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Resettlement in China:

Policy, Practice and Experiences

SHI Guoqing, Professor

Director of National Research Center for Resettlement (NRCR)

Hohai University, Nanjing, CHINA Email: gshi@hhu.edu.cn, gshi1@126.com

China Country profile: Accelerated

social and economic development

  • Past 65 years, specially in Past 35 years, economic development has speeded up

  • 1978-2013,average annual GDP growth rate 9%

China Country profile: Accelerated social and economic development  Past 65 years, specially in Past 35
  • A large amount of infrastructure projects, including developed in highways, railways, dams, and power plants.

  • Rapid urbanization and industralization with, improvement of income and livelihoods

G ros s Domestic Produc t of C hina(from 1978 to 2008) 350000.0 300000.0 250000.0 200000.0
G ros s Domestic Produc t of C hina(from 1978 to 2008)
350000.0
300000.0
250000.0
200000.0
150000.0
100000.0
50000.0
0.0
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Gross Domestic Product(100 million yuan)
P er C apital G DP
of C hina (from 1978 to 2008)
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Per Capital GDP(yuan/person)
L eng th of Hig hways of C hina(from 1978 to 2008) 400.00 350.00 300.00 250.00
L eng th of Hig hways of C hina(from 1978 to 2008)
400.00
350.00
300.00
250.00
200.00
150.00
100.00
50.00
0.00
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Length of Highways(10,000km)
L eng th of R ailways of C hina(from 1978 to 2008)
9.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Length of Railways in Oeration
Deg ree of Urbanization of C hina(from 1978 to 2008) 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00%
Deg ree of Urbanization of C hina(from 1978 to 2008)
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Degree of Urbanization(%)
Area of Urban B uilt Dis tric t of C hina(from 1981 to 2008)
40000.0
35000.0
30000.0
25000.0
20000.0
15000.0
10000.0
5000.0
0.0
1981
1983
1985
1987
1989
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
Area of Urban Built District(km²)
P er C apital Annual Income of C hina(from 1978 to 2008) 18000.0 16000.0 14000.0 12000.0
P er C apital Annual Income of C hina(from 1978 to 2008)
18000.0
16000.0
14000.0
12000.0
10000.0
8000.0
6000.0
4000.0
2000.0
0.0
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Urabn Households Per Capital Annual Disposable Income(yuan)
Rural Households Per Capital Annual Net Income(yuan)
Produc tion of E lec tric ity of C hina(from 1978
to 2008)
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Production of Electricity(100 million
kwh)

Some key figures

  • High speed railways (>=124-250 mph)

    • 6,500 miles, 46% of length of World as of 2013

  • Expressway (75 mph or higher)

Some key figures  High speed railways (>=124-250 mph)  6,500 miles, 46% of length of
  • 60,000 miles as of 2012

  • Urbanization rate (rural to urban):

    • 53% in 2013

    • growth rate +1% annually (=13 millions)

Resettlement/Migration in China

(1949-2015)

Types of resettlement/migration

  • Involuntary resettlement induced by development project .

  • Conflict migration/refuges .

  • Disaster migration/resettlement

  • Ecological migration/ resettlement

  • Environmental migration.

  • Economic migration.

  • Poverty Alleviation Induced Migration (many associated with ecological migration).

Numbers (estimated)

(1949-2015)

80 millions

Very few >10 million

>1,000,000

No dates

236 million labors

>8.6 million

Economic Migrants

  • rural-urban flow: ~236 million/year

  • urbanization rate:about 1% of China’s 130 billion rural residents move to urban residence

Economic Migrants  rural-urban flow: ~236 million/year  urbanization rate:about 1% of China’s 130 billion rural
Migrants
Migrants

Disaster Migration

  • After Yangtze river flood in 1998, China resettled 2.46 million for flood mitigation in 4 provinces

  • Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 (60K of 300k rural

peoples have been relocated so far)

  • Shanxi Province starting to resettle about 2.4 m within next 10 years to avoid geological and other disasters.

