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Sunday, September 2, 2018

REVIEW 2-
Performance analysis of Rayleigh

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and Rician Fading channel Model

1
Agenda

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Literature survey
Abstract
Introduction
Performance
Doppler shift geometry

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Multipath fading environment
Investigate the effect of propagation environment
WiMAX
WiMAX Deployment
WiMAX profile parameter
Conclusion

2
Sunday, September 2, 2018
LITERATURE

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SURVEY:
EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE PATH ON BER PERFORMANCE OF
WiMAX PHYSICAL LAYER FOR DIFFERENT MODULATION
SCHEMES.

3
Abstract :

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• In this paper, the effect of number of paths, through which the signal
propagates between Base Station and Mobile User, on the BER
performance of Physical layer of WiMAX communication system has
been investigated using MATLAB Simulink.
• An end-to-end baseband model of the WiMAX physical layer over

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the Multipath Fading Environment is simulated for the analysis
purpose.
• The BER response of the WiMAX system for different number of
paths has been evaluated at a fixed SNR value for BPSK, QPSK, 16
QAM and 64 QAM modulation schemesover Multipath Rayleigh
Fading Channels. BER is an important figure of merit for quantifying
the integrity of data transmitted through any communication system.
• Keywords— WiMAX, BER, Multipath Rayleigh Fading, BPSK,
QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM. 4
Introduction

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• In wireless signal propagation, the biggest challenge is to overcome
the effects of fading.
• The multipath nature of channel leads to ISI (Inter Symbol
Interference) and as bandwidth is increased, ISI affects the channel
severely.

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• Some unpreventable circumstances attenuate the signal strength and
make it difficult to achieve the desired results from the system.
• The radio link between the Base Station (Source or Transmitter) and
User can be a LOS (line-of-sight) or it can be a NLOS (non line-of-
sight), the latter being severely obstructed by the environmental
objects and features like buildings, weather conditions etc.

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A Depiction of LOS (Direct Path)

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and NLOS (Reflected Path) :-

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Performance:-

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• The performance of wireless communication systems is highly
determined by noise. Particularly, if signals are in a fade, the signal-
to-noise ratio will be low and bursts of error will occur
• .Noise in wireless communication systems is any unwanted
fluctuation, instability or disruption that induces itself within the

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transmitted data signal via different mediums and interfering objects.
• The noise level will be maintained for Multipath fading channel in
Simulink by using Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel. BER
variations with different number of paths will be noted for a fixed
SNR (dB) for various modulation schemes.
• Doppler shift is also an another reason which affects the performance
of wireless communication system.if the mobile is moving toward the
direction of arrival of the wave ,the doppler shift is positive and if the
mobile is moving away from the direction of arrival of the wave ,the 7
doppler shift is negative.
Doppler Shift Geometry
Sunday, September 2, 2018
Investigate the effect
of propagation

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environment
Multipath rayleigh fading.

9
MULTIPATH FADING
ENVIRONMENT

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• In wireless mobile communications, the transmitted signal
from the Base Station do not directly reach the Mobile user.
• There are severalenvironmental obstacles that block the
LOS(line of sight path).
• A signal travels from transmitter to receiver over a multiple-

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reflection path andcauses fluctuations in the receiver signal‟s
amplitude and phase.
• The sum of the signals arriving at the receiver of Mobile user
can be constructive or destructive.

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Multipath Rayleigh Fading:

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• When there is no LOS propagation path between Base Station
or Transmitter and Mobile User or Receiver, the fading
distribution follows Rayleigh fading model.
• The received multipath components have relatively same

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strength. The Rayleigh distribution has the pdf (probability
distribution function) given by:

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Sunday, September 2, 2018
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WiMAX
Worldwide interoperability of microwave access

12
Think about how you access the Internet
today….

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Broadband access
• Wi-Fi access

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• Dial-up access

13
DEFINE:

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• WiMAX or Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave
Access, is a wireless Internet service designed to cover
wide geographical areas serving large number of users at
low cost.

