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Chapter 7:

Mechanical Properties
ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
• Stress and strain: What are they and why are
they used instead of load and deformation?
• Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much
deformation occurs? What materials deform least?
• Plastic behavior: At what point does permanent
deformation occur? What materials are most
resistant to permanent deformation?
• Toughness and ductility: What are they and how
do we measure them?

Chapter 7 - 1
Elastic Deformation
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload

bonds
stretch

return to
initial
d
F
F Linear-
elastic
Elastic means reversible! Non-Linear-
elastic
d
Chapter 7 - 2
Plastic Deformation (Metals)
1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload
bonds
stretch planes
& planes still
shear sheared

dplastic
delastic + plastic

F
F
Plastic means permanent! linear linear
elastic elastic
d
dplastic
Chapter 7 - 3
Engineering Stress
• Tensile stress, s: • Shear stress, t:
Ft Ft F

Area, Ao Fs
Area, Ao

Fs
Ft
Fs Ft
Ft lb f N t= F
s= = 2 or 2
Ao
Ao in m
original area
before loading
 Stress has units:
N/m2 or lbf /in2
Chapter 7 - 4
Common States of Stress
• Simple tension: cable
F F
A o = cross sectional
area (when unloaded)
F
s= s s
Ao
Ski lift (photo courtesy
• Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft P.M. Anderson)

M Fs Ao
Ac
Fs
t =
Ao
M
2R Note: t = M/AcR here.
Chapter 7 - 5
OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (i)
• Simple compression:

Ao

Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

F
s=
Note: compressive
Balanced Rock, Arches structure member
National Park
(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
Ao (s < 0 here).

Chapter 7 - 6
OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (ii)
• Bi-axial tension: • Hydrostatic compression:

Pressurized tank Fish under water (photo courtesy


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
P.M. Anderson)
sq > 0

sz > 0 sh< 0

Chapter 7 - 7
Engineering Strain
• Tensile strain: • Lateral strain:
d/2
-dL
e = d eL =
Lo Lo wo
wo

dL /2
• Shear strain:
q
x g = x/y = tan q

y 90º - q
Strain is always
90º dimensionless.
Adapted from Fig. 7.1 (a) and (c), Callister & Rethwisch 3e. Chapter 7 - 8
Stress-Strain Testing
• Typical tensile test • Typical tensile
machine specimen

Adapted from
extensometer specimen Fig. 7.2,
Callister &
Rethwisch 3e.

gauge
length

Adapted from Fig. 7.3, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig. 7.3 is taken from H.W.
Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of Materials,
Vol. III, Mechanical Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965.) Chapter 7 - 9
Linear Elastic Properties
• Modulus of Elasticity, E:
(also known as Young's modulus)

• Hooke's Law:
s=Ee s F
E

e
Linear-
elastic F
simple
tension
test

Chapter 7 - 10
Poisson's ratio, n
eL
• Poisson's ratio, n:

eL
n=-
e e

metals: n ~ 0.33 -n
ceramics: n ~ 0.25
polymers: n ~ 0.40

Units: n > 0.50 density increases


E: [GPa] or [psi]
n < 0.50 density decreases
n: dimensionless (voids form)

Chapter 7 - 11
Mechanical Properties
• Slope of stress strain plot (which is
proportional to the elastic modulus) depends
on bond strength of metal

Adapted from Fig. 7.7,


Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

Chapter 7 - 12
Other Elastic Properties
t M
• Elastic Shear
modulus, G:
G simple
g torsion
t=Gg test