Disaster by Wenchuan Earthquake

Disaster by Wenchuan Earthquake

Relocated to New Beichuan Town about 30 miles in An county)

Relocated to New Beichuan Town about 30 miles in An county)

Ecological Migration

  • Objective: the rehabilitation of Eco-system and biodiversity protection

  • Linked with vulnerable ecological system, plus water

shortage, land carrying capacity, labor skills and

employment

  • Target regions are in North-Western, South-western China

Ecological migration
Ecological migration
Ecological migration
Ecological migration
Environmental Migration
Environmental Migration
Poverty Alleviation Induced Migration 8.63 millions during 2015-2020
Poverty Alleviation Induced Migration
8.63 millions during 2015-2020

Development Induced

Resettlement (DIR)

  • 1949-2015: about 80 million displaced peoples (DP)

  • Dam induced 20 million DP

    • Three Gorges dam: 1.3 million DP

Development Induced Resettlement (DIR)  1949-2015: about 80 million displaced peoples (DP)  Dam induced 20
  • Xiaolangdi Dam (WB):0.2 million*

  • Shuikou Dam(WB): 0.08 million*

  • Danjiangkou Dam phase II: 0.35 million

    • *World Bank financed

Resettlement/Migration in China

(1949-2015)

Types of resettlement/migration

  • Involuntary resettlement induced by development project

  • Conflict migration/refuges

Resettlement/Migration in China (1949-2015) Types of resettlement/migration  Involuntary resettlement induced by development project  Conflict
  • Disaster migration/resettlement

  • Ecological migration/ resettlement

  • Environmental migration

  • Economic migration

  • Poverty Alleviation Induced Migration (many associated with ecological migration)

Numbers (estimated)

(1949-2015)

80 millions

Very few

>10 million

>1,000,000

No dates

236 million labors

>8.6 million

Development caused a large amount of displacement and resettlement

Development caused a large amount of displacement and resettlement

Development caused a large amount of displacement and resettlement

  • Development that

  • Changes land use, land acquisition and house demolition and population displacement that cannot be avoided

Development caused a large amount of displacement and resettlement  Development that  Changes land use,
  • Development projects caused involuntary resettlement as a big challenge was, is and will be same with other countries in the world.

  • There are about 410,000 acres of farmland required by development projects each year recently and in near future.

Development caused a large amount

of displacement and resettlement

> 80 million resettled 1950-2015

  • 20 m by 93,000 dam projects *

  • 16m by communication projects

  • 44m by urban construction and other development projects

* 27m, if it includes 2-3 generations of descendants of those

displaced from 1949-2006,

Affected Peoples (AP) in Different Sectors 1949-2015 Units: millions 20 18 16 14 Reservior 12 Transportation
Affected Peoples (AP) in Different Sectors
1949-2015 Units:
millions
20
18
16
14
Reservior
12
Transportation
10
Urban &others
8
total
6
4
2
0
Urban renew and development
Urban renew and development
IR by Railway, road and airport
IR by Railway, road and airport

Three Gorges Dam

  • 1.3 million APs, 44% rural farmers and 56% urban citizen, in 2 provinces and 21 county/districts

  • 1,632 enterprises and 11 towns, 2 cities, 114 towns affected

  • 200,000 rural APs relocated with long distant in 11 coast or downstream provinces, others relocated within county

  • resettlement budget 40 billions RMB, 44.6% of dam project budget (50 billion RMB) estimated in the fixed price (May 1993) - final budget 85.3 Billions RMB

  • All APs have been relocated before June 2009 smoothly

Relocation out of province
Relocation out of province
b
b
 From old villages
From old
villages
 Old villages
Old villages

To new villages

To new villages
To new villages
To new villages

And new livelihoods

And new livelihoods

Benefits sharing:

Comparison pre-/post-IR for the region

surrounding reservoir

Indicator

1992

2013 annual trough rates

Invest (Billions)

17

2600

(1992-2013)

  • GDP(billions) 15.2 570.8 13.7%

  • GDP/PP (yuan/PP) 950 39400 14.8%

Benefits sharing: Comparison pre-/post-IR for the region surrounding reservoir Indicator 1992 2013 annual trough rates 
  • Income (Urban,Yuan/PP) 1720

16837

11.5%

  • Income (Rural,Yuan/PP) 547

8913

14.2%

  • House(Urban,m2/PP) 10.9 33

  • House(Rural,m2/PP) 23.8 45.1

  • Industry structure(1:2:3) 4:3:3

1:5.5:3.5

Routh rates of key indicates higher than the average level of Provinces and Country

