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# MATHEMATICS

and
CALCULATOR
TECHNIQUES

## ENGR. REYNILAN L. DIMAL

THE MEMORY VARIABLES
MEMORY CALCULATOR BUTTONS
A ALPHA (-)
B ALPHA O ‘ “
C ALPHA hyp
D ALPHA sin
E (ES PLUS only) ALPHA cos
F (ES PLUS only) ALPHA tan
X ALPHA )
Y ALPHA S D
M ALPHA M+
HOW TO CLEAR MEMORY
• SHIFT 9 1 =
– This means you will automatically go to MODE 1
• SHIFT 9 2 =
– All values stored in the memory variables will be
erased
• SHIFT 9 3 =
– This means you will automatically go to MODE 1
and all values stored in the memory variables
will be erased.
MODE 1 :
GENERAL
CALCULATIONS
HOW TO CONVERT BETWEEN
Convert 237.6150 to DMS (Degree Min Sec)

DISPLAY :
237.615O
237 036'54"

BASICS
HOW TO CONVERT BETWEEN
Convert 210 47'12" to decimal degrees.

DISPLAY :
210 47 0120
21.78666667

BASICS
HOW TO CONVERT BETWEEN

DISPLAY :
1200
2

3

BASICS
HOW TO CONVERT BETWEEN
π
2

DISPLAY :
 r

2
90
BASICS
PAST CE BOARD EXAM
What is 1200 in centesimal system?
ENTER

DISPLAY :
0
120
400
3
BASICS
HOW TO GET THE POLAR AND
RECTANGULAR COORDINATE OF A
POINT IN THE CARTESIAN PLANE
PAST CE BOARD EXAM
Find the polar coordinate of the point (4, - 6).

DISPLAY :
Pol (4,6)
r  7.211102551,   56.30993247

BASICS
HOW TO GET THE POLAR AND
RECTANGULAR COORDINATE OF A
POINT IN THE CARTESIAN PLANE
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
Find the value of cos if the terminal side
contains the point P(-3,-4)
Solution :

BASICS
HOW TO GET THE POLAR AND
RECTANGULAR COORDINATE OF A
POINT IN THE CARTESIAN PLANE
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
DISPLAY :
Pol (3,4)
r  5,   126.8698976
NOTE : r is stored automatica lly to X and  to Y.
DISPLAY :
cos(Y )
3

5 BASICS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
Find the rectangula r coordinate of a point
whose polar coordinate is (3,120 0 ).

DISPLAY :
Rec(3,120)
X  1.5, Y  2.59807621

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE COMBINATION
AND PERMUTATION PROBLEMS.
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
How many trian gles are formed by 10 distinct
points no three of which are collinear?
Solution :
The number of triangles that can be formed from
10 non collinear points is 10C3.
DISPLAY :
10C 3
120 BASICS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
In how many different ways can the judges choose
the winner and the first runner up from among the
10 finalists in a student essay contest?
Solution :
There are 10 finalists taken 2 at a time.
Note : order is important here
DISPLAY :
10 P 2
90
BASICS
HOW TO EVALUATE FACTORIAL
NUMBERS
18. Find the value of 10!

DISPLAY :
10!
3628800

BASICS
PAST EE BOARD EXAM
How many different permutatio ns can be made
from the letters MISSISSIPPI?
Solution :
Number of M  1; I' s  4; P' s  2; S' s  4;
Number of Letters  11.
Note : The number of different permutatio ns is :
11!
1!4!2!2!

