Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 79

2

Solid State Devices

Electrical Classification of Materials


3

Electrical Classification of Materials

• Conductor
• Insulator
• Semiconductor

Conductor
4

Conductor

• A material with LESS THAN 4


VALENCE ELECTRONS.

Insulator
5

Insulator

• A material with MORE THAN 4


VALENCE ELECTRONS.

Semiconductor
6

Semiconductor
• A material with EXACTLY 4 VALENCE
ELECTRONS.
• Semiconductors have electrical
characteristics in between conductors and
insulators.
• SILICON and GERMANIUM are examples of
semiconductor materials.

Energy Gap (Eg) Comparison


Energy Gap (Eg) Comparison
7

Bonding of Atoms
8

Bonding of Atoms
• Ionic Bond
• Metallic Bond
• Covalent Bond

Ionic Bond
9

Ionic Bond

• Results from attractive forces


between positive and negative
ions or between pairs of
oppositely charged ions.

Metallic Bond
Metallic Bond
10

• Results from attractive forces


between a group of positive
ions and a sea of electrons that
are free to move about among
its ions.

Covalent Bonding
Covalent Bonding
11

• Results when atoms


SHARE THEIR
VALENCE ELECTRONS
with other atoms .
• The shared electrons
are attracted
simultaneously to two
atoms resulting in a
force that holds them
together.

Conduction in Semiconductors
12
Conduction in Semiconductors

• Electron current flow


• Hole current flow

Electron Flow
13

Electron Flow

Hole Flow
14

Hole Flow

Analogy of Hole Flow


Analogy of Hole Flow 15

Types of Semiconductor Materials


Types of Semiconductor Materials 16

• Intrinsic Material
• A Semiconductor that is FREE FROM
IMPURITIES, such as Silicon or Germanium.

• Extrinsic Materials
• Semiconductor materials with SOME IMPURITIES
ADDED to change its electrical properties.
• The process of adding impurities is called DOPING.

Type of Extrinsic Materials


Type of Extrinsic Materials 17

• N-TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS
• An extrinsic semiconductor material formed by adding DONOR
impurities, such as as PENTAVALENT atoms.
• Majority carriers are ELECTRONS
• Minority carriers are HOLES

Type of Extrinsic Material


Type of Extrinsic Material 18

• P-TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS
• An extrinsic semiconductor material formed by adding
ACCEPTOR impurities, such as TRIVALENT atoms.
• Majority carriers are HOLES
• Minority carriers are ELECTRONS

Types of Dopes
Types of Dopes 19

• DONOR or PENTAVALENT ATOMS


• N-TYPE
• PHOSPOROUS
• ANTIMONY
• ARSENIC

• ACCEPTOR or TRIVALENT ATOMS


• P-TYPE
• GALLIUM • ALUMINUM
• BORON • INDIUM

Semiconductor Diodes
20

Semiconductor Diodes

The PN Junction
The PN Junction 21

• When the P-TYPE material and N-TYPE material


are BROUGHT TOGETHER, they form a so-called
PN JUNCTION.

Formation of Depletion Region


Formation of Depletion Region 22

• The region created by


the PN junction
forming a barrier
potential.
• The DEPLETION refers
to the fact that the
region near the PN
junction is DEPLETED
of CHARGED
CARRIERS due to
diffusion across the
junction.

Barrier Potential
23

Barrier Potential
• The POTENTIAL
DIFFERENCE of the
electric field across the
depletion region is the
AMOUNT OF VOLTAGE
required to move
electrons through the
electric field.
• 0.7V for Silicon
• 0.3 for Germanium
• Barrier potential
DECREASES as
temperature INCREASES

Biasing the Diode


24

Biasing the Diode


• BIAS refers to the use of a dc
voltage to establish a certain
operating condition for an electronic
device.
• Types:
• Forward Bias
• Reverse Bias

Forward Bias
Forward Bias
25

• Is the condition
that ALLOWS
CURRENT
THROUGH THE PN
JUNCTION to flow
when a dc voltage
is applied to a PN
junction

Reverse Bias
26

Reverse Bias
• Is the condition that
ESSENTIALLY PREVENTS
CURRENT through the
diode. When a dc voltage
is applied to a PN
junction.
• MINORITY CARRIERS
• The EXTREMELY SMALL
CURRENT THAT EXIST IN
THE REVERSE BIAS
condition.

