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# Seminar HAKI 2016

## Simple, Fast, and Unconditionally

Stable Direct Nonlinear Analysis
using DNA- Method
By
ESRC Bandung
Nonlinear Analysis Procedures

 Linear region
 Nonlinear
region
 Limit point
 Snap-through
 Post-buckling
 Unstable
region
 Strain
hardening
Newton-Raphson Method (1690)

 Kt built every
 Slow
convergence
 Unstable at limit
point
Modified Newton-Raphson Method

 Kt built every
 Slower
convergence
but more
efficient
 Still Unstable at
limit point
Displacement Control Method (1980)

 Displ increment
 Kt unfactored
(faster)
 Can pass limit
point
 Problem with
non-uniform
changes
Arc-Length Method (Riks, Wempner,
1971)
increment
 Constant line
search
 Kt unsymmetric
 Stable, Can
pass limit point
 Complex
procedure
Modifed Arc-Length Method
(Crisfield, 1981)
increment
 Spherical arc-
length search
 Kt unsymmetric
 Stable, Can
pass limit point
 Complicated
 Best method so
far
Modifed Arc-Length Method with
Secant Changes (Ramm, 1981)
increment
 Constant line
search, secant
change
 Stable, Can
pass limit point
 Complicated
procedure
Problems with previous methods
 From current condition iterates to next condition
 Other previous states neglected
 Known states used : 1 previous step condition
(previous configuration C1 and previous tangent
stiffness matrix Kt)
 How to handle : limit points, snap-through,
bifurcation points, strain hardening/softening
 Complicated procedures and Costly procedure for
Tangent Stiffness (slow iteration)
Development of New Nonlinear
Method
 Use more than 1 previous states that have
been calculated before
 Avoiding factorization/inverse of Tangent
Stiffness Matrix (Costly Matrix Factorization)
 Direct solver without iteration (is it possible ?)
 Unconditionally stable regardless of size of
path
Basic Principles: Mean Value
Theoreme (Calculus 101)
 For any function
continuous and
differentiable in
[a,b]
 There is a point
c which has
tangent =
secant of [a,b]
 F'(c) = secant
[a,b]
Direct Nonlinear Analysis Method
(using 2 previous states)
 A = previously
two states
 C = previous
state, Kt known
 Using Kt(c) and
A, state B can
be found, that
will give
Secant[a,b] = Kt
 B can be found
without iteration
Direct Nonlinear Analysis Method

##  The Mean Value Theorem is not reversible

 If point A and C exist, point B may not exists
(quadratic condition may have no roots)
 Load incremental Analysis can guarantee that
B exists
 OR we can use state D (before state A) as
 If linear region = straight path -> no solution,
use previous increment
Direct Nonlinear Analysis Method
(DNA- Method)
Direct Nonlinear Analysis Method
(DNA- Method)
 Known: C1, C2,
Kt2, Find : C3
  = U2-U1
  = U3-U2
 Try 3 values of
: 1,2,3
 F3 = F1 + Kt2 x
(1+)
 F = a*^2 +
b* + c
Direct Nonlinear Analysis Method
(DNA- Method)
 Known: C1, C2,
Kt2, Find : C3
  = U2-U1
  = U3-U2
 Try 3 values of :
1,2,3
 F3 = F1 + Kt2 x
(1+)
 F = a*^2 +
b* + c
DNA- vs Midpoint Rule

 Known: Sn,Un
Find : Sn+1
 Blue and red line
is not parallel
 N+1/2 → alpha =
1.0
 Needs error
correction to
converge
DNA- vs BFGS Method

 In BFGS,
Stiffness Matrix
K-1 is updated
until becomes
Secant matrix Ki
 In DNA-
Secant matrix is
calculated using
current tangent
and previous
state
Direct Nonlinear Analysis Method
(Simple Truss Arch Problem)
Simple Truss Arch Problem

##  Dynamic load step changes automatically

 Very accurate results without iteration
Simple Truss Arch Problem

##  25 Steps will give result close enough to 40 steps

 Overshoot at second limit point, auto correct
Simple Truss Arch Problem

##  40 steps result is close enough to 100 steps

result
Simple Truss Arch Problem

##  Unconditionally stable method

 Automatic Load Path Correction even for Post-
buckling and Snap-through
Cantilever Column Buckling (2-DOF)

 Fixed Support
 With Lateral and Axial Load
CONCLUSIONS

##  New approach (after 40 years): Mean Value

Theorem and DNA- using 2 previous states
 Unconditionally Stable for large load step size,
 Very efficient, use 2 previous states instead
of 1 state
 Very fast : No factorization of Kt
 Direct Nonlinear Analysis = No iteration
needed
CONCLUSIONS

##  Able to pass limit points, snap-through, and

strain hardening/softening regions
 Few load steps: 5-10 steps for SDOF, 10-20
steps for MDOF
 Simplified Version with constant  = 1.1 can be
used for preliminary analysis
 DNA- with constant  = 1.1 can be used as a
good predictor for other methods (Riks-
Wempner, Newton-Raphson, etc)
DIFFICULTIES AND
FURTHER RESEARCH
 Can not trace straight path (linear region)
 Linear region = use previous load step
 Determine starting value of 
 Need more storage for Kt1, Kt2 matrices
(No problem for modern computers)
 Accurate element forces evaluation needed
 Further Research : Extending to Nonlinear
Dynamics Analysis
Direct Nonlinear Analysis Method
(DNA- Method)

THANK YOU !