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SOIL AND WETLAND

SOIL…

WETLAND…

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
SOIL

SOIL…

• Soil is a dynamic body of natural materials that is capable


of supporting a vegetative cover. It contains minerals,
chemical solutions, gases, organic refuse, flora, and fauna.

• The interactions among the physical, chemical, and


biological processes that take place demonstrate the
dynamic character of soil.

• Soil responds to climatic conditions (especially temperature


and moisture), the land surface configuration, its
vegetation cover, and animal activity.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF SOILS

COMPONENTS…
What is soil actually made of?
What soil characteristics support and influence variations in
Earth's environments?

• Soil is an exceptional example of the interdependence and


overlap among Earth's subsystems, because a soil develops
through long-term interactions of atmospheric, hydrologic,
lithologic, and biotic conditions.

• Four major soil components:


1. materials,
2. soil water,
3. soil air, and
4. organic matter.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
SOILS OF BANGLADESH

SOILS OF BANGLADESH…

• The country is generally


composed of a thick layer of
sediment, deposited over tens
of thousands of years by the
flowing rivers.

• It is estimated that only the


Jamuna river brings about 2.4
billion tons of sediment
annually in Bangladesh.

• The different physiographic


divisions are characterized by
different types of soil.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
SOILS OF BANGLADESH

SOILS OF BANGLADESH…

• The soil survey of Bangladesh


has developed the concept of
Land Development Units,
which are continuous land
areas of similar soils and land
levels and usually with similar
hydrography.

• For each of the Land


Development Units detailed
classification has been made
by the Soil Survey Department
of Bangladesh.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
SOIL FORMATION

FORMATION…

Regarding soil formation, two distinct conditions occur in


Bangladesh:
1. Alternating seasonal wet or inundated and dry conditions,
as prevalent on most of the floodplain areas, and

2. Intermittently wet or moist or dry conditions, as on the


upland areas of hills and terraces.

This is due to variation of agro-climatic parameters in different


seasons.
The soil formation process differs significantly between
floodplain, hill and uplifted terrace.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
SOIL CLASSIFICATION

CLASSIFICATION…

The soil resources development institute (SRDI) has identified


about 500 soil series in Bangladesh.
Soil series is a group of soils formed from the same kind of
parent material under similar conditions of drainage,
vegetation, climate and time, and having the same sequence
of soil horizons with similar differentiating properties.
Each soil series is known after a name of locality (e.g. Tejgaon
series, Ishwardi series, etc).

GENERAL SOIL TYPE…


A non-technical grouping of soils, made originally to enable
non-specialists to make use of the technical information
provided by the FAO/UNDP Soil Survey Project in the 1960s.
These general soil types give a very broad level of
generalization of soil characteristics.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
FLOODPLAIN SOILS

FLOODPLAIN SOILS…

In many areas, the soil surveys recognized active, young, and


old floodplain landscapes.

Active floodplains occupy land within and adjacent to the


main rivers where shifting channels deposit and erode new
sediments during the annual floods.

Newly deposited alluvium within this floodplain is stratified


in different layers.

Usually, silty and clay deposits are finely stratified, and


sandy deposits, as well as mixed sandy and silty deposits are
coarsely stratified.

This is a state from where the soil forming factors starts


activating the soil forming processes.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
HILL SOILS

HILL SOILS…

Soil forming processes are active on the hills for a significant


period.

Due to erosion on steep slopes of high hills, the weathered


material on the hills is constantly removed and thus keeps the
soils young on the high hills.

The soils on the low hills are older as erosion is less severe and
allows soil material to accumulate.

Soils have been developed from these minerals through


prolonged weathering under well to excessively drained
conditions, leaching, acidification and removal of surface
material by erosion.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
PLEISTOCENE TERRACE SOILS

TERRACE SOILS…

Unlike other floodplain terraces, the madhupur clay was


uplifted and formed a terrace above sea level probably before
the Late Pleistocene.

Since then it has been subject to the action of soil forming


processes.

Soils have been developed in the two kinds of Madhupur clay -


deeply weathered pervious clay and little altered impervious
clay.

The soil formation process vary considerably in drainage, and


degree of profile development, depending on the extent of
weathering of the parent material and the topography.

Also known as red soil. Available in Barind Tract and Madhupur


Area.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
OTHER SOIL TYPES

OTHER SOILS…

Gangetic Alluvium:
Rajshahi, Pabna, Kushtia, Jessore, Faridpur and part of Dhaka
District.

Teesta Silt:
Dinajpur, Rangpur, Bogra and Pabna district.

Brahmaputra Alluvium:
Comilla, Noakhali, Mymensingh, Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet
district.

Coastal Saline Tract:


Barisal, Khulna, Noakhali and Chittagong district.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
WETLAND

DEFINITION…

Areas of Marsh, Fen, Peat land or Water, whether natural or


artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or
flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas marine water
the depth of which at low tides does not exceed six meters.

More than two thirds of the country’s landmass may be


classified as wetlands according to this definition given by
Ramsar Convention (IUCN 2005)

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
WETLANDS OF BANGLADESH

WETLANDS…

The total area of wetland in


Bangladesh has been estimated
to be 7-8 million hectares which
is nearly 50% of the countries
landmass.

Some opine that they cover


about 11% of the total area
which is 16,000 sq km.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
CLASSIFICATION OF WETLANDS IN BANGLADESH

CLASSIFICATION…

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
WETLAND

ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF WETLANDS…

Wetlands act as water purifier as it traps and filters the water


that moves through it.

Slows down surface runoff.

Reduce flooding and siltation of rivers.

Reduce the action of toxic chemicals by nutralizing them.

Help replenish underground water reservoirs.

Wetlands are major breeding nesting and migration ground for


water fowl and birds.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
WETLAND

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WETLANDS…

Wetland plants provide…

Firewood
Thatching material
Medicine Plants
Livestock Fodder
Food source for humans

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
DEGRADATION OF WETLAND

DEGRADATION TREND OF WETLAND…

The Chalan Beel wetland


is fast silting up.

In the past it covered an


area of about 1085 sq
km.

It was reduced to 368 sq


km in 1909 and only 85
sq km remained
underwater throughout
the year.

It has since shrunk to


only 26 sq km now.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
CONCLUDING REMARKS

CONCLUSION…

Agriculture is the determining factor for food


security as well as pro-poor development of
Bangladesh economy.

The Problems of agriculture are complicated.

So the ways of addressing the challenges should be


comprehensive, global and participatory for
sustainable agricultural development.

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University
Thanks

Department of Environmental Science and Management


Course No. ENV 203
North South University