Breakdown Voltage
27

Breakdown Voltage
• The MAXIMUM VOLTAGE the junction
diode can handle when reverse
biased.
• Also known as PEAK REVERSE
VOLTAGE (PRV) OR PEAK INVERSE
VOLTAGE (PIV)

Voltage-Current Characteristic of Diode


28
Voltage-Current Characteristic of Diode

Diode Equivalent Circuit


Diode Equivalent Circuit 29

• Ideal Diode Model


• Simplified Diode Model
• Linear Diode Model

Ideal Diode Model


Ideal Diode Model 30

• The diode is
assumed to a ZERO
THRESHOLD
VOLTAGE and has
NO RESISTANCE
when FORWARD
BIAS.

Simplified Diode Model


Simplified Diode Model 31

The diode is
assumed to have
a threshold
voltage but NO
RESISTANCE.

Linear Diode Model


Linear Diode Model 32

• The diode has THRESHOLD VOLTAGE,


Vth and FORWARD RESISTANCE.

Diode Resistance
33

Diode Resistance

• DC or Static Resistance
• AC or Dynamic Resistance
• Average AC Resistance

DC or Static Resistance
DC or Static Resistance 34

• DC or Static Resistance is the


FORWARD RESISTANCE of the diode
when in DC circuit analysis.

AC or Dynamic Resistance
AC or Dynamic Resistance
35

• AC or Dynamic Resistance of the


diode when in AC circuit analysis.

Average AC Resistance
36
Average AC Resistance

• Average AC Resistance is the forward


resistance of the diode in AC circuit
analysis.

Elect par rectifier Diodes


Electrical Characteristics for Rectifier Diodes
37

• DC BLOCKING VOLTAGE [VR]


• the maximum reverse dc voltage that will not cause
breakdown.
• AVERAGE FORWARD VOLTAGE DROP [VF(AV)]
• the average forward voltage drop across the rectifier
given at a specified forward current and temperature.
• AVERAGE RECTIFIER FORWARD CURRENT [IF(AV)]
• the average rectified forward current at a specified
temperature, usually at 60 Hz with a resistive load.
• AVERAGE REVERSE CURRENT [IR(AV)]
• the average reverse current at a specified
temperature, usually at 60 Hz.
• PEAK SURGE CURRENT [ISURGE]
• the peak current specified for a given number of
cycles or portion of a cycle.

signal Diodes
Electrical Characteristics for Signal Diodes
38

• PEAK REVERSE VOLTAGE [PRV]


• the maximum reverse voltage that can be applied
before reaching the breakdown point. (PRV also
applies to the rectifier diode.)
• REVERSE CURRENT [IR]
• the small value of direct current that flows when a
semiconductor diode has reverse bias.
• MAXIMUM FORWARD VOLTAGE DROP AT
INDICATED FORWARD CURRENT [V F@IF]
• the maximum forward voltage drop across the
diode at the indicated forward current.
• REVERSE RECOVERY TIME [trr]
• the maximum time taken for the forward-bias diode
to recover its reverse bias.
Special-Purpose Diodes
39

Special-Purpose Diodes

Zener Diodes
40

Zener Diodes
• Zener Diode is a silicon
PN junction device that
differs from rectifier
diodes because it is
DESIGNED FOR
OPERATION IN THE
REVERSE-BREAKDOWN
REGION.

Zener Breakdown
41

Zener Breakdown
• ZENER BREAKDOWN occurs in Zener
diodes at low reverse voltage.
• The Zener diode is heavily doped to reduce
the breakdown voltage.
• Types of reverse breakdown
• Zener Breakdown
• Avalanche Breakdown

Zener Breakdown
Zener Breakdown
42
• Breakdown voltage < 5V

Avalanche Breakdown
Avalanche Breakdown 43

• Breakdown voltage > 5V

Zener Diode Application


Zener Diode Application 44

• Zener Diodes are often used as a type of of


VOLTAGE REGULATOR for providing stable
reference voltages.

Tunnel Diode
45

Tunnel Diode
• A tunnel diode is biased to operate in the
negative resistance region.
• It can be used as an oscillator or an
amplifier.
• Tunnel diodes are also used extensively in
highspeed switching circuits because of
the speed of the tunneling action.