Ways to Reach a Successful Involuntary

Resettlement

  • Policy and legal system

  • Institution, responsibility

  • Resettlement planning and design

Ways to Reach a Successful Involuntary Resettlement  Policy and legal system  Institution, responsibility 
  • Resettlement implementation and monitoring

  • Human resource and capacity building

  • Resettlement science research, education and application

Policy and Legal System 1

  • Develop national polices, regulations, norms and guidelines for involuntary resettlement

  • Constitution Law

    • Regular that farmlands can be acquisitioned by

Policy and Legal System ( 1 )  Develop national polices, regulations, norms and guidelines for

national government for public interests

  • Law of Land Administration

    • Regular the principles, standard and procedures of land acquisition and resettlement in Chapter 5

Policy and Legal System 2

  • National Administrative Regulations

    • Land Administration Implementation Regulation :

adopted in September 1999,

  • Basic Farmland Protection Regulation: adopted in1991, revised in September 1999

Policy and Legal System ( 2 )  National Administrative Regulations  Land Administration Implementation Regulation
  • Urban House demolition Administration Regulation,

adopted in 1991, revised in 2001, new updating in

2010

Policy and Legal System 3

  • National Administrative Regulations

    • Reservoir Resettlement Regulation: Regulation on the Compensation for Land Acquisition and Resettlement of the Construction of Large and Medium-sized Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Projects, adopted in1991, revised in September 2006

    • Three Gorges Resettlement Regulation : Regulations on Resettlement for the Construction of the Three Gorges Project on the Yangtze River in 1993, revised in March 2001

Policy and Legal System 4

  • National Technique Standard and Guidelines for Dam induced resettlement planning and design

Specification for planning and design of reservoir submergence treatment of hydroelectric engineering- First version in 1984, revision DL/T5064 in1996 and in 2002, new version in 2007

Policy and Legal System ( 4 )  National Technique Standard and Guidelines for Dam induced

8 standards in IR impacts scope identification, IR survey, rural resettlement planning, urban resettlement planning,

special infrastructure rehabilitation planning, budget

preparation, reservoir catchments clean

Guidelines for Reservoir inundation areas Survey in 1985

Supervision guidelines for hydropower project induced

resettlement in 2000

Policy and Legal System 5

  • Local regulations and rules

    • Provincial legal regulations and rules

    • City implementation rules

    • County implementation rules

  • Special projects resettlement policies and implementation rules

  • Policy and Legal System ( 5 )  Local regulations and rules  Provincial legal regulations

    such as Formulation for Xiaolangdi Dam Resettlement Implementation Management

    Policy and Legal System 6

    • International standards, practice

    and pacts

    ---adopted for international donorsprojects

    Policy and Legal System ( 6 )  International standards, practice and pacts ---adopted for international

    World Bank: OD 4.30,OP/BP 4.12

    ADB: involuntary Resettlement Policy, Safeguard Policy Statement in 2009

    Policy and Legal System 7

    • IR Policies and legal regulations

    Principles

    Progress

    Approaches

     Approaches

    Planning and designing

    Implementation

    Institutions and responsibilities

    Management and operation mechanism

     

    ……

    Policy and Legal System (8-1) The major policies on resettlement (1) Supreme aim of resettlement policy
    Policy and Legal System (8-1)
    The major policies on resettlement (1)
    Supreme aim of resettlement policy is to
    minimize the occupied land and number of
    displaced persons as much as possible.
    But if resettlement cannot be avoided,
    it should make proper arrangement to ensure
    the displaced people be well compensated
    assisted, and restore or surpass their original
    income and living standard.

    Key Points of IR policy (8-2)

    • Provide compensation and job to collective land owner and user.

    • All compensation and resettlement cost should be included in project budget.

    • Land acquisition and RP should get government approval prior to its execution

    Key Points of IR policy (8-2)  Provide compensation and job to collective land owner and
    • No RP , NO project, No implementation

    • Rural APs should provide first option of agriculture resettlement on land bases

    • Interest parties should sign contracts on compensation and resettlement

    • Dispute can be settled through grievance channel of both administrative and lawful.

    New Resettlement Policy since Sept.

    2006:Compensation and rehabilitation Package for Dam resettlars

    • Compensation for farmland acquisition in 16 times of AOV of ≈32 years NI at present

    • + Compensation for individual asserts (house etc.)