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• WiMAX is the synonym given to the IEEE 802.16 standard
defining wide area wireless data networking .

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A WiMAX system consists of

Sunday, September 2, 2018


two parts :
:
A Transmitter

• A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area –

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as big as 3,000 sq. miles

• A Receiver

• The receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card or


they could built into a laptop as the way Wi-Fi access is today.
15
WiMAX DEPLOYMENT:

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16
WiMAX Profile Parameters

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Standard IEEE 802.16e

Carrier Frequency Below 11GHz

Frequency Bands 2.5GHz,3.5GHz,5.7GHz

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Bandwidth 1.5 MHz to 20 MHz

Radio Technology OFDM

Distance 10 Km

Modulation 16 QAM
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CONCLUSION:-

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• It can be concluded that for Multipath Rayleigh Fading
Channel , the number of paths for the signal propagation
between transmitter and receiver affects the BER of a
particularly modulated signal, marginally and the main

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factors affecting BER performance of the system are
Dopplers Shift and Noise (SNR ).

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BASE PAPER DETAILS :-

Sunday, September 2, 2018


AUTHORS: Navjeet singh ,Dr.Amita Soni

• TITLE:Effect of multiple paths on BER performance of WiMAX


Physical layer for different Modulation Schemes.
• PUBLICATION: International journal of advanced research in

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computer science and software engineering.
YEAR OF PUBLICATION: 2014

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Agenda

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Literature Survey
Abstract
Introduction
Challenges of communicating over Faded Channels
Characterizing mobile radio propagation

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Fading channel Manifestation
Link budget consideration over a fading channel
Path loss measurement in German cities
Signal Time spreading
Concept of Duality
Degradation categories viewed in time domain
Error Performance
Conclusion 20
Base Paper Details
Sunday, September 2, 2018
LITERATURE SURVEY:

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FADING MANIFESTATION, TYPES OF DEGREDATION, METHODS
TO MILIGATE THE DEGREDATION

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Abstract

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• When the mechanisms of fading channels were first modeled
in the 1950s, the ideas were primarily applied to over-the
horizon communications covering a wide range of frequency
bands. The 3–30 MHz high-frequency (HF) band is used for
ionospheric communications, and the 300 MHz–3 GHz ultra-

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high-frequency (UHF) and 3–30 GHz super-high-frequency
(SHF) bands are used for tropospheric scatter. Although the
fading effects in a mobile radio system are somewhat different
than those in ionospheric and tropospheric channels, the early
models are still quite useful to help characterize fading effects
in mobile digital communication systems.
• It itemizes the fundamental fading manifestations and types
of degradation as well as it will focus on methods to mitigate 22
the degradation.
Introduction

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Fading: rapid fluctuations of received signal strength over short
time intervals and/or travel distances Caused by interference from
multiple copies of Tx signal arriving at Rx at slightly different
times
• Three most important effects:
1. Rapid changes in signal strengths over small travel distances or

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short time periods.
2. Changes in the frequency of signals.
3. Multiple signals arriving a different times. When added together at
the antenna, signals are spread out in time. This can cause a
smearing of the signal and interference between bits that are
received.

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Challenges of communicating
over Fading Channels

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Sources of noise degrade the system performance
• AWGN (ex. Thermal noise)
• Man-made and natural noise
• Interferences

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• Band-limiting filter induces the ISI effect
• Radio channel results in propagation loss
• Signal attenuation versus distance over free space.
• Multi-path fading  cause fluctuations in the received amplitude,
phase, angle of arrival
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Characterizing mobile radio
propogation

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Small-scale fading
• Time-spreading of the signal
• Time delays of multi-path arrival
• Time-variant behavior of the channel

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• Motion between the transmitter and the receiver results in
propagation path changes
• Statistics of envelop over the small-scale fading
• Rayleigh fading if there are large number of reflective paths,
and if there is no line-of –sight signal components
• Rician pdf while a line-of-sight propagation path is added to 25
the multiple reflective paths
Characterizing mobile radio
propogation