Varactor/ 1:10M—1000:10M
46

Varactor
• Voltage-Variable Capacitor is a
device that utilizes the variation
of the PN junction capacitance
when biased diffently.

Light-Emitting Diode (LED)


47

Light-Emitting Diode (LED)


• A type of PN junction that emits light
when forward bias.
• The large exposed surface area on
one layer of the semiconductive
material permits the photons to be
emitted as visible light.
• The process is called
ELECTROLUMINESCENCE.
Photodiode
Photodiode
48

• Photodiode is a device that operates


in REVERSE BIAS.
• A Photodiode current increases as
light strikes into its opening.
• The photodiode has a small
transparent window that allows light
to strike the PN junction.

DIODE MAINTENANCE
DIODE MAINTENANCE 49

• Diodes are rugged and efficient.


• One of the greatest dangers to the
diode is heat.
• THERMAL RUNAWAY
• A conduction that exists when heat
causes more electron-hole pairs to b
generated; which, in turn, causes more
heat and may eventually cause diode
destruction.

Transistors
50

Transistors

Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)


51
Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)

• BJT is constructed with three doped


semiconductor regions separated by
two PN junctions.
• BIPOLAR refers to TWO CHARGED
CARRIERS: Electrons and Holes.
• The Three Terminals: Emitter, Base
and Collector

Types of BJT
Types of BJT
52

Transistor Operation
Transistor Operation 53

Reverse bias
junction

Forward bias
junction

Biasing and Operations


Biasing and Operations
54

Characteristic Curve
Characteristic Curve 55

Transistor configuration
56
Transistor Configurations

• Common Base
• Common Emitter
• Common Collector

Common Base
Common Base
57

Alpha
Alpha 58

• Common Base Amplification Factor.


• It is the ratio of the collector current
change to the change in emitter current.
• Ranges from 0.9 to 0.999

Common Emitter
59

Common Emitter

Beta
Beta 60

• Common Emitter Forward Current Amplification


Factor
• It is the ratio of change in collector current to
the base current.
• Beta ranges from 20 to 600

Common Collector
61

Common Collector

Gamma
Gamma
62

• Common Collector Forward Current


Amplification Factor.
• It is the ratio of change in emitter
current to the base current.

Comparison of Transistor Configuration


Comparison of Transistor Configuration 63

Types of Biasing
Types of Biasing
64

• Fixed-bias
• Emitter stabilized
• Voltage Feedback
• Voltage divider

Fixed Bias
Fixed Bias
65

• Fixed bias has the


HIGHEST POWER
GAIN but the most
UNSTABLE
• Base current bias

Emitter Stabilized
Emitter Stabilized
66

• Emitter is MORE
STABLE
COMPARED TO
FIXED BIAS but
with LESSER
GAIN.

Voltage feedback
67

Voltage Feedback
• Almost the
same with
voltage divider
bias but with
LESS NUMBER
OF RESISTORS

Voltage divider
Voltage Divider Bias
68

• Voltage Divider
Bias is
considered the
most stable but
relatively lower
in gain.

Field Effect Transistors (FET)


69
Field Effect Transistors (FET)

• A unipolar, voltage-controlled
device where the voltage
between the two terminals,
gate and source controls the
current through the device.

Types of Jfet
70

Types of FET
• Junction FET (JFET)
• Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET
(MOSFET)
• Depletion Type
• Enhancement Type

Junction FET (JFET)


71

Junction FET (JFET)


• JFETs terminals:
• SOURCE(S)
• DRAIN(D)
• GATE(G).
• Two types:
• N-CHANNEL
• P-CHANNEL.

Construction of JFET
Construction of JFET 72

N-channel JFET
N-channel JFET 73

P-channel JFET
P-channel JFET 74

MOSFET
MOSFET
75

• Has no PN junction
• Gate is insulated from the
channel by SiO2.
• TYPES
• Depletion
• Enhancement

MOSFET (Depletion Type)


76

MOSFET (Depletion Type)

MOSFET (Depletion Type) Operation


77
MOSFET (Depletion Type) Operation

MOSFET (Enhancement Type)


78

MOSFET (Enhancement Type)

THE END
79