Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

THE STORY OF PHILOSOPHY

THE GREEKS AND THEIR WORLD


The Beginning of Philosophy
ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY
 Philosophy begins when human beings start
trying to understand the world, not through
religion or by accepting authority but through the
use of reason.
SOCRATES’ PHILOSOPHY

May 20, 2011


 What we needed to know was how to conduct our
lives and ourselves.

Philosophy of Man
 Thus, the more urgent questions are not
something like “what the world is made of?” but
rather “what is good?”, “what is right?”. “what is
just?”
 Socrates believed that man’s soul pre-existed his
body. In his original ideal existence as a soul or
pure mind in the realm of ideas, man knew all
things by direct intuition, and had all this
knowledge stored in his mind.
4
PLATO: DUALISTIC NATURE OF MAN

May 20, 2011


 He thinks that there two sorts of stuff that make
up he world, two sorts of things that especially
come together in human beings

Philosophy of Man
 A human being is composed of body and soul.

BODY – material, mutable, mortal


SOUL – spiritual, immutable, immortal
 Following Socrates, Plato thought of human
beings as essentially their souls.
 While we have bodies, we are souls.

5
ARISTOTLE: THE COMPOSITE NATURE OF
MAN

May 20, 2011


 Man is not pure mind or spirit as Plato thought
man to be.

Philosophy of Man
 Man, in his present earthly existence, is a
composite nature of body and soul, mind and
matter, sense and intellect, passion and reason.
 Philosophy, therefore, aims at the development of
the WHOLE MAN, the full realization and
actualization of all man’s power and
potentialities – primarily of his rational
prerogatives and secondarily of the emotional,
social, political, esthetic and economic aspects of
his composite being. 6
June 01, 2011
Philosophy of Man
MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY
7
Christianity and Philosophy
THE ORIGINS OF CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY

June 01, 2011


 After the ascension of Jesus Christ into Heaven,
the catechesis of Christian doctrine was based on
the oral preaching of the witnesses of His life.

Philosophy of Man
 By the middle of the second century, Christians
felt the need to have to recourse to theological
speculation in order to:
1. Express more precisely the dogmatic formulas
contained in the symbols of faith.
2. To tear down heretical arguments.

3. To defend themselves from the calumnies


coming from the Roman authorities.
8
AUGUSTINE’S VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE

June 01, 2011


 For Augustine, as for Plato, there are two main
divisions of reality, the physical and the non-physical.
In the non-physical world are souls, spiritual
substances, God and Forms in the Mind of God. In

Philosophy of Man
the physical world are images, material objects, space
and time.

 Dualistic view of man


- human beings are composed of two substances,
bodies and souls.
- our souls are most important to us. They are not
something that we have, they are something that we
are.
- we are spiritual beings at the core of our nature
9
ST. THOMAS AQUINAS’ PHILOSOPHY

June 01, 2011


 As did all medieval theologians, Aquinas
accepted the Christian worldview as a given.

Philosophy of Man
 Everything important about life has been
revealed in the scriptures – The Old and The
New Testaments.
 While faith in the revealed word of God required
to know what is true, we must also have reason
(philosophy) to help us to understand what we
believe.
 Aquinas was not afraid that reason might lead
people astray from God’s truth, but rather
10
welcomed it as another avenue to God
June 8, 2011
Philosophy of Man
MODERN PHILOSOPHY
11
The Revival of Reason
THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERNITY

June 8, 2011
 During the middle ages, the Catholic Church
incorporated the Ptolemaic system into the Christian
view of the world. On this view, God made the world

Philosophy of Man
to be the center of everything. Psalm 93 (addressing
God) also claims: “Thou hast fixed the earth
immovable and firm.”
 In the 16th century, a Polish churchman called
Copernicus pointed out that many of our fearsome
mathematical problems would melt away if we
treated the sun as the center of the solar system.
 When he did this, he showed that the planetary
movements that were becoming increasingly difficult
to explain suddenly made good, clear sense. 12
DESCARTES’ PHILOSOPHY OF MAN: “I
THINK THEREFORE I AM”