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Large-scale fading
• Signal power attenuation due to motion over large area
• Is caused by the prominent terrain (ex. hills, forest, billboard…)
between the transmitter and the receiver

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• Statistics of path loss over the large-scale fading
• Mean-path loss (nth-power law)
• Log-normal distributed variation about the mean
• Is evaluated by averaging the received signal over 10 to 30
wavelengths
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Fading channel Manifestation

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27
German Cities
Path loss measurement in

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28
Signal Time Spreading

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• Signal time-spreading viewed in the Time-Delay Domain
• The model treats signal arriving at a receive antenna with different
delays as uncorrelated
• Multi-path-intensity profile describes the average received signal

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power as a function of the time delay
• Multi-path-intensity profile usually consists multiple discrete
multi-path components
• The time between the first and the last received component
represents the maximum excess delay

29
Concept of Duality

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Two operators (functions, elements, or systems) are dual when
the behavior of one with reference to a time-related domain
(time or time-delay) is identical to the behavior of the other
with reference to the corresponding frequency-related
domain (frequency or Doppler shift).

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30
Degradation categories viewed
in Time Domain

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Fast fading
• The channel coherence time is less than the time duration of a
transmission symbol
• Channel will change several times during the time span of a

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symbol
• Mobile moves fast
• Result in an irreducible error rate
• Slow fading
• Symbol period is less than the coherence time
• One can expect the channel state to virtually remain unchanged
31
during the symbol time
• Mobile moves slowly
Awful
Error Performance: Good, Bad,

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32
Conclusion

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Two manifestations of small-scale fading (signal dispersion and
fading rapidity) are examined, and the examination involved
two views, time and frequency. Two degradation categories
are defined for dispersion: frequency-selective fading and flat-
fading. Two degradation categories were defined for fading

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rapidity: fast and slow. Further, mitigation techniques for
ameliorating the effects of each degradation category are
treated. This model yields a nice symmetry, a kind of “poetry”
to help us view the Fourier transform and duality relationships
that describe the fading phenomena.

33
Base Paper Details

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• TITLE: Rayleigh Fading Channels in Mobile Digital Communication
Systems

AUTHORS: BERNARD SKLAR,

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PUBLICATION: IEEE Communications Magazine

YEAR OF PUBLICATION: July,1997

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Agenda

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Literature survey
Abstract
Introduction
Propagation Mechanism
 1.Reflection
 2.Diffraction

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 3.Scattering
causes of :
 Bit errors in CDMA wireless channel
 consequently packet losses in CDMA wireless channel
Multipath fading And causes
Models that can be used to characterize various wireless
environment
 ERROR MODELS OF FADING CHANNELS
 Analytical Models 35
 Empirical Distribution-Based Models
Conclusion
Sunday, September 2, 2018
LITERATURE

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SURVEY:
ERROR MODELING SCHEMES FOR FADING CHANNELS IN
WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

36
Abstract Of Project

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Network system designers need to understand the error
performance of wireless mobile channels in order to improve the
quality of communications by deploying better modulation and
coding schemes, and better network architectures.
• It is also desirable to have an accurate and thoroughly reproducible

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error model, which would allow network designers to evaluate a
protocol or algorithm and its variations in a controlled and
repeatable way. However, the physical properties of radio
propagation, and the diversities of error environments in a wireless
medium, lead to complexity in modeling the error performance of
wireless channels.
• This article surveys the error modeling methods of fading channels
in wireless communications, and provides a novel user-requirement
(researchers and designers) based approach to classify the existing 37
wireless error models.
Introduction

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Modeling the error performance of wireless channels is usually a
complex task, because the performance of wireless channels
inherently depends on radio propagating modes, such as, line of
sight (LOS) radiation, reflections from a smooth surface, diffractions
around a corner, and scattering caused by an object with dimensions
on the order of the wavelength.