M
• Elastic Bulk P P
modulus, K:
V V P P
P = -K Vo
Vo K pressure
test: Init.
vol =Vo.
• Special relations for isotropic materials: Vol chg.
= V
E E
G= K=
2(1 + n) 3(1 - 2n)
Chapter 7 - 13
Young’s Moduli: Comparison
Graphite
Metals Composites
Ceramics Polymers
Alloys /fibers
Semicond
1200
1000 Diamond
800
600
Si carbide
400 Tungsten Al oxide Carbon fibers only
Molybdenum Si nitride
E(GPa) 200
Steel, Ni
Tantalum <111>
CFRE(|| fibers)*
Platinum Si crystal
Cu alloys <100> Aramid fibers only
100 Zinc, Ti
80 Silver, Gold
Glass -soda AFRE(|| fibers)* Based on data in Table B.2,
Aluminum Glass fibers only
60
40
Magnesium,
Tin GFRE(|| fibers)* Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
Concrete Composite data based on
109 Pa 20 GFRE*
CFRE*
reinforced epoxy with 60 vol%
of aligned
Graphite GFRE( fibers)*
10 carbon (CFRE),
8 CFRE( fibers) *
6 AFRE( fibers) *
aramid (AFRE), or
Polyester glass (GFRE)
4 PET
PS fibers.
PC Epoxy only
2
PP
1 HDPE
0.8
0.6 Wood( grain)
PTFE
0.4

0.2 LDPE Chapter 7 - 14


Useful Linear Elastic Relationships
• Simple tension: • Simple torsion:
2ML o
d = FL o d = -n Fw o a=
L
EA o EA o r o4 G

F M = moment
d/2 a = angle of twist
Ao
Lo Lo
wo

2ro
dL /2
• Material, geometric, and loading parameters all
contribute to deflection.
• Larger elastic moduli minimize elastic deflection.
Chapter 7 - 15
Plastic (Permanent) Deformation
(at lower temperatures, i.e. T < Tmelt/3)

• Simple tension test:


Elastic+Plastic
engineering stress, s at larger stress

Elastic
initially
permanent (plastic)
after load is removed

ep engineering strain, e

plastic strain Adapted from Fig. 7.10 (a),


Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

Chapter 7 - 16
Yield Strength, sy
• Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has
occurred.
when ep = 0.002
tensile stress, s
sy = yield strength
sy

Note: for 2 inch sample


e = 0.002 = z/z
 z = 0.004 in

engineering strain, e
ep = 0.002 Adapted from Fig. 7.10 (a),
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
Chapter 7 - 17
Yield Strength : Comparison
Graphite/
Metals/ Composites/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Alloys fibers
Semicond
2000
Steel (4140) qt

1000
Yield strength, sy (MPa)

Ti (5Al-2.5Sn) a

in ceramic matrix and epoxy matrix composites, since


700 W (pure)

since in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.

in tension, fracture usually occurs before yield.


600 Cu (71500) cw
500 Mo (pure)
400 Steel (4140) a
Steel (1020) cd Room temperature
300
values
Hard to measure ,

Hard to measure,
Al (6061) ag
200 Steel (1020) hr ¨
Ti (pure) a
Ta (pure)
Cu (71500) hr Based on data in Table B.4,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
100
a = annealed
dry
70 PC
hr = hot rolled
60 Nylon 6,6 ag = aged
50 Al (6061) a PET
cd = cold drawn
40 PVC humid
cw = cold worked
PP
30 HDPE qt = quenched & tempered
20

LDPE
Tin (pure) Chapter 7 - 18
10
Tensile Strength, TS
• Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.
Adapted from Fig. 7.11,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
TS
F = fracture or
sy
ultimate
engineering

strength
stress

Typical response of a metal


Neck – acts
as stress
concentrator
strain
engineering strain
• Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
• Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are
aligned and about to break.
Chapter 7 - 19
Tensile Strength: Comparison
Graphite/
Metals/ Composites/
Ceramics/ Polymers
Alloys fibers
Semicond
5000 C fibers
Aramid fib
3000 E-glass fib
Tensile strength, TS (MPa)

