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Leadership

TOPIC 9
EUW322- KEMAHIRAN BERFIKIR
THINKING SKILL

Thinking Skill Teams

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Introduction
• Habit is a blend of knowledge, desire and skill.
• Every leader should have interpersonal skills.
• Every leader should possess appropriate personality
and characters.

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• According to Stephen Covey, effective
leadership habit is to think win-win, i.e. the
overall philosophy of human interactions.
• Excellence is a habit.

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Stephen Richards Covey
• Born in 1932 and passed away on
16/7/2012.
• Was an American educator, author,
businessman, and keynote speaker.

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• Was a professor at School of Business, Utah
State University.
• His most popular book is “The Seven Habits of
Highly Effective People”
• His other book is “Habit 8: From Effectiveness
to Greatness”.

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Habit 1: Be Proactive
• Be Proactive is about taking responsibility for your life.
• Proactive people do not blame genetics, circumstances,
conditions or conditioning for their behaviour.
• Reactive people are often affected by their physical
environment and they find external sources to blame for
their behaviour.

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A proactive person uses proactive language (e.g: I
can, I will, I prefer etc.)
A reactive person uses reactive language (e.g: I can’t,
I have to, If only etc.)

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• Proactive people focus their time and
energy on things they can control

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• The problems, challenges, and opportunities we
face fall into two areas:
– Circle of Concern
– Circle of Influence
• Proactive people focus their efforts in the Circle of
Influence i.e they work on the things they can do
something about.
• Reactive people focus their efforts in the Circle of
Concern i.e things over which they have little or no
control.
• Therefore, gaining an awareness of the areas in
which we expend our energies in is a giant step in
becoming proactive.

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Habit 2: Begin With the End in Mind
• Habit 2 is based on imagination i.e the
ability to envision in your mind what you
cannot at present see with your eyes.
• It is based on the principle that all things
are created twice (i.e first, mental
creation, followed by second, physical
creation).

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• Means to begin each day, task, or project with
a clear vision of your desired direction and
destination, and then continue by flexing your
proactive muscles to make things happen.

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• One of the best ways to incorporate Habit 2 into your
life is to develop a Personal Mission Statement.
• Your mission statement makes you the leader of your
own life.
• You can create your own destiny and secure the
future you envision.

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Habit 3: Put First Things First
• Habit 1 says “You’re in charge”. Being
proactive is about choice.
• Habit 2 is the first, or mental creation.
Beginning with the end in mind is about
vision.
• Habit 3 is the second creation, the
physical creation.

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• This habit is where Habits 1 and 2 come
together.
• It deals with many of questions addressed in
the field of time management and life
management.

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• What are first things? First things are those things
you, personally, find of most worth.
• If you put first things first, you are organizing and
managing time and events according to the personal
priorities you established in Habit 3.

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Habit 4: Think Win-Win
• Win-win sees life as a cooperative arena, not a
competitive one.
• Win-win is a frame of mind and heart that constantly
seeks mutual benefit in all human interactions.
• Win-win means agreements or solutions are
mutually beneficial and satisfying.

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A person or organization that approaches conflicts
with a win-win attitude possesses three vital
character traits:
Integrity – sticking with your true feelings, values
and commitments.

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Maturity – expressing your ideas and feelings with
courage and consideration for the ideas and
feelings of others.
Abundance mentality – believing there is plenty
for everyone.

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Habit 5: Seek First to Understand,
Then to be Understood
• Communication is the most important skill in life.
• You spend years learning how to read and write, and
years learning how to speak.
• What about listening?
• Most people listen with the intent to reply, not to
understand.

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Habit 6: Synergize
• Synergy means “two heads are better than one”
• Synergize is the habit of creative cooperation.
• It is teamwork, open-mindedness, and the adventure
of finding new solutions to old problems.

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• It is a process, and through that process,
people bring all their personal experience and
expertise to the table. Together, they can
produce better results than they could
individually.

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• Differences should be seen as
strengths not weaknesses.

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Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw
• Means preserving and enhancing the greatest asset
you have – YOU.
• It means having a balanced program for self-renewal
in the four areas of your life – physical,
social/emotional, mental and spiritual.

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As you renew yourself in each of the four areas, you create growth and change in your
life.

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• Sharpen the saw keeps you fresh so you can continue
to practice the other six habits.
• Without this renewal, the body becomes weak, the
mind mechanical, the emotions raw, the spirit
insensitive, and the person selfish.

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Habit 8: Find Your Voice and Inspire
Others to Find Theirs
• The essence of this habit is that you will find your
voice when you can say that you are 100% involved
in what you are doing with your life.
• By 100% involvement, what is meant is that your
body, mind, heart and spirit are all engaged in the
adventure – whatever that is for you.

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• To find your voice, you need to examine your natural
talent – you are good at something! Don’t let anyone
convince you otherwise.
• When you have found your voice, you can begin
inspiring others to do the same thing.

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Leadership Style and Success
• The very top people in truly great organizations are
“Servant Leaders”.
• They are the most humble, the most reverent
(appreciative), the most open, the most teachable,
the most respectful and the most caring.