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• The radio link is highly variable over short distances due to the
statistical distribution of path loss (PL) and the physical properties of
propagation environments, thereby making it difficult to generalize
the results of error performance analysis.
• Schemes to improve the reliability of wireless channels range from
innovative transport-layer protocols to robust physical-layer schemes,
including better modulation and coding.

38
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39
Propagation Mechanism Cont..

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Reflection, which may interfere constructively or destructively
at the receiver, occurs when an electromagnetic wave
impinges on a smooth surface with very large dimensions
when compared to the wavelength of the radio wave.
• Diffraction occurs when the path of the electromagnetic wave

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is obstructed by an impenetrable body of large dimensions as
compared to the RF signal wavelength. This causes secondary
waves to be formed behind the obstructing body, without any
LOS path between the secondary waves. Diffraction, which is
also called shadowing because the diffracted field can reach
the receiver even when shadowed by an impenetrable
obstruction, explains how RF energy can travel in urban and
rural environments without a LOS path 40
Propagation Mechanism Cont..

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Scattering occurs when the radio channel contains objects of
dimensions that are on the order (or less) of the
electromagnetic wavelength, causing energy from a
transmitter to be radiated in many different directions. In
urban environments, typical objects that cause scattering are

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lamp posts, street signs and foliage.

41
Causes of Error in CDMA (code division
multiple access)wireless channel

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Attenuation: This is due to a decrease in the intensity of
electromagnetic energy at the receiver (e.g., due to long
distance), which leads to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
• Intersymbol interference (ISI): This is caused by delay spread
(the arrival of a transmitted symbol is delayed), resulting in

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partial cancellation of the current symbol.
• Doppler shift: This is due to the relative velocities of the
transmitter and the receiver. Doppler shift causes frequency
shifts in the arriving signal, thereby complicating the
successful reception of the signal.
• Multipath fading: This is caused by multipath propagation of
radio frequency (RF) signals between a transmitter and a 42
receiver. Multipath propagation can lead to fluctuations in the
amplitude, phase, and angle of the signal received at a
receiver.
MULTIPATH FADING ENVIRONMENT

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• In wireless mobile communications, the transmitted signal
from the Base Station do not directly reach the Mobile user.
• There are several environmental obstacles that block the
LOS(line of sight path).
• A signal travels from transmitter to receiver over a multiple-

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reflection path and causes fluctuations in the receiver signal’s
amplitude and phase.
• The sum of the signals arriving at the receiver of Mobile user
can be constructive or destructive.

43
MULTIPATH FADING ENVIRONMENT Cont..

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44
Models that can be used to characterize
various wireless environment.

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Environment Channel type
Mobile systems with no LOS path between Rayleigh [10].
transmitter and receiver antenna,
propagation of reflected and refracted
paths through troposphere and ionosphere,
ship-to-ship radio links [11]

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Satellite links subject to strong ionospheric Nakagami-q (Hoyt) (spans range from
scintillation [12] one-sided Gaussian (q = 0) to Rayleigh
(q = 1)) [13
Land mobile [16], indoor mobile multipath Nakagami-m (spans range from one-
propagation as well as ionospheric radio sided Gaussian m = 1/2), Rayleigh (m =
links. 1) to no fading (m = • )) [17].

Convex combination of unshadowed Combined (time-shared)


multipath and a composite shadowed/unshadowed [21]. 45
multipath/shadowed fading. Land mobile
satellite systems [21].
ANALYTICAL MODELS

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Physical-Layer Oriented Modeling
• This method aims at determining the BER performance of a
wireless communication system over fading channels. Based
on the specific channel model and modulation/detection

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combination, the average BER is obtained through statistical
calculations. One of the approaches is to approximate the
probability density function (PDF) of SNR at the receiver, and
then average the BER over that PDF.
• Much work on this modeling approach has been reported in
the literature.

