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GENES

- Holds information of every individual


- It is the basic unit of heredity

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

- Double helix carrying genetic


iinstructions used in the growth,
development, functioning and
reproduction of all known living
organisms and many viruses.
CHROMOSOMES

- Thread like molecules that carry


hereditary information about for
everything from height to eye color
- 46 chromosomes

GENOTYPE

- Genetic constitution of an individual


influences but is not solely responsible
for many of its traits
PHENOTYPE

- Is the visible or expressed trait


- Depends upon the genotype but can
also be influenced by environmental
factors

ALLELE
- Is a variant of a gene
- One allele inherited from each parent
HOMOZYGOUS

- Alleles for a traits are identical or the


same

HETEROZYGOUS

- When two inherited alleles are different


for a particular gene
GENETICS

- Study of gene structure and action and


the patterns of inheritance of traits
from parents to offspring

HEREDITY

- Transmission of traits from parents to


offspring
NON MENDELIAN PATTERNS

A. INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE
- refers to the expression of
intermediate or blended traits in a
heterozygous individual
- neither allele is dominant over the
other
NON MENDELIAN PATTERNS

B. CO-DOMINANCE

-Result when one allele is not dominant


over the other
- the resulting heterozygotes exhibit
the trait of both parents
NON MENDELIAN PATTERNS

C. MULTIPLE ALLELES

-Refer to three or more alleles for a


trait

D. Sex linked traits

- genes that determine the expression


of certain traits that are more dominant
in one sex
BLOOD TYPES
- There are 3 different alleles for blood
type (A, B and O)
- “A” is dominant to “O”
- “B” is dominant to “O”
- A & B are both co-dominant

Antigen- protein on the surface of the blood


cell

Antibody- protein in plasma that reacts with


specific antigens that enter the blood
Phenotype Genotype

O OO
A AA/AO
B BB/BO
AB AB
SEX LINKED TRAITS

HEMOPHILIA- Bleeding disorder in which the


blood does not clot normally

COLOR BLINDNESS- deficiency in the way


you see color

DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY


-Muscular weakness, progressive
deterioration of muscle tissue, and loss of
coordination.
SEX LINKED TRAITS

MALE PATTERN BALDNESS


- Male pattern hair loss
The mother of Gina has a
blood type of AA, and her
Father has a blood type of
AB. What is the possible
blood type of Gina?
Mother= AA Father= AB
A A

A AA AA
B AB AB
Glynnise and Jordan have a
2 year old daughter named
Ishin, if Glynnise has an AB
blood type and Jordan has
an O blood type. What is the
possible blood type of Ishin?
Mother= AB Father= OO
A B

O AO BO
O AO BO
Mom is a normal carrier, Dad
has hemophilia. How many
girls have hemophilia? How
many boys?
Mother= XHXh Father= XhY

XH Xh

Xh
XHXh XhXh

Y XHY XhY