2000 Steel (4140) qt


AFRE(|| fiber)
1000 W (pure) Diamond GFRE(|| fiber)
Ti (5Al-2.5Sn)aa CFRE(|| fiber)
Steel (4140)
Cu (71500) cw Si nitride
Cu (71500) hr Al oxide
300
Steel (1020)
Al (6061) ag
Ti (pure) a
Room temperature
200 Ta (pure)
values
Al (6061) a
100 Si crystal wood(|| fiber) Based on data in Table B4,
<100> Nylon 6,6
Glass-soda PC PET Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
40 Concrete PVC GFRE( fiber) a = annealed
PP CFRE( fiber)
30 hr = hot rolled
AFRE( fiber)
HDPE ag = aged
20 Graphite
LDPE cd = cold drawn
cw = cold worked
10 qt = quenched & tempered
AFRE, GFRE, & CFRE =
aramid, glass, & carbon
fiber-reinforced epoxy
wood ( fiber)
composites, with 60 vol%
fibers.
1 Chapter 7 - 20
Ductility
Lf - Lo
• Plastic tensile strain at failure: %EL = x 100
Lo
smaller %EL
Engineering
tensile
stress, s larger %EL Ao
Lo Af Lf
Adapted from Fig. 7.13,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

Engineering tensile strain, e

• Another ductility measure: Ao - Af


%RA = x 100
Ao

Chapter 7 - 21
Toughness
• Energy to break a unit volume of material
• Approximate by the area under the stress-strain curve.

Engineering small toughness (ceramics)


tensile large toughness (metals)
stress, s
Adapted from Fig. 7.13, very small toughness
Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (unreinforced polymers)

Engineering tensile strain, e

Brittle fracture: elastic energy


Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy
Chapter 7 - 22
Resilience, Ur
• Ability of a material to store energy
– Energy stored best in elastic region

ey
Ur =  sde
0
If we assume a linear
stress-strain curve this
simplifies to

1
Ur @ sy e y
2
Adapted from Fig. 7.15,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
Chapter 7 - 23
Elastic Strain Recovery

sy i D

syo
2. Unload
Stress

1. Load 3. Reapply
load
Strain

Adapted from Fig. 7.17, Elastic strain


Callister & Rethwisch 3e. recovery
Chapter 7 - 24
Mechanical Properties
Ceramic materials are more brittle than metals.
Why is this so?
• Consider mechanism of deformation
– In crystalline, by dislocation motion
– In highly ionic solids, dislocation motion is difficult
• few slip systems
• resistance to motion of ions of like charge (e.g., anions)
past one another

Chapter 7 - 25
Flexural Tests – Measurement of
Elastic Modulus
• Room T behavior is usually elastic, with brittle failure.
• 3-Point Bend Testing often used.
-- tensile tests are difficult for brittle materials.
cross section F Adapted from Fig. 7.18,
L/2 L/2 Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
d R
b d = midpoint
rect. circ.
deflection
• Determine elastic modulus according to:
F F L3
x E= (rect. cross section)
F d 4bd 3
slope =
d F L3
E= (circ. cross section)
d d 12R 4
linear-elastic behavior
Chapter 7 - 26
Flexural Tests – Measurement of
Flexural Strength
• 3-point bend test to measure room-T flexural strength.
cross section F
L/2 L/2 Adapted from Fig. 7.18,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.
d R
b d = midpoint
rect. circ.
deflection
location of max tension

• Flexural strength: • Typical values:


Material sfs (MPa) E(GPa)
3Ff L
sfs = (rect. cross section) Si nitride 250-1000 304
2
2bd Si carbide 100-820 345
Al oxide 275-700 393
Ff L
sfs = (circ. cross section) glass (soda-lime) 69 69
3
R Data from Table 7.2, Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

Chapter 7 - 27
Mechanical Properties of Polymers –
Stress-Strain Behavior
brittle polymer

plastic
elastomer
elastic moduli
– less than for metals Adapted from Fig. 7.22,
Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

• Fracture strengths of polymers ~ 10% of those for metals


• Deformation strains for polymers > 1000%
– for most metals, deformation strains < 10% Chapter 7 - 28
Influence of T and Strain Rate on Thermoplastics