    • + Subsides of relocation and training for livelihoods

    New Resettlement Policy since Sept. 2006: Compensation and rehabilitation Package for Dam resettlars  Compensation for
    • + Annual post-relocation fund 600 RMB per year per capital*20 years after relocation

    • + Community infrastructure improvement (water supply, electricity, road, clinics, school, drainage etc.) based on the needs

    • +Social security fund payment (for rural farmers who changed the registration to urban citizen and no farmlands)

    IR Policy revision based on Social and economic change and development: Compensation Standard for Farmlands 
    IR Policy revision based on Social and economic change
    and development: Compensation Standard for Farmlands
    Compensation: Times of
    annual AOV (avg. outcome
    value)
    40
    3-5 times in 1953
    35
    2-4 times in 1958
    30
    5-20 times in 1986
    25
    10-30 times in 1999
    Min.
    Can above 30 times and over parts
    from government’s income in
    urban land sale since Dec.1, 2004
    20
    Max1.
    15
    Max2
    30 AOV≥50 years Net Income at
    10
    present
    5
    AOV decided by Governments and
    disclosure to Public since Dec.
    2004, yearly reviewed and re-
    disclosure
    0
    1953 1958 1986 1999 2004 2006

    Institutions and Responsibilities

    • Land administration authority

    • Development and Reform Commission (DRC)

    • Special resettlement bureau for Water Ministry

    Institutions and Responsibilities  Land administration authority  Development and Reform Commission (DRC)  Special resettlement
    • Urban: City House Demolition Administration

    Authority (CHDAA)

    • Consulting companies

    Resettlement planning (RP) and

    design-water sector case

    • Developer submit the project proposal to National or Provincial Gov. and get the approval and registration

    • Consulting Firm map

    • DPLS (Detail Physical Loss Survey) and SES (Socioeconomic survey) by joint team in which all representatives from AHs, ACs, Township Gov. and County Gov. and Developer and results confirmed in signature, Official Document to confirm the final results should be sent to developer.

    • Draft RP preparation by the joint team (consulting firm, county and township Gov. based on community participation and consultation

    • Draft RP submit to Provincial Gov and get the appraisal

    • Final RP submit to Provincial and National Gov. for approval

    Resettlement implementation

    Procedures and mechanism (1)

    • Formulated the Projects policies and rules

    • Implemented by CG and supervised by PGs

    • Establish the Resettlement Offices in Prefecture and county levels and build capacity

    • Developer Sign agreement with PG/CG

    • CG Sign agreement with AH/AC based on consultation

    • CG Information disclosure to AHs/ACs for losses, compensation standard and relocation policies

    • External Supervision on sites by the independent supervision firm

    • External Monitoring and Evaluation by the Independent firm or institute or university

    Resettlement implementation (2)

    Income Restoration and Livelihoods Recovering

    • AC hold the village representatives meetings to discuss and decision-making (house plot and farmland redistribution, collective land compensation distribution etc)

    • AHs restore their income based on the farming activities in redistributed farmlands (if it has), using of remained compensation fund for farming or/and un-farming income generation, or/and get the job opportunities outside of village/ township/county…

    Resettlement implementation (3) Relocation and House Reconstruction

    • AC hold the village representatives meetings to discuss and decision-making (community land plan, house plot redistribution etc)

    • House plot location decide, selection and distributed

    through community consultation meeting

    • AHs rebuild the new house before or after old house demolition, using individual house compensation (standard in replacement cost) and other fund

    • AHs relocate to new house

    • Ash demolish old house (if AH would use the materials they did before relocation to new house)

    Resettlement implementation (4)

    Public facilities and infrastructure rehabilitation

    • Land for public infrastructure arranged by CG

    • Public facilities (roads, water supply, waste water, electricity, public center, schools, clinics, Greenland

    Resettlement implementation ( 4) Public facilities and infrastructure rehabilitation  Land for public infrastructure arranged by

    etc, outside of individual house) built by constructor

    selected by County RO from bidding and supervised by AC and firm

    • AHs restore their in-house facilitates based on the compensation fund

    Human resource and capacity

    building

    • Systematical institutions and staffs arrangement

      • Government agencies-four levels: national to county

      • Consultancy and services-national, regional and local

      • Local government and communities

      • Research and education institution

  • Certification system in FSR, detail design, RP preparation, asserts value evaluation, house demolition implementation, resettlement supervision etc. for institution and individuals