BASICS
PAST EE BOARD EXAM

DISPLAY :
11!
1! x 4! x2! x4!
34650

BASICS
HOW TO EVALUATE
FUNCTIONS
11. Evaluate f( 6 ) if f(x)  3x 4  3x 2-5x  6

BASICS
HOW TO EVALUATE
FUNCTIONS
12. Evaluate f( 4,3 ) if f(x, y)  4 x3 y 2  3x 2 y-2 xy2  y 3

BASICS
PAST ME BOARD EXAM
Find the remainder when 3x 4  2x 3 - 4x 2  x  4 is divided by x  2.
Solution:
f(x)  3x 4  2 x 3-4 x 2  x  4 , remainder  f(-2 )

BASICS
PAST EE BOARD EXAM
Given f(x)  (x  3 )(x-4 )  4. When f(x) is divid ed
by x-k, the remainder is k. Find k.
Solution: f(x)  (x  3)(x - 4)  4
f(k)  (k  3)(k - 4)  4  k

BASICS
HOW TO EVALUATE
FUNCTIONS
13. Is (x  3 ) a factor of x6  6 x5  8x 4-6 x3-9 x 2?

## Conclusion :Since f(-3)  0,

then x  3 is a factor of
x 6  6 x 5  8 x 4 -6 x 3-9 x 2

BASICS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
Find the remainder when 4 y 3  18 y 2  8 y  4 is divided by 2 y  3.
Concept : Set the divisor to zero and solve for y.
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
2Y  3  0, Y
- 1.5
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
4Y 3  18Y 2  8Y - 4
11
Answer : The remainder is 11

HOW TO USE THE ∑ SIGN

## Find the sum. 1  2  3  ...  20

DISPLAY :
20
x
x1

210

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE LINEAR
EQUATIONS
SOLVE 4(3  x)  5(4  x)

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE LINEAR
EQUATIONS
x 3 x 1 x2
SOLVE   1
12 6 9

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE A
SPECIFIC VARIABLE
D
If A  (2 X  2Y ), X  4, D  2, and A  9,
7
what is the value of Y ?

BASICS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
When 3 is multiplied by 5 less than a number,
the result is 9 less than 5 times the number.
Find 7 less than 5 times the number.

BASICS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM

BASICS
HOW TO USE MULTILINE FUNCTION
PAST EE BOARD EXAM
Find the area of a triangle whose sides are 6m, 8m, 12m.
Solution : Using Heron' s Formula :
A  s(s - a)(s - b)(s - c)
abc
s
2
ENTER :

BASICS
HOW TO USE MULTILINE FUNCTION
PAST EE BOARD EXAM
DISPLAY :
A BC
X : X(X - A)(X - B)(X - C)
2
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
ABC
X
2 DISPLAY :
13 X ( X  A)( X  B )( X  C )
455

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE TRIGONOMETRIC
EQUATIONS
Solve 5tan x - 3  2tan x : 0  x  360
ENTER :

DISPLAY : ENTER :
5 tan x - 3  2 tan x
DISPLAY :
X 30
5 tan x - 3  2 tan x
L-R  0
X 210
Answer : X  300 and 2100 L-R  0
BASICS
HOW TO USE LOGARITHMIC EQUATIONS
PAST ME BOARD EXAM
Solve for x in log 2 x  log 2 (x  5)  10
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
log 2 x  log 2 (x  5)  10
X 29.59750769
L-R  0

BASICS
HOW TO USE LOGARITHMIC EQUATIONS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
Solve for x in x 3log x
 100x

DISPLAY :
x 3log x  100 x
X 10
L-R  0

BASICS
HOW TO GET THE
DERIVATIVE AT A POINT
Find the derivative of x 3  3x 2 when x  3.
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
d
( X  3X )
3 2

dx x 3

45

BASICS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
x2
Differenti ate the equation y 
x 1
x2  2x x 2x2
a. b. c.2 x d.
( x  1) 2
( x  1) ( x  1)
Technique : Differenti ate y at any value of x, say x  2 and compare this
value to the value of the choices when same value of x is substitute d.
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
d  x2 
 
dx  x  1  x  2
0.8888888889
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
Note : Compare it to the choices as the value of x is being substitute d.
x2  2x
a) Substitute x  2
( x  1) 2

ENTER :

## DISPLAY : The values of the rest of the choices when x  2

x 2  2 x are summarized as follows :
( x  1) 2 x2
b. x

2
c.2 xx2  4 d . 
4
0.8888888889 ( x  1) x  2 3 ( x  1) x  2 3
x2  2x
( x  1) 2

HOW TO INTEGRATE
2

  3x  1)dx
5
Evaluate ( x
1

ENTER :

DISPLAY :
2

x  3 x  1 dx
5

16
BASICS
MODE 2 :
COMPLEX NUMBER
CALCULATIONS
HOW TO SOLVE COMPLEX NUMBERS
For the complex number z  3 - 4i
a. Find the absolute value.
b. Find the argument.

