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Figure 1.1 Process to be controlled.

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Figure 1.2 Open-loop control system (without feedback).

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Figure 1.3 Closed-loop feedback control system (with feedback).

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Figure 1.4 Closed-loop feedback system with external disturbances and measurement noise.

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Figure 1.5 Multiloop feedback system with an inner loop and an outer loop.

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Figure 1.6 Multivariable control system.

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Figure 1.7 Watt’s flyball governor.

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Table 1.1 (continued) Selected Historical Developments of Control Systems

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Figure 1.8 Water-level float regulator.

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Figure 1.9 (a) Automobile steering control system. (b) The driver uses the difference between the actual and the
desired direction of travel to generate a controlled adjustment of the steering wheel. (c) Typical direction - of - travel
response.

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Figure 1.10 A manual control system for regulating the level of fluid in a tank by adjusting the output valve. The
operator views the level of fluid through a port in the side of the tank.

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Figure 1.11 The Honda P3 humanoid robot. P3 walks, climbs stairs, and turns corners. Photo courtesy of American
Honda Motor, Inc.

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Figure 1.12 A three-axis control system for inspecting individual semiconductor wafers with a highly sensitive camera.

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Figure 1.13 Coordinated control system for a boiler - generator.

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Figure 1.14 The Obrero robot is responsive to the properties of the object it holds and does not rely on vision as the
main sensor but as a complement. Obrero is part of the Humanoid Robotics Group at the MIT Computer Science and
Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

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Figure 1.15 A feedback control system model of the national income.

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Figure 1.16 An unmanned aerial vehicle. (Used with permission. Credit: DARPA.)

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Figure 1.17 The control system design process.

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Figure 1.18 The key elements of mechatronics [64].

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Figure 1.19 The hybrid fuel automobile can be viewed as a mechatronic system. (Used with permission of
DOE/NREL. Credit: Warren Gretz.)

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Figure 1.20 Efficient wind power generation in west Texas. (Used with permission of DOE/NREL. Credit: Lower
Colorado River Authority.)

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Figure 1.21 A rover using an embedded computer in the feedback loop. (Photo by R.H. Bishop.)

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Figure 1.22 Future evolution of control systems and robotics.

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Figure 1.23 Smart grids are distribution networks that measure and control usage.

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Figure 1.24 (a) Open-loop (without feedback) control of the speed of a rotating disk.

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Figure 1.25 (a) Closed-loop control of the speed of a rotating disk.

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Figure 1.26 The blood glucose and insulin levels for a healthy person.

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Figure 1.27 (a) Open-loop (without feedback) control.

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Figure 1.28 Disk drive data density trends (Source: IBM).

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Figure 1.29 (a) A disk drive ©1999 Quantum Corporation. All rights reserved.

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Figure 1.29 (continued) (b) Diagram of a disk drive.

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Figure 1.30 Closed-loop control system for disk drive.

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Figure 1.31 System with control device, actuator, and process.

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Figure E1.3 Partial block diagram of an optical source.

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Figure E1.13 Inverted pendulum control.

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Figure P1.2 Fluid-flow control.

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Figure P1.3 Chemical composition control.

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Figure P1.4 Nuclear reactor control.

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Figure P1.5 A photocell is mounted in each tube. The light reaching each cell is the same in both only when the light
source is exactly in the middle as shown.

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Figure P1.6 Positive feedback.

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Figure P1.9 Heart-rate control.

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Figure P1.11 Water clock. (From Newton, Gould, and Kaiser, Analytical Design of Linear Feedback Controls. Wiley,
New York, 1957, with permission.)

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Figure P1.12 Automatic turning gear for windmills. (From Newton, Gould, and Kaiser, Analytical Design of Linear
Feedback Controls. Wiley, New York, 1957, with permission.)

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Figure P1.18 Pressure regulator.

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Figure P1.20 A high-performance race car with an adjustable wing.

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Figure P1.21 Two helicopters used to lift and move a large load.

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Figure P1.26 Microrover designed to explore an asteroid. (Photo courtesy of NASA.)

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Figure AP1.1 Microsurgery robotic manipulator. (Photo courtesy of NASA.)

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Figure AP1.3 Automated parallel parking of an automobile.

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Figure AP1.4 Extremely large optical telescope with deformable mirrors for atmosphere compensation.

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Figure AP1.5 The world’s tallest building in Dubai. (Photo courtesy of Alamy Images.)

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Figure AP1.6 A robotic vacuum cleaner communicates with the base station as it maneuvers around the room. (Photo
courtesy of Alamy Images.)

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Figure CDP1.1 Machine tool with table.

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Figure DP1.4 Robot welder.

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Figure DP1.7 An artist illustration of a nanorobot interacting with human blood cells.

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Figure DP1.8 Personal transportation vehicle. (Photo courtesy of newscom.com.)

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