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We are the 3rd group
We have to discuss to you what treatment
of waste is all about

○ 11 billion tons of solid waste alone in US
○ Most are buried without treatment
○ It is of increasing interest to
reuse/extract energy

Tons of waste, in the US! Imagine the other countries..

“ One man’s garbage is
another man’s

In three possible
ways of treatment
Digestion Composting Incineration
Is the act of Is the act of Is the act of
immersing the feeding organic burning solid
solid waste with materials to turn waste to extract
chemicals to into valuable the solid waste’s
extract valuable organic fertilizers potential as fuel or
components of and the like. as heating
the waste.

Let’s get on
with it
(Click here for Digestion)
Anaerobic Digestion
of Solid Waste

○Anaerobic digestion is a natural process which occurs when organic material is kept in
the absence of air. Thereby, the organic material is transformed into biogas, a
renewable and green energy.

○Anaerobic digestion, as a controlled and voluntary process for the reduction and reuse
of green wastes has a large potential to give answer to the soaring crisis of increasing
municipal solid wastes for instance in urban and peri-urban areas of the developing

Anaerobic Digestion of
Green Waste
○Anaerobic Digestion takes place in airtight reactors.
○The organic fraction of the wastes is transformed into a mixture of CH4, CO2 and some trace gases

○The produced biogas can be used either directly for cooking, heating
or lightening .

○It can also be transformed into combined heat and power (CHP) in cogeneration plants

○Biogas can also be compressed and sold as fuel (e.g. for vehicles), much like natural gas.

○With time the reactors fill up and digested sludge (sludge which organic fraction was already
converted to biogas) accumulates in the bottom.

○Nutrients remain in the sludge is a well-balanced fertiliser and can be used in agriculture as
a rich soil amendment.
Anaerobic Digestion of Green
Waste Cooking
Green Waste




Agriculture 11
What is Green waste?

○Green waste is any kind refused

material which is biodegradable and mages/green-waste-grass.jpg [Accessed:
has a high fraction of organic matter, Garden refuses
which can be transformed into biogas.
Some http://www.ducorwaste.org/images/Rally_Time_
Stockpike.jpg [Accessed: 04.06.2010]
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Refuses from
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waste.jpg [Accessed: 04.06.2010]

Waste from the food

agriculture industry
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Kitchen refuses
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Some industrial wastes 12
Organic fraction of municipal waste
What is Biogas ?
○Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.
○The properties of biogas are similar to the ones of natural gas.
○Biogas is the common name for the mixture of gases released from anaerobic digestion.
Source: MUENCH (2008)
○Typically biogas is composed of:
Methane (CH4) 50 to 75 %
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 25 to 50 %
Hydrogen (H) 5 to 10 %
Nitrogen (N2) 1 to 2 %
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) Traces
Sources: YADAV & HESSE (1981); FAO (1996); PIPOLI (2005); GTZ (2009

○Methane is the valuable part of the biogas. Biogas that contains about 60 to 70 % of CH 4
has a calorific value of about 6 kWh/m3 what corresponds to about half an L of diesel
What is Anaerobic Digestion?
Degradation of organic material by bacteria. In the absence of air (anaerobic). Four
○ Cleavage of a chemical compound through the reaction with water.
○ Insoluble complex molecules are bracken down to short sugars, fatty acids
and amino acids.
○Fermentation (Acidogenesis)
○ Products from hydrolysis are transformed into organic acids, alcohols,
carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H) and ammonia (NH3).
○ Organic acids and alcohols are converted into hydrogen (H2), carbon
dioxide (CO2) and acetic acid (CH3COOH). Therefore, oxygen is consumed
and anaerobic conditions are created
○ Methanogenic bacteria (methanogenesis), transform the acetic acid,
carbon dioxide and hydrogen into biogas.
What is an anaerobic digester ?
○ 1. Airtight chamber, filled with green waste Source: HOLLIGER

○ 2. Anaerobic digestion takes place

○ 3. Sludge settles on the bottom
○ 4. Gas bubbles to the top where it is collected
○ Reaction temperature is > 35 to 55 °C: mesophilic or thermophilic range
○ Either continuous or in batch mode:
○ Batch: filled and left for digestion; After the hydraulic retention time
(HRT) emptied and filled again for a new cycle
○ Continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR): continuous in/out flow and
○ Plug-flow reactor: the sludge moves through the reactor much like a train
to a tunnel, with a velocity corresponding to the minimal HRT
○ The liquid phase can be re-circulated to maintain optimal moisture conditions
Examples: Small-scale digesters

http://www.open2.net/blo floating-drum
Source: F.

reactors form
the Indian
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Examples: Large-scale digesters

Source: BRUYN (2006)