46
ANALYTICAL MODELS cont..

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Higher-Layer Oriented Modeling —
• As mentioned earlier, modeling of fading errors at higher
layers aims at calculating the average block error rate (packet
error rate). In the literature, most of the models are based on

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the assumption that data packet transmissions are i.i.d. In
addition, many coding schemes and protocols were initially
designed for i.i.d. channels.
• One may consider an apparent alternative solution to this
problem: the study of channels with memory by deploying
some prediction techniques. Unfortunately, little work is
available on such models.
47
EMPIRICAL DISTRIBUTION-BASED
MODELS

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• A large number of measurements have been conducted by
telecommunication companies, research laboratories, and
universities in order to determine reasonable fading-channel
parameters (such as error rates) for wireless communication
systems.

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• These measurements show that environmental factors, such
as terrain, construction materials, speed of pedestrians and
vehicles, etc., have a direct impact on radio propagation
characteristics.

48
EMPIRICAL DISTRIBUTION-BASED
MODELS Cont..

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Therefore, although analytical modeling methods as described
here are sound in theory, in practice it is hard to determine
the values of the parameters in these models, especially when
we want to build a specific model under a special

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environment.

• This gives rise to empirical distribution-based modeling


methods.

49
CONCLUSION:-

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Wireless error modeling methods have been surveyed and classified
in this article. The models that have been developed to approximate
the loss behavior of transmission channels have been classified into
two groups: analytical models and empirical distribution-based
models.

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• Since errors in wireless channels are due to the diversity of wireless
connections and the complicated error environment, analytical
modeling methods are highly dependent on the characterization of
error environments, such as fading channels. Although physicallayer
oriented modeling methods and higher-layer oriented modeling
methods can be used to evaluate the BER performance and packet
error performance, respectively, it is highly desirable that wireless
errors be modeled in a thoroughly reproducible way.
50
BASE PAPER DETAILS :-

Sunday, September 2, 2018


AUTHORS: HAOWEI BAI, HONEYWELL AEROSPACE
MOHAMMED ATIQUZZAMAN, UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA

• TITLE:ERROR MODELING SCHEMES FOR FADING CHANNELS IN


WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

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• PUBLICATION : The electronic magazine of original poor-
reviewed surveys Articles
YEAR OF PUBLICATION: 2003

51
Agenda

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Literature survey
Abstract of project
Introduction
OFDM
MIMO

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OFDM system level implementation
Hardware overview
Simulation Process
Simulation Result
conclusion
Base Paper Details

52
Sunday, September 2, 2018
LITERATURE
SURVEY:

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IMPLEMENTATION OF 802.11N OFDM TRANSMITTER AND
RECEIVER USING FPGA

53
Abstract Of Project

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• The increasing demand on high bit rate and reliable wireless system
has led to many new emerging modulation techniques like OFDM
(Orthogonal frequency division and multiplexing),which offers
reliable high bit rate wireless system with reasonable low
complexity.

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• Multiple input multiple output antenna systems provides higher
data rates up to 100Mbps.The combination of OFDM with MIMO
results in less BER.802.11n which is designed and simulated in this
paper.
• The new standard 802.11n is predicted to be capable of supporting
data rates up to 600Mbps by deploying the latest communication
method such as MIMO.For this we are using 2.4GHZ frequency.
54
Introduction

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• The mobile communication industry faces the problem of providing
the technology that will be able to support a variety of services
ranging from voice communication with a bit rate of few Kbps to
wireless multimedia in which bit rate is up to 2Mbps
• This method has recently became available with reasonable prices
verses performance of hardware implementation.

