and limitation of your
 What are the variables or factors that you
have to consider in the study?
Things to Consider in Stating
the Problem
 Clarity
 Organization
 Specificity
 Well-defined Scope
 Conciseness
 Measurability
Significance of the Research Problem
 Help answer a problem/need of the
 Contribute to the generation of new
 Develop or improve an existing process,
 Contribute to the development of your
scientific skills
Formulating the Hypothesis
 The tentative answer
to the research
question must be:
 Relevant
 Testable
 Specific
 Stated properly
Three Ways of Stating the Hypothesis
 states that there is no significant difference between
the results of two conditions being tested
 states that there is a significance difference between
the results of two conditions being tested
 states that if a certain condition (cause) is true, then
a supporting observation (effect) occurs
Planning the Research Design
 How do you begin
your research?
 Where and when do
you begin?

“Everything should be
made simpler but not
Albert Einstein
Two Phases in Planning the Research Design

 Theoretical Phase
 conceptualization of an experimental design
 Actual Experiment Phase
 doing the experiments
 observing and collecting data
 consolidating and analyzing data
 drawing conclusive statements and
Experimental Design

 Single Group Design

 Control Group Design
 Parallel Group Design
 Completely Randomized
 Complete Block Design
A Well-designed Experiment has
 Internal Validity
 refers to the reliability of
 External Validity
 refers to the
generalizability of
Establishing Patterns or Trends in the
Data Collected
 Classifying Data
 Quantitative
 Qualitative
4 scales of measurement:
 Nominal
 Ordinal
 Interval
 Ratio
 Tabulating &  Describing the data
Graphing the Data  Measures of central
 bar graph tendency
 mean
 pie chart
 median
 line graph  mode
 column graph  Measures of variation
 scatter graph  frequency
 area graph  range
 surface graph  variance
 standard deviation
 Interpreting Qualitative
and Quantitative Data
 Sample analysis and
synthesis of relationship
 Testing Hypothesis
 Usinga Nine-Step
Hypothesis Testing
Making Conclusions & Recommendations

 Guidelines
 What was the purpose of the research?
 What were the major findings of the investigation?
 Was the hypothesis supported by data?
 What can be an explanation for the results?
 What is the importance of the experimental results?
 What recommendations for further study and for
improving the experiment can be made?
 Remember that a conclusion is based on
findings and recommendations are based
on conclusion.
Writing the Abstract
 “Give me a bird’s eye-view of what you have
 A short paragraph of not more than 200-250
 It gives the essential features of the research.
 problem
 samples
 experimental design
 procedures
 conclusions
 recommendations
Most Important:
 The research process is not linear:
 You may have to go back and repeat certain
stages because…
Research is a Process of Discovery!
Thank you for listening.
Good day everyone!