DISPLAY :
3  4i  r
5  53.13010235
0
Answer : The absolute value is 5 and the argument is 53.13
BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE COMPLEX NUMBERS
Given : (2 - 3i)(5  2i), find the product.
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
(2  3i )(5  2i )
16  11i

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE COMPLEX NUMBERS
4  2i
Simplify :
5 - 2i
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
4  3i
5  2i
14 23
 i
29 29

BASICS
HOW TO GET THE COMPONENT OF A
FORCE AND RESULTANT OF FORCES
Find the x and y components of the force F  300N370
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
30037 0
239.590635  180.5445069i
Answer : The x component is 239.5 N and the y component is 180.54 N.

BASICS
HOW TO GET THE COMPONENT OF A
FORCE AND RESULTANT OF FORCES
Find the x and y components of the force
F  800lbs with angle 400 at III Quadrant .
Solution : Express the force as F  800(180  40)  8002200
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
8002200
 612.8355545  5142300877i
Answer : The x component is - 612.84lbs and
the y component is - 514.23lbs.
BASICS
HOW TO GET THE COMPONENT OF A
FORCE AND RESULTANT OF FORCES
Find the resultunt of the forces, F1  350N at 600
and F2  400N with an of angle 1400.
Solution : The resultant is the sum of the complex
numbers 35060  400140
ENTER :

## DISPLAY : Answer : The magnitude of the

350600  4001400 resultant is 575.43N with 103.200
575.4315683103.2017875 with the  x - axis(count erclockwis e)
BASICS
PAST EE/ECE BOARD EXAM
Simplify t he expression i1997  i1999 where i is an imaginary number.
Technique : Divide the exponents to 4 and get the remainder.
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
ENTER :
1997  4 DISPLAY :
1 1999  4
499
4
3
499
4
Note :1/4 correspond s to i (i1  i) ENTER :
2/4 correspond s to - 1 (i 2  i) DISPLAY :
3/4 correspond s to - i (i 3  - i) i i
whole number (0 remainder) 0 (Answer)
correspond s to 1 (i 4  1)
PAST CE/ECE BOARD EXAM
Find the value of (1  i)5 where i is an imaginary number?
Technique : Rewrite as (1  i)3 (1  i) 2
ENTER :
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
(1  i )3 (1  i ) 2
 4  4i

MODE 3 :
STATISTICAL AND
REGRESSION
CALCULATIONS
HOW TO FIND THE MEAN AND
STANDARD DEVIATION
Five light bulbs burned out after lasting 867,
859, 840, 852, and 888 hrs. Find the mean.
DISPLAY :
x
1 867
2 859
DISPLAY : 3 840
x 4 852
5 888
861.2
BASICS
PAST ME BOARD EXAM
Given the following statistica l data, determine
the standard deviation.
Data :112 132 144 156 164 176 183 197
ENTER
DISPLAY :
x
1 112
2 132
3 144 DISPLAY :
4 156
5 164 x
6 176 26.21545346
7 183
8 197 BASICS
HOW TO GET THE MEAN, VARIANCE
AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF
GROUPED DATA
DISPLAY :
x FREQ
1 62 2
2 65 5
3 68 12
4 71 15
5 74 8
6 77 5
7 80 3