June 8, 2011
For Descartes, his self is his nonphysical mind, or
soul:
1. If I exist and my body may not exist, then I am not

Philosophy of Man
my body.
2. I exist.
3. My body may not exist.
4. Therefore, I am not my body.
 For Descartes, human beings are very different from
animals and everything else in nature. We can do
lots of things in a mechanistic way, such as refuse to
act on a strong desire, plan future events, make
decisions, and so on. We can do all these things
because we are not entirely physical things; we are
13
also nonphysical things; we have minds.
DESCARTES’ PHILOSOPHY OF MAN: “I
THINK THEREFORE I AM”

June 8, 2011
 So, we are bodies and minds
 It is the job of science to study bodies along with

Philosophy of Man
the rest of nature; and it’s the job of philosophy to
study the mind.
 Although he recognizes the importance of the
body, Descartes, like Plato before him, believes
that what is essential to being a self is the
nonphysical mind, not the body.

14
June 8, 2011
Philosophy of Man
15 The 19th Century and Beyond

CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY
THE 19TH CENTURY

June 8, 2011
 It was a time of greatly increased activity in the
sciences of man and correspondingly rapid
development of various disciplines.

Philosophy of Man
 Perhaps the most significant theme , common to
all branches of science, was the declining
influence of religion.
 Theological discourse was thus only human
discourse.
 Herder: “It is necessary to read the Bible in a
human manner, for it is a book written by men
for men.”
16
June 8, 2011
Philosophy of Man
INTELLECTUALBACKGROUND OF
CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY:
17
Nietzsche and Kierkegaard
SOREN KIERKEGAARD (1813-1855)

June 8, 2011
 Rejected the intellectualization of God. He
believes that reason plays no role in religion.
 He believed that we desire more than anything

Philosophy of Man
else is a close personal relationship with God.
 If we never fulfill this desire, we will never be
happy.
 To have a personal relationship with God is to
have absolute faith in Him, a belief that is not to
be proven by evidence that He exists.
 However, a fulfilling relationship with God can
be freely chosen by us or not.
 “Man’s existence can only become significant
18
when one realizes his own freedom.”
FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE (1844-1900)

June 8, 2011
 “God is dead and we have killed Him.”
 This meant that the essence of God in modern

Philosophy of Man
man was dead.
 Also dead was the part of a person that
recognized universal God-given ideals of reason
and truth, goodness and beauty.
 He rejected reason as the core of human nature.

 Knowledge is not man’s strongest desire but


rather the desire for power.
 There is no pre-established human nature, only
the freedom to be whatever we choose to be. 19
June 8, 2011
Philosophy of Man
JEAN – PAUL SARTRE
20
Existentialism
WHAT IS EXISTENTIALISM?

June 8, 2011
 Derived from the word “Existence” which comes
from the Latin word “Existere” which means to
“stand out”, “to emerge” or “to come out

Philosophy of Man
from”

 Stresses the difference between “existing” and


“living”

21
SOME THEMES OF EXISTENTIALISM

June 8, 2011
 Rejection of reason and of the idea that man is,
by nature, a rational being.

Philosophy of Man
 Existentialism takes man as the center of
attention. The focus is on the individual and
more importantly, the uniqueness of each
individual.

 Existentialist focus on freedom as the chief


aspects of ourselves. We are free to choose our
lives, even our selves.
22
SARTRE’S PHILOSOPHY OF MAN

June 8, 2011
“Life is an empty bubble

Philosophy of Man
in the sea of nothingness.”
 Man comes from nothingness
 Life is meaning-less

23
SARTRE’S PHILOSOPHY OF MAN

June 8, 2011
“Existence precedes
essence.”

Philosophy of Man
 Human beings have no fixed nature or essence.
We are not born into this world with a certain
way to be. Instead we are pure potential for
becoming whatever we choose to become.

24
ASSIGNMENT:
 Read “The Phenomenological Method” by Manuel
B. Dy.
 Bring your fillers, some art materials, a
magazine that can be recycled.

Centres d'intérêt liés