  • Professional education, training and capacity building for all sectors

  • Good Supervision and Monitoring Mechanism

    External supervision for Resettlement

    Implementation on sites by third party

    Independent Resettlement Monitoring and Evaluatio by third party

    Good Supervision and Monitoring Mechanism External supervision for Resettlement Implementation on sites by third party Independent

    Internal government supervision

    Internal government audit

    External audit

    scientific research

    • Established National Research institution-NRCR(National Research Center for Resettlement) located in Hohai University in 1992, with full time researchers

    • Financial support to different research projects-National policies, regulations, guidelines, standards,rules,special topics/issues from different sources (national foundation, government, company, resettlement agencies etc.)

    scientific research  Established National Research institution-NRCR(National Research Center for Resettlement) located in Hohai University in
    • Put the research fund into the resettlement budgets

    • International experiences learning and exchange

    • Publications, books and journals

    Resettlement education

    • Resettlement as a Discipline/Major in National Education System

    • Hohai University created the Resettlement Science and Management as a Discipline in the national subjects system and got the approve by State Council since 2004

    • Develop the Ph. D, Master and BAc curriculum and courses in resettlement in Hohai University

    • IR Textbook and guidelines development

    • inter-discipline education (Master/Ph.D) : sociology,public administration, economics,demography,land resources management etc.

    Achievements in High Education

    • Important achievement in China: Resettlement as

    a task--a science--a discipline

    1980s

    1990

    2004

    • Resettlement Science and Management as Ph.D and Master program developed since 2004

    • As the research directions in graduate program of sociology,

    Achievements in High Education  Important achievement in China: Resettlement as a task--a science--a discipline 1980s

    demography, land resource management, administration, Economics etc. since 2003

    • As a research direction established in g Master program of Technique Economics and management since 2003

    • Hundreds Ph.D/MA students graduated from Hohai University

    • Textbook and academic publications published

    • Research got the science foundation support

    • Social and industry demands met

    Publications Over 40 books and 500 articles published since the establishment of NRCR
    Publications
    Over 40 books and 500 articles published since
    the establishment of NRCR
    Consultation Total 300 projects (plans, reports) since 1993
    Consultation
    Total 300 projects (plans, reports) since 1993
    Academic Exchange After 1993, organized eight international conferences and fourteen national conferences, attended 65 international conferences
    Academic Exchange
    After 1993, organized eight
    international conferences and
    fourteen national conferences,
    attended 65 international
    conferences and eighty-six
    national conferences, and
    hosted fourteen international
    academic visitors, so as well
    the multi-visits of ADB and
    WB officials.
    Academic Exchange The biggest International Symposium on Resettlement and Social Development, May 2002
    Academic Exchange
    The biggest International Symposium on Resettlement
    and Social Development, May 2002

    Resettlement education

    Resettlement as a sub-academic areas in discipline (Master/Ph.D) in Hohai University since 1994

    • Technique economics and management-Resettlement economics and management

    Resettlement education Resettlement as a sub-academic areas in discipline (Master/Ph.D) in Hohai University since 1994 
    • Sociology-resettlement sociology

    • Public administration-resettlement administration

    • Demography-population migration and flowing

    • Land resources management -Land acquisition and resettlement management

    • etc.

    Case Study-Danjiangkou Case Study:

    What are best-practices in resettlement

    Deliver better living conditions for resettlars

    • House

      • Better quality

      • Larger space

      • Higher value

  • Community facilities

    • Water supply

    • Electricity supply

    • Roads

    • Clinics

    • School

    • Market

    • TV and internet…

    • Housing

      • Replacement price as fundamental

      • Minimal compensation standard in concrete-brick structure house 24 m² per capital (benefits for poor families)

  • Case Study-Danjiangkou Case Study: What are best-practices in resettlement ? Deliver better living conditions for resettlars
    • Community facilities rehabilitation

      • good location selected by local government and satisfied by APs

      • public facilities rebuilt in better standards, cost by project and local government