• Decreasing T...
s(MPa)
-- increases E 80 4°C Plots for
-- increases TS semicrystalline
-- decreases %EL 60 PMMA (Plexiglas)
20°C
• Increasing 40 40°C
strain rate...
-- same effects 20
as decreasing T. to 1.3
60°C
0
0 0.1 0.2 e 0.3
Adapted from Fig. 7.24, Callister & Rethwisch 3e. (Fig. 7.24 is from T.S.
Carswell and J.K. Nason, 'Effect of Environmental Conditions on the
Mechanical Properties of Organic Plastics", Symposium on Plastics,
American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1944.)

Chapter 7 - 29
Time-Dependent Deformation
• Stress relaxation test: • There is a large decrease in Er
-- strain in tension to eo for T > Tg. (amorphous
5
and hold. 10 rigid solid polystyrene)
Er (10 s) 3 (small relax) Adapted from Fig.
-- observe decrease in in MPa 10
7.28, Callister &
transition Rethwisch 3e. (Fig.
stress with time. 1 region 7.28 is from A.V.
10 Tobolsky, Properties
and Structures of
tensile test 10-1 Polymers, John

eo
viscous liquid Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
strain 10-3 (large relax) 1960.)

s(t) 60 100 140 180 T(°C)


Tg
time • Representative Tg values (C):
• Relaxation modulus: PE (low density) - 110
PE (high density) - 90
s(t )
Selected values from
PVC + 87
E r (t ) =
Table 11.3, Callister
PS +100 & Rethwisch 3e.
eo PC +150
Chapter 7 - 30
Hardness
• Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.
• Large hardness means:
-- resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in
compression.
-- better wear properties.
apply known force measure size
e.g., of indent after
10 mm sphere removing load

Smaller indents
D d mean larger
hardness.

most brasses easy to machine cutting nitrided


plastics Al alloys steels file hard tools steels diamond

increasing hardness
Chapter 7 - 31
Hardness: Measurement
• Rockwell
– No major sample damage
– Each scale runs to 130 but only useful in range
20-100.
– Minor load 10 kg
– Major load 60 (A), 100 (B) & 150 (C) kg
• A = diamond, B = 1/16 in. ball, C = diamond

• HB = Brinell Hardness
– TS (psia) = 500 x HB
– TS (MPa) = 3.45 x HB

Chapter 7 - 32
Hardness: Measurement
Table 7.5

Chapter 7 - 33
True Stress & Strain
Note: S.A. changes when sample stretched

• True stress sT = F Ai sT = s1 + e 


• True strain eT = ln i  o  eT = ln1 + e 

Adapted from Fig. 7.16,


Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

Chapter 7 - 34
Hardening
• An increase in sy due to plastic deformation.
s
large hardening
sy
1
sy small hardening
0

e
• Curve fit to the stress-strain response:
hardening exponent:
sT = K eT  n n = 0.15 (some steels)
to n = 0.5 (some coppers)
“true” stress (F/A) “true” strain: ln(L/Lo)
Chapter 7 - 35
Variability in Material Properties
• Elastic modulus is material property
• Critical properties depend largely on sample flaws
(defects, etc.). Large sample to sample variability.
• Statistics
n
 xn
– Mean x=
n
1
n 2 2
  x i - x  
– Standard Deviation s=
 n -1 
 
where n is the number of data points
Chapter 7 - 36
Design or Safety Factors
• Design uncertainties mean we do not push the limit.
• Factor of safety, N Often N is
sy between
sworking = 1.2 and 4
N
• Example: Calculate a diameter, d, to ensure that yield does
not occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below. Use a
factor of safety of 5.
d
sy
sworking = 1045 plain
carbon steel:
N sy = 310 MPa Lo
220,000N TS = 565 MPa
5

 d /42
 F = 220,000N
d = 0.067 m = 6.7 cm
Chapter 7 - 37
Summary
• Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
• Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
• Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches sy.
• Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material.
• Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.

Chapter 7 - 38