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• The objective is to design and implement a baseband OFDM
transmitter and receiver on FPGA hardware. Frequency band of
2.4GHZ is used for this.
• By implementing a MIMO OFDM baseband transmitter and receiver
on an FPGA with proper selection of one of the sixteen constellation
which vary in terms of the convolution coding rate, parsing method
and modulation type thereby the project is expected to fulfill the
need for high speed data transmission for a wireless communication
system with cost effective hardware implementation 55
OFDM :

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Normal modulation techniques like AM, PM, FM, BPSK, QPSK etc. is
modulated over a single carrier therefore these are single carrier
modulation techniques.
• OFDM is a multicarrier modulation technique, in which several
carriers are transmitted over the allocated bandwidth to carry the

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information from source to destination.
• For this, each carrier may use one of the several available digital
modulation techniques like BPSK, QPSK, and QAM.

56
OFDM Tx And Rx:

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Fig 3: OFDM Transmitter

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Fig 4: OFDM Receiver

57
Multiple Input Multiple Output:

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• Frequency reuse is the main function of the MIMO.
• To improve efficiency of the spectrum we uses MIMO.
• Multiple antennas at the transmitter side and multiple antennas at
the receiver side are being used in this technique.
• By using spatial multiplexing and space time block code we can

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implement MIMO.
• Spatial Multiplexing: A high rate bit stream is decomposed into three
independent 1/3 rates bit sequences which are then transmitted
simultaneously, using multiple antennas, thus consuming one third
of the nominal spectrum.
• Space Time Block Code: STBC scheme supports maximum likelihood
(ML) detection based only on a linear processing at the receiver. The
linear processing and the simple structure of the Alamouti 58
construction makes it attractive scheme. It is used in the application
where higher order diversity is needed.
OFDM SYSTEM LEVEL
IMPLEMENTATION:

Sunday, September 2, 2018


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59
Fig 5: OFDM block diagram
OFDM system transmitter:

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Fig 6: MIMO Transmitter block diagram. 60
OFDM system receiver:

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61
Fig 7: Mimo Receiver block diagram
HARDWARE OVERVIEW :

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• The implementation on FPGA is better than on a general purpose
MPU in terms of speed and ASIC in terms of cost.
• An FPGA means field programmable gate array which supports
implementation of relatively large logic circuits.
• It consist of three main sources viz . Logic blocks , input output

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blocks and interconnection wires or switches .
• For this system design on hardware we are using MATLAB
/SIMULINK visual modeling tool set.
• This tool gives the user a library, which simulates each hardware
components behaviour.
• Then the whole design is implemented on spartan6 FPGA device.

62
SOFTWARE OVERVIEW :

Sunday, September 2, 2018


Simulation Process:
• Finalize specifications for OFDM system.
• Decide hardware according to the specifications.
• Start creating model for MIMO in MATLAB in Simulink generator.

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• a) Develope model for the OFDM transmitter.
• b) Develope model for the OFDM receiver.
• c) Check MATLAB simulation.
• Generate VHDL code and VHDL test bench.
• Verification and functional simulation.
• Hardware cosimulation. (burning or dumping bit file into FPGA
hardware)
• Verify OFDM specifications on hardware. 63
Sunday, September 2, 2018
Simulation Results:

• Modulation scheme used-QPSK and MSK.


• Number of subcarriers-Limited by board resources.
• Input data rate can be achieved upto 90Mbps and the graph for
channel capacity Vs. SNR .

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• Bit Error Rate achieved is 0.000001.

64
CONCLUSION :

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• We conclude that, in the design and implementation of OFDM
transmitter and receiver on FPGA. The combination of OFDM with
MIMO results in less BER. The bit error rate with QPSK for OFDM
using MATLAB simulation is presented.

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• The BER performance varies and the transmitted bits are received at
the receiver section. The implementation is done using Xilink
spartan6 FPGA board. The good capability of OFDM design and
implementation has bright future.

65
Base Paper Details

Sunday, September 2, 2018


• TITLE: Implementation of 802.11n OFDM Transmitter and
Receiver Using FPGA

• AUTHORS: Pratibha Mane, Varsha Thombare, Monali Mhaske,


Prof. R. R. Bhambare

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PUBLICATION: International Journal of Emerging Technology
and Advanced Engineering

YEAR OF PUBLICATION: 2014

66
Gantt Chart

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