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STUDY MATERIAL

TOPIC:

DISASTERS: THEIR IMPACT


ON THE ENVIRONMENT

TECHNOLOGICAL
MANMADE
DISASTERS INDUSTRIAL
WHAT IS A DISASTER?

A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that


seriously disrupts the functioning of a community
or society and causes human, material and
economic or environmental losses that exceed the
community’s or society’s ability to cope using its
own resources.
ETYMOLOGY

• Derived from Middle French ‘desastre’ and that from


old Italian ‘disastro’

• In Greek ‘dus’ means ‘bad’ and ‘aster’ means ‘star’

• The root of disaster (bad star in Greek) - an astrological


sense of calamity blamed on the position of planets.
DEFINITIONS
• A disaster may be defined as an occurrence either natural or manmade that causes
human suffering and creates human needs that victims cannot alleviate without
assistance. -ARC(American Red Cross)
• A disaster can be defined as any occurrence that causes damage , ecological
disruption, loss of human life or deterioration of health and health services on a
scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected
community or area. - WHO(World Health Organization)
• An overwhelming ecological disruption occurring on a scale sufficient to require
outside assistance. -PAHO 1980
• Disaster means a catastrophe , mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area,
arising from natural or manmade causes , or by accident or negligence which
results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction
of property or damage to, or degradation of environment, and is of such a nature or
magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected
area. –DM Act 2005
CLASSIFICATION

Disasters

I
Natural Disasters Man-made Disasters
Natural Disaster Man-made Disaster
• Occur due to natural forces • Result of carelessness or human errors
Examples : during technological or industrial use.
Earthquake Examples:
Landslide Building collapse
Flood Stampedes
Tsunami Industrial accidents
Volcanic eruptions Oil spill explosions
Wildfire Nuclear Explosions
Drought Radiation
Cyclones Deforestation , pollutions
Storm Fires
Heat wave Transport accidents
Typhoon Dam burst
Tornado Terrorism , wars
Hurricane food poisoning
NATURAL DISASTERS
MAN-MADE DISASTERS
Impacts of Disasters on Environment
• Deaths
• Disability
• Injuries
• Increase in communicable disease
• Psychological problems
• Food shortage
• Socio-economic losses
• Shortage of drugs ad medical supplies
• Environmental disruption
• Ecological imbalance
CLASSIFICATION

Man-made Disasters

Industrial Disasters Technological Disasters


INDUSTRIAL DISASTERS

• These are disasters caused by industrial


companies

• Either by accidents or negligence or


incompetence

• Great damage to property, human life


and environment
“It is reported that in every twenty
seconds of every working minute of
every hour throughout the world,
someone dies as a result of an
industrial accident.”
LIST OF INDUSTRIAL DISASTERS

• DEFENSE INDUSTRY
• MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
• MINING INDUSTRY
• ENERGY INDUSTRY
• CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
DEFENSE:

Accidents are mainly caused by explosives in storage buildings and


improper maintenance or violating standard operating procedures

INS Sindhurakshak submarine –


sinked due to explosions and 18
killed on board s

Military storage center in


Rawalpindi, Pakistan exploded-
1988, more than 1300 killed
MANUFACTURING:
Due to fire, explosion , electrocution or building collapse

40 killed in fireworks factory in Sivakasi


on 2012

An eight-story factory building collapsed


on the outskirts of Dhaka, Bangladesh and
killed 1129 people
Experienced an explosion and fire on 10 April 2016 in Puttingal
temple, Paravoor. 111 people killed and more than 350 injured
MINING:
Caused by fire explosions, suffocation, formation of chemical gases,
flood, landslides or earth wall collapse
Soma mine disaster in Turkey.
An explosion occurred 2 km
below the surface. Fire and
CO poisoning killed 301

Dhanbad coal mine explosion


killed 375 miners in 1965
ENERGY:
Disasters are caused by accidents in power generating industries,
nuclear reactors, oil spill or explosion during transportation

Chernobyl disaster - uncontrolled


reactor led to meltdown. Killed
100 & radiation affected 10,000
people

December 9, 2014- An oil tanker


collision caused 3.5L furnace oil
spread in Sundarbans, Bangladesh
an protected mangrove area
11 March 2011-Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan.
37 injured & workers taken into hospital with radiation burns
CHEMICAL:
Caused by improper maintenance and safety procedures, unskilled workers

Bhopal gas tragedy- December 3, 1984. MIC(Methyl Iso Cyanate) gas


leakage in a pesticide manufacturing company. Reduction in
investment led to old equipment, less number of workers and no
maintenance to reduce loss by Union Carbide Ltd. Death toll around
15,000 within two weeks and 5 lack people affected
EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL DISASTERS
• Injuries and death
• Destruction of buildings and other property
• Stoppage of production
• Costly and time-consuming repairs and replacement
• Loss of income of the industry and loss of wages to workers
• Loss to insurance companies
• Expensive compensations
• Adverse publicity
• Environmental pollution and destruction
• Loss to morale
TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTERS

• Caused by a malfunction of a technological structure and/or


some human error in controlling or handling the technology

• Effects on families and individuals may be long lasting and


can endure for years

• Involve failure or breakdown of systems, equipment,


structural collapses such as bridges , mines, buildings ,dam
burst, but also industrial accidents
EXAMPLES OF TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTERS

Hyatt Regency walkway collapse-


1981, Missouri

The Iroquois Theatre blaze-1903,


Chicago
The Vasa sinking-1628,
Stockholm

 The Eschede train


derailment-1998,
Germany
 The St.Francis Dam burst-1928
California, USA

 Coorporative Hospital fire-2017


Thaliparamba, Kerala
 Lalita park building collapse-
2010, Delhi

 Maha Kumbh mela


stampede;27 killed,60 hurt-
2013 ,Allahabad
EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTERS
• Injuries and death
• Destruction of buildings and other properties
• Stoppage of production
• Loss of income and employment
• Loss to insurance companies
• Adverse publicity to the technology used
• Environmental destruction
• Depression
• PTSD(post-traumatic stress disorder)
PREVENTION, CONTROL AND MITIGATION
FOR MAN-MADE DISASTERS
• Proper training for workers in hazardous industries
• Proper maintenance and care of safety measures
• Proper management of dangerous facilities
• Removing human encroachments around hazardous areas
• Make people aware about first-aid methods in case of accidents
• Applying wet clothes over mouth and nose in case of gas
leakages
• Providing adequate compensation to the affected people (money
or employment)
• Taking effective precautionary measures
• Providing public campaign
AGENCIES /AUTHORITIES /ORGANIZATIONS
INVOLVED IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Disaster management is a complex process involving
international , national and local organizations each with a
distinct role to play

• FAO(Food and Agriculture Organization)


• UNDP(United Nations Development Programme)
• WFP(World Food Programme)
• WHO(World Health Organization)
• UNICEF(United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund)
REFERENCES:

• ‘Industrial disasters, Toxic waste and Community Impact’-


Francis O Adeola
• ‘Man-made Disasters’-Barry A Turner
• https://en.m.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Disaster
• www.disaster-survival-resources.com/man-made-disasters.html
• https://www.slideshare.net/mobile/ technologicaldisasters
• Article on Man-made disaster-All.essay.blogspot.com
• ‘Terrorist , Natural and Man-made disasters’-Michael I
Greenberg