BASICS
HOW TO GET THE MEAN, VARIANCE
AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF
GROUPED DATA
DISPLAY :
n
50
DISPLAY :
x
70.94
DISPLAY :
sx
4.391132065
DISPLAY :
Ans 2
19.28204082

BASICS
HOW TO FIND AREAS IN THE
NORMAL CURVE

## P(a) means area from z  -  to z  a

R(a) means area from z  a to z   
Q(a) means area from z  0 to z  a BASICS
HOW TO FIND AREAS IN THE
NORMAL CURVE
Find the area under the normal curve to the left
of z  1.64.
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
P(1.64)
0.9495

BASICS
HOW TO FIND AREAS IN THE
NORMAL CURVE
Find the area beneath a standard normal curve
between z  0 and the point - 1.58.
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
Q(-1.58)
0.44295

BASICS
HOW TO FIND AREAS IN THE
NORMAL CURVE
Find the probabilit y that a normal distributi on random
variable will be within z  1 standard deviation of the mean.
Solution : We are looking for the area from z  - 1 to z  1.
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
Q(-1)  Q(1)
0.68268
BASICS
HOW TO FIND AREAS IN THE
NORMAL CURVE
Find the probabilit y that a normally distribute d random variable
will lie more than 1.5 standard deviation above the mean.
Solution : We are looking for the area from z  1.5 to z  .
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
R(1.5)
0.066807
BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE LINEAR REGRESSION
PROBLEMS

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE LINEAR REGRESSION
PROBLEMS
ENTER : DISPLAY :
x y
1 20 12
2 18 10
3 16 11
4 14 6
5 10 7
6 8 8
7 6 4
8 4 6
DISPLAY : 9 2 5
A 10 0 2
3.1359045

DISPLAY :
B
0.40449955409 BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE LINEAR REGRESSION
PROBLEMS
Therefore : The regression equations is Y  A  BX
Y  3.1359045  0.4044995409X
b. To determine the correlatio n coefficien t :
DISPLAY :
r
0.8854825905
c. To predict th e value of Y when X  23 :

DISPLAY :
23 y
BASICS
12.43939394
HOW TO GET THE EQUATION OF A
LINE GIVEN 2 POINTS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
Find the equation of the line that passes through
(2,5) and (-3,8).
ENTER : DISPLAY :
x y
1 2 5
2 3 8

DISPLAY : DISPLAY :
A B
31 5 3 5 BASICS
HOW TO GET THE EQUATION OF A
LINE GIVEN 2 POINTS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
Therefore : the equation of the line is : Y  A  BX
31 3
Y  X
5 5
or : 5Y  31  3 X
3 X  5Y  31

BASICS
HOW TO GET A POINT ON THE LINE
GIVEN TWO POINTS
If a line passes through (4,1) and (3,-7) and (x, y)
is on the line, what is the value of x in (x,4) and
the value of y in (-5, y)?

DISPLAY : 35
Answer : When x  4, y 
4 xˆ 8
35 8
BASICS
HOW TO GET A POINT ON THE LINE
GIVEN TWO POINTS

## DISPLAY : Answer : When y  - 5, x  - 71

 5 yˆ
 71

BASICS
PAST ME BOARD EXAM
The equation of the line that intercepts the x - axis at x  4 and
the y - axis at y  - 6 is :
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
ENTER :
x y
DISPLAY :
1 4 0
A
2 0 6
-6
ENTER :
DISPLAY : Answer : Y  A  BX
B Y  - 6  3/2X
1.5 or 3/2 which can be rewritten as :
3X - 2Y - 12  0

PAST CE/ECE BOARD EXAM
Find the 30th term of the arithmetic progressio n 4, 7, 10...

ENTER :
DISPLAY :
x y
1 1 4
2 2 7

ENTER :
DISPLAY :
30 Ŷ
91

PAST CE/ECE BOARD EXAM
What is the sum of the progressio n 4, 9, 14... up to the 20th term?