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How to Create 8th Habit Leadership
• The 8th Habit leader has the mind-set and the skill-
set to constantly look for the potential in people.
• This kind of leadership communicates to people their
own worth so clearly that they come to see it in
themselves.

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JOHARI Window of Interpersonal
Development
• Johari window is a technique created by Joseph Luft
and Harrington Ingam in 1955 in the United States.
• It is used to help people better understand their
relationship with self and others.
• It is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate
settings as a heuristic exercise.

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• Johari Region 1:
– Also known as ‘the area of free activity’
– This is the information about the person e.g:
behaviour, attitude, feelings, emotion, knowledge,
experience, skills, views, etc. – known by the
person (the self) and unknown by the group
(others).

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• The aim in any group should always be to develop
the ‘open area’ for every person, because when we
work in this area with others we are at our most
effective and productive, and the group is at its most
productive too.

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• Johari Region 2:
– It is what is known about a person by others in the
group, but it is unknown by the person
him/herself.
– By seeking or soliciting feedback from others, the
aim should be to reduce this area and thereby to
increase the open area i.e to increase self-
awareness.

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• Johari Region 3:
– Is what is known to ourselves but kept hidden from,
and therefore unknown, to others.
– By telling others how we feel and other information
about ourselves we reduce the hidden area, and
increase the open area which enables better
understanding, cooperation, trust, team-working
effectiveness and productivity.

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• Johari Region 4:
– Contains information, feelings, latent
abilities, experiences etc, that are
unknown to the person him/herself
and unknown to others in the group.
– Large unknown areas would typically
be expected in younger people, and
people who lack experience or self-
belief.

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• Johari Window is a very elegant and potent
model, simply helping people to understand,
is the most effective way to optimise the value
to people.

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• The Johari Window model is a simple and useful tool
for illustrating and improving self-awareness, and
mutual understanding between individuals within a
group.
• It can also be used to assess and improve a group’s
relationship with other groups.

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• Today, the Johari Window model is especially
relevant due to modern emphasis on, and influence
of, ‘soft’ skills, behaviour, empathy, cooperation,
inter-group development and interpersonal
development.
• The Johari Window concept is particularly helpful to
understading employee/employer relationships..

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Listening Skill

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What is Listening?
• The process of receiving, constructing
meaning from, and responding to spoken
and/or nonverbal messages; to hear
something with thoughtful attention

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• Listening is the most important
communication skill
• We probably spend more time
using our listening skill than
any other kind of skills

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• The first and the foremost
communication skill that we learn in our
lives is nothing but “LISTENING”

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Listening or Hearing?
• Listening and hearing are not the same . Hearing is
the first stage of listening. Hearing occurs when our
ears pick up sound waves which are then transported
to our brain.

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Process of Listening
Understanding
Learning

Receiving Remembering
Hearing Recalling

Responding Evaluating
Answering Judging

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Type of listening
• Discriminative Listening – involves identifying the
difference between various sound. Enables one to
differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar language.
• Comprehension Listening – involves attaching meaning
to what is being listened to. It may also include
comprehending the non verbal message being conveyed
by the speaker.

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• Evaluative Listening – Involves evaluating and
analyzing the message being received. Judging the
acceptability of what is said depending on how logical
one finds it to be.
• Attentive Listening – involves paying attention to the
words that are being spoken.
• not.

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• Pretence Listening – involves more hearing
than listening. It means pretending through
facial expressions that one is listening when
actually

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• Selective Listening – Involves selecting the desired
part of the message and ignoring the undesired
part of the message.
• Intuitive Listening – Listening through intuitive
mind by silencing the other forms of internal
dialogues on simultaneously.

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Barriers to Effective Listening
• Physical Barriers
• People – Related Barriers
– Physiological barriers
– Psychological barriers

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Physical Barriers
• Noise
• Poor acoustics
• Defective mechanical devices
• Frequent interuptions
• Uncomfortable seating arragements
• Uncomfortable environment
• Message overload

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Physiological Barriers
• State of Health – Listener or speaker having fever, pain
or any form of bodily discomfort.
• Disability – Hearing deficiencies, speech disorder or
speaker’s accent may also make it difficult to
comprehend.

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• Wandering attention – Human mind can
process words at the rate of about 500
minute, whereas a speaker speaks at the rate
of about 150 per minute. The difference
between the two leaves the listener with
sufficient time to let his mind wander.

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Psychological Barriers
• Being unsure of the speaker’s ability –
Based on past experience or inputs from
sources, the listener may have
preconceived notion of the speaker’s
ability.

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• Personal anxiety – listener is preoccupied
with personal concerns and anxieties.
• Attitude – Listener may be highly egocentric
with a “know it all attitude” and may not
listen .

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• Impatience – Listener may not have patience to wait
for the other person to finish what he has to say.
Eager to add his own point.
• Emotional blocks - Our deep seated beliefs in
certain ideas may make it difficult for us to listen to
ideas which go against our belief.

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Sympathy vs Empathy
• Sympathy - Feeling sorry for someone going through
a bad situation.
• Empathy – putting yourself in the other person’s
shoes and feeling what they are feeling.
Empathy
“Can be described as feeling the feelings of another
with the greatest accuracy and effort”

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The End

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