    Case study: Danjiangkou Dam in 2002-2013 350,000 affected people relocated in 2009-2011 South to North Water
    Case study: Danjiangkou Dam in 2002-2013
    350,000 affected people relocated in 2009-2011
    South to North Water Diversion Project of China-
    The largest water diversion project in the World:
    50 years,5 millions M³,500 Billions RMB(650 Billion USD)
    Danjiangkou Dam- Resettlement Villages/ 2011 House space per person in 10 villages (pre- vs post-) photos:
    Danjiangkou Dam- Resettlement Villages/ 2011
    House space per person in 10 villages (pre- vs post-)
    photos: Guanggou Village
    Danjiangkou Dam IR- Guanggou Village photo in 2011 School teachers (pre- vs post-) in 10 villages
    Danjiangkou Dam IR- Guanggou Village photo in 2011
    School teachers (pre- vs post-) in 10 villages
    Danjiangkou Dam IR- Guanggou Villages/ 2011
    Danjiangkou Dam IR- Guanggou Villages/ 2011

    Water supply in 10 villages (pre- vs post)

    What are best-practices in resettlement (affected community and livelihoods) ? Restoration and development of sustainable livelihoods
    What are best-practices in resettlement
    (affected community and livelihoods) ?
    Restoration and development of
    sustainable livelihoods of affected
    people
    Land for land as the first priority
    option for rural farmers
    Help to generate various income
    sources
    Deliver the post-resettlement
    support fund for livelihoods
    Deliver micro credit support
    Farmlands and food/pp in 10 villages ( pre- vs post-)
    Deliver technique skills and
    training
    Create non-farming jobs and
    deliver employment services
    Zhangjiakou Dam IR- Guango Village 2011
    Zhangjiakou Dam IR- Guango Village 2011

    What we can learned for migration from development caused displacement and resettlement

    • Defined the different types of migration, Identify the

    similarity, difference, characteristics, key activities and

    issues, responsibilities, finance resources etc.

    • To develop a resettlement policy and guidelines world widely, with good experiences in different countries

    What we can learned for migration from development caused displacement and resettlement  Defined the different
    • Country Government can develop the national policy ,regulation, guidelines, mitigation/adoption measures and plans

    • National Government should take the responsibility and appoint the special agency to administrate the resettlement activities such as policy, planning, design, budgeting, implementation and management

    What we can learned for forced migration from development caused displacement and resettlement

    • Take account of migration in the regional/master plan, identify sensitive areas, control the people to move in and avoid or decrease the possible displacement in future

    • Involuntary resettlement /forced migration is big challenges in the past, present and future

    • Try to carry out the voluntary resettlement/ migration/immigration to mitigate the displacement and resettlement induced by different reasons smoothly through the good policy, planning and mechanism world-widely

    Highlights

    • Find the relocation sites/countries?

    • Income restoration and improvement as the objective

    • Livelihoods reconstruction as the key approaches and targeted paths

    • Community infrastructure accessed as the basic offer

    Highlights  Find the relocation sites/countries?  Income restoration and improvement as the objective  Livelihoods

    to the settlors collectively

    • Taken account of resettlement cost, and arrange the enough budget and financial resource

    • Scientific and operational RP well prepared

    • Implementation, supervision, monitoring and institution system and capacity building

    Conclusion: Key factors for successful resettlement  Good resettlement policies and legislation system  Good governance
    Conclusion:
    Key factors for successful resettlement
    Good resettlement policies and legislation system
    Good governance and institution system
    Good RP (resettlement plan) prepared with participation approach
    and consultation process
    Good detail designs
    Good RIP and its implementation
    Independent monitoring and supervision mechanism
    Participation of AP
    Consultation and grievance process
    Self- organization and self-management of AC
    High attention the special impacts in social, culture and traditional
    livelihoods and develop mitigation measures for affected
    indigenous people or ethnic minority
    Capacity building through research, training and education

    Conclusion:

    Key factors for successful resettlement  Integrate all responsibility under one roof (Resettlement Bureau) with the
    Key factors for successful resettlement
    Integrate all responsibility under one roof
    (Resettlement Bureau) with the assistant and
    support by other government agencies and
    consulting firm
    Integrate all resettlement activities
    (implementation policy, survey, planning,
    design, expropriation, displacement,
    reconstruction, relocation, income restoration,
    implementation administration, monitoring,
    supervision, etc) in one work plan

    Possible results of good practices

    • Affected people want to be resettled

    • From Involuntary resettlement to Voluntary resettlement

    • Turn risks to opportunities through resettlement

    Possible results of good practices  Affected people want to be resettled  From Involuntary resettlement
    • Affected people shares benefits of development projects rather than be impoverished

    • Increase social sustainability and social friendship of development projects

    Thank you !
    Thank you !