ENTER :
DISPLAY :
ENTER :
x y DISPLAY :
1 1 4 ENTER :
A
2 2 9 DISPLAY :
1
Ans  A
1
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
ENTER :
B
DISPLAY :
5
Ans  B
5

PAST CE/ECE BOARD EXAM
What is the sum of the progressio n 4, 9, 14... up to the 20th term?

ENTER :

DISPLAY :
20

 A  BX
x 1

1030

PAST CE BOARD EXAM
The 4th term of the GP is 216 and the 6th term is 1944. Find the 8th term.

ENTER :

DISPLAY :
x y
1 4 216
2 6 1944

ENTER :
DISPLAY :
8Ŷ
17496

MODE 4 :
SPECIFIC NUMBER
SYSTEMS
CALCULATIONS
HOW TO DO BASE NUMBER
CALCULATIONS
Convert 23410 to binary (base 2).
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
234
Dec
234

ENTER :
DISPLAY : Thus : 23410  111010102
234
Bin
BASICS
0000000011101010
HOW TO DO BASE NUMBER
CALCULATIONS
Convert 123410 to HEXADECIMA L system.
ENTER :

ENTER :
DISPLAY :
1234
Hex
000004D2
Thus :123410  000004D216
BASICS
HOW TO DO BASE NUMBER
CALCULATIONS
Convert ABC1216 to OCTAL system.
ENTER :
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
ABC12
Oct
00002536022
Thus : ABC1216  000025360228

BASICS
HOW TO DO BASE NUMBER
CALCULATIONS
Evaluate (AB16 )(3F16 ).
ENTER :
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
AB x 3F
Hex
00002A15

BASICS
HOW TO DO BASE NUMBER
CALCULATIONS
Evaluate 112  4510  AB216  778. (in base 10)
Solution : Convert all values to base 10.
For 112 Result : 3
For AB216 Result : 2738
For 778 Result : 63

Add : 3  45  2738  63
BASICS
HOW TO DO BASE NUMBER
CALCULATIONS
Find the logical AND ( 1012 and 1102 )
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
101 and 110
Bin
0000000000000100

BASICS
HOW TO DO BASE NUMBER
CALCULATIONS
Find the logical XOR ( 1012 and 1102 )
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
101 xor 11
Bin
0000000000000110

BASICS
MODE 5 :
EQUATION
SOLUTION
HOW TO SOLVE EQUATIONS
IN 2 UNKNOWNS
SOLVE 2 x  7 y  4
x  2y 1

BASICS
PAST ME BOARD EXAM
In 5 years , Ana' s age will be twice as the age of
her friend Jun. Five years ago, she was three
times as old as his friend . Find their present ages.

BASICS
PAST ME BOARD EXAM

BASICS
PAST EE BOARD EXAM
A man has 2 investment s one paying 3% annual interest
and the other at 4% interest. The total income from
the investment s is P1700. If the interest rates were
interchang ed, the total income would be P1800.
Find the amount of each investment .

BASICS
PAST EE BOARD EXAM

BASICS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
2000 kg of steel containing 8% nickel is to be
made by mixing steel containing 14% nickel with
another containing 6% nickel. How much of each
is needed?
Solution :
Let : X  amount of steel containing 14% nickel
Y  amount of steel containing 6% nickel

BASICS
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE
Solve the quadratic equation 6 x  7 x  5  0
2

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE
Find the values of x in x 2  2 x  5  0

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE
Solve the quadratic equation 5x 2  2 x  9  0

## NOTE : This is the advantage of CASIO ES PLUS

over the OLD ES - It can give irrational roots
BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE EQUATIONS
IN 3 UNKNOWNS
Find the values of x, y and z if:
3x - 3 y - z  4
x  9 y  2 z  16
x - y  6 z  14

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE EQUATIONS
IN 3 UNKNOWNS

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE CUBIC
EQUATIONS
Solve the cubic equation x3  2 x 2 -5x - 6  0

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE CUBIC
EQUATIONS
Solve x3 - 1  0