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Source: BRUYN (2006) Source: BRUYN (2006)

Examples: Biogas Appliances


Biogas Mini biogas generator

heat and
power (CHP)
Chang Mai
Biogas lamp http://www.power.alstom.com/home/new_plants/steam/products/steam_turbines/refe
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How the Digestion of Green Waste optimises SWM?
Anaerobic digestion is a Biogas is an renewable energy
promising answer to the and has the potential to
soaring crises of municipal replace other fuel sources.
waste explosion and thus Biogas contributes to prevent
prevent the pollution of and lower greenhouse gas
water sources and the emission.
evnvironment Green Waste Cooking




Fertiliser Fuel

Digested sludge can substitute Sustainable development:

chemical fertiliser and enhance • Improved health
food production • Improved economy
Basics: Process
The biogas yield depends on the process and the substrate.
High COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) = High potential of biogas generation
Anaerobic digestion = Biological system of bacteria
Optimal conditions required that bacteria feel wealthy…
 Performance
 Retention time
 Wide range, but methanogenesis requires neutrality (6.5-7.5)
 Multistage process for better pH and temperature control
Total solid (TS) and moisture
 Wet digestion (TS < 20 %): easier to maintain, good fluidity
 Dry digestion (TS > 20 %): sophisticated but safes space

 Anaerobic digestion can transform almost any biodegradable waste into biogas (e.g. green waste).
The anaerobic treatment of organic solid waste is applicable everywhere where there is a need for
biogas and waste treatment and the technical conditions allow the installation of a plant.

Small-scale (biogas generation for cooking and lightening) – low-cost and relatively low-tech:
 Household-level
 Community-level
 Institutional-level
Large-scale – high-tech, requires expert design:
 Industrial plant connected to the public power and heat grid.

Low-tech (un-heated plants), however, are only adapted to areas where temperature does not fall
short of for any substantial length of time.

Pros’ and Cons’ Disadvantages:
Advantages: • Small- and middle-scale anaerobic
• Generation of biogas and fertilizer (almost technology for the treatment of solid
complete retention of the fertilizer waste in middle- and low-income
nutrients (N, P and K) countries is still relatively new
• Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions • Experts are required for the design and
through methane recovery construction, depending on scale may
• Combined treatment of different organic also for operation and maintenance
waste and wastewaters • Reuse of produced energy (e.g.
• Reduction of solids to be handled (e.g. less transformation into, fire/light, heat and
excess sludge) power) needs to be established
• Good pathogen removal depending on • High sensitivity of methanogenic bacteria
temperature to a large number of chemical compounds
• Process stability (high-loads can be treated • Sulphurous compounds can lead to odour
but anaerobic sludge can also be preserved
for prolonged periods without any feeding)
Today’s primary use of capture Methane from a landfill or digester is Electrical Power Generation by internal combustion engine
(turbine or reciprocating) typical installation consist of the following major components:

• Gas compression equipment for gas field extraction and compression to 2-3 psig
• Internal Combustion Engine is usually a reciprocating engine that manufactured for
numerous other commercial applications with some enhancements to run on landfill or
digester gas.
• Engine is coupled to synchronous generator.
• Electrical power controlled and connected to the grid via common electrical switchgear
with some additional controls for load control.
• Electrical substation consisting of station transformer (stepping up to utility distribution
voltage and well as utility tie breaker (at distribution voltage.
• Generated by decomposition of organic
material at a landfill site
• Mixture of gases, mostly methane
(approximately 40-60%) and carbon dioxide
• Trace amounts of oxygen, ammonia,
hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen
Landfill Gas:
Negative effects
○ Gives off a disagreeable
○ May result in health
consequences from toxic
and carcinogenic
substance traces
○ Increase risk of explosion at
○ LFG extraction system comprises one or
more wellheads
○ Pipes are embedded within the landfill to
collect the gas
○ Wellheads are connected by the piping
and coupled to a vacuum source that
moves LFG from wellheads to a storage
○ Need to optimize vacuum so that
methane content is within a reasonable
Methane collection system
Methane collection system
Impacts of
Positive environmental impacts
of composting

 Improving soil quality

compost plays an important role
in soil water retention when mixed with
soil; it acts like a sponge which retains
water while also providing a firm grip
for the plants’ roots
 Reducing waste in our landfills
on average, a third of household
waste is organic material. When
organic wastes are sorted from other
wastes that are disposed of in landfills,
it reduces the volume of trash going to
our landfills.
 Minimizes the use of chemicals
on farmlands
using compost as a source of
nutrients for the plants reduces
dependency on chemical
Negative environmental impacts
of composting
○ Poorly operated composting facilities
cause unpleasant odors.
○ Leachate production may occur.
○ Improperly maintained compost piles may
flourish and produce methane gas.
○ The decomposition process in composting
releases carbon dioxide, volatile organic
compounds, bacteria, and fungi.
Thermal Treatment
Thermal Treatment
○ is any waste treatment
technology that involves high
temperatures in the processing of the
waste feedstock. Commonly this
involves the combustion of waste
Systems that are generally considered to be
thermal treatment include:

○ Cement kiln
○ Gasification
○ Incineration
○ Mechanical heat treatment
○ Pyrolysis
○ Thermal depolymerisation
○ Waste autoclaves
○ is a waste treatment process that
the combustion of organic substances
contained in waste materials.
○ destruction of waste material by
Typical Waste – Incineration Facility
Waste Storage and Preparation
Waste Type Storage/Staging Feed Preparation Feeding to Incinerator
Municipal Solid Waste -Pit -Removal of oversize -crane or bucket to vertical
-Tipping floor in piles noncombustible wastes hopper
-front end loader to hopper

Hazardous Waste - Solids -Tarped roll off bin -Screening -Ram Feeder
-Drums -Shredding -Auger Feeder
Hazardous Waste- -Tanks -Aqueous/organic Pump to burner or
Liquids -Drums phase separation atomizing nozzle
-Blending of
-Solids filtration

Medical Waste Red bags or puncture- -None -Manual (especially for

resistant boxes smaller units)
-Ram feeder
○ Combustion is a rapid, exothermic reaction between a fuel and oxygen
(O2). In incineration applications, the fuel is predominately waste (although
fossil fuels may be co-fired) and the oxygen source is air. Combustion
produces many of the same stable end products, whether the material
burned is natural gas, coal, wood, gasoline, municipal solid waste,
hazardous waste, or medical waste.
Waste Type Furnace Design

Municipal Solid Waste -Mass burn

-Waterwall furnace
-Reciprocating or other continuous moving
-Spreader-stoker/cyclone furnaces
Fluidized bed

Hazardous Waste -Liquid injection

-Rotary kiln with secondary combustion
-Fluidized bed
-Fixed hearth with secondary chamber

Medical Waste -Multiple chamber

-Controlled-air primary chamber with --
-Rotary kiln with afterburner
○ The most common combustion-gas cooling techniques for incinerators
are waste-heat boilers, and direct-contact water-spray quenches. Waste-
heat boilers are employed on all new municipal solid waste-to-energy
plants, many hazardous-waste incinerators, and some of the larger
medical-waste incinerators.
○ Particulate Collectors
○ Acid Gas Scrubbers
○ NOxControls
○ Carbon Adsorption and Other Dioxin and Mercury Removal Techniques
Incineration in the Philippines
RA 9003: Ecological Solid Waste
Management Act of 2000

○ Section 2. Declaration of Policies

(d) Ensure the proper segregation, collection,
transport, storage, treatment and disposal of
solid waste through the formulation and
adoption of the best environmental practice in
ecological waste management excluding
Section 28. Reclamation Programs and Buy-back Centers for Recyclables
and Toxics - The National Ecology Center shall assist LGUs in establishing
and implementing deposit or reclamation programs in coordination with
manufacturers, recyclers and generators to provide separate collection
systems or convenient drop-off locations for recyclable materials and
particularly for separated toxic components of the waste stream like dry
cell batteries and tires to ensure that they are not incinerated or disposed
of in a landfill. Upon effectivity of this Act, toxic materials present in the
waste stream should be separated at source, collected separately and
further screened and sent to appropriate hazardous waste treatment and
disposal plants, consistent with the provisions of R.A. No. 6969.
RA 8749: Philippine
Clean Air Act of 1999
Section 20. Ban on Incineration. - Incineration,
hereby defined as the burning of municipal,
biomedical and hazardous waste, which process
emits poisonous and toxic fumes is hereby
prohibited; Provided, however, that the prohibition
shall not apply to traditional small-scale method
of community or neighborhood sanitation,
traditional, agricultural, cultural, health, and food
preparation and crematoria.
Incineration in Other Countries
Incineration in North
○ In the U.S., incineration was granted
qualification for renewable energy
production tax credits in 2004.
○ Projects to add capacity to existing plants
are underway, and municipalities are once
again evaluating the option of building
incineration plants rather than continue
landfilling municipal wastes.
Incineration in
○ In Europe, with the ban on landfilling untreated
waste, scores of incinerators have been built in the
last decade, with more under construction.
○ The importance of waste in Sweden's electricity
generation scheme is reflected on their 2,700,000
tons of waste imported per year (in 2014) to supply
waste-to-energy facilities.
The Philippines’ incineration ban is the
first and only one of its kind in the world.