BASICS
MODE 6 :
MATRIX
CALCULATIONS
HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
INVOLVING MATRICES
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
3 5 9 1 3 5
Simplify 37 1  27 1 Solution : Store 7 1 to MAT A
4 9 8 9 4 9

ENTER :

9 1 ENTER :
Solution : Store 7 1 to MAT B
8 9

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
INVOLVING MATRICES
PAST ECE BOARD EXAM
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
3 MAT A  2 MAT B
ENTER : DISPLAY :
Ans
27 17 
35 5 
 
 28 45

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
INVOLVING MATRICES
 3 2 - 1
Find the transpose of matrix A if A   3 7 8 
- 1 3 2 
 3 2 - 1 ENTER :
Store  3 7 8  to matrix A.
- 1 3 2 

ENTER :
DISPLAY : Trn (Mat A) Enter :
Ans
 3 3 - 1
2 7 3
 
- 1 8 2 

BASICS
HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
INVOLVING MATRICES
 2 1 3
Find the inverse of matrix A if A  6 1 4
3 7 2
 2 1 3 ENTER :
Store 6 1 4 to matrix A.
3 7 2

ENTER :
DISPLAY : MatA -1
Ans
- 0.4 0.2923 0.0153
 0 - 0.076 0.1538 
 
 0.6 - 0.169 - 0.061 BASICS
HOW TO COMPUTE THE
DETERMINANT OF A 3X3 MATRIX
Find the determinan t : 2 4 -5
2 1 7
8 1 2
ENTER :

DISPLAY :
det(MatA)
228 BASICS
PAST CE BOARD EXAM
In a Cartesian coordinate s, the vertices of a triangle are defined by
the following points (-2,0), (4,0) and (3,3). What is the area?
Concept : The area of any triang le with vert ices (x1 , y1 ), (x 2 , y 2 ) and (x 3 , y3 ) is :
x1 y1 1 2 0 1
1 1
A  x2 y2 1 A  det 4 0 1
2 2
x3 y3 1 3 3 1

ENTER :

DISPLAY :
-2 0 1
ENTER :
4 0 1
3 3 1 DISPLAY :
0.5det(Mat A)
9
MODE 7 :
GENERATING TABLE
FROM A FUNCTION
HOW TO TABULATE VALUES OF A
FUNCTION
Tabulate values of f(x)  x 3  2x 2  3 from
x  0 to x  10 every unit step.
DISPLAY :
ENTER : X F(X)
1 0 3
2 1 0
3 2 13
4 3 42
5 4 93
6 5 172
7 6 285
8 7 438
9 8 637
10 9 888
11 10 1197

BASICS
MODE 8 :
VECTOR
CALCULATIONS
HOW TO DO VECTOR CALCULATIONS
Given the 2 vectors : A  4i - j  7k and B  3i  5j  9k.
a. Find the magnitude of the resultant of vectors A and B.
b. Find the dot product of vector A and B.
c. Find the cross product of vectors A and B.
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
A
[ 4 -1 7 ]

ENTER :
DISPLAY :
B
[ 3 5 9 ]

BASICS
HOW TO DO VECTOR CALCULATIONS
ENTER :
DISPLAY :
Abs(VctA  VctB)
17.91647287

b. ENTER :
DISPLAY :
VctA  VctB
70

c. ENTER :
DISPLAY :
VctA  VctB
Ans
[ - 44 - 15 23] BASICS
HOW TO DO VECTOR CALCULATIONS
PAST ME/CE BOARD EXAM
What is the magnitude of the vector A  4i  2j  7k
and give its direction cosine vector.
ENTER :
ENTER :
To get the magnitude :
ENTER :

BASICS
HOW TO DO VECTOR CALCULATIONS
PAST ME/CE BOARD EXAM
DISPLAY :
Abs (VctA)
8.306623863
Note : (This is stored in Ans)
To get the direction cosine :
DISPLAY :
Ans
[0.4815 0.2407 0.8427]
BASICS
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