Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

Safety Engineering and Disaster Risk

Management

Chapter 1
Introduction to Safety Engineering

Presented By: Umesh Sukamani


Course Objectives:
 This subject has been designed to impart the knowledge
regarding safety in their profession and also the disaster
management.
i. Explain the need of safety in civil engineering
works,

ii. Identify various types of hazards and


implement the preventive measures,

iii. Explain the role of various level of workers


and officials, regarding safety,

iv. Identify various types of disaster and


implement the preventive measures

2 9/19/2018
Introduction
Classical definition
Freedom from those conditions that can
cause death, injury, occupational illness,
damage to or loss of equipment or
property, or damage to the environment.

Alternative definition
Safety = Managing complexity without
going crazy and ensuring completeness and
consistency.
3 9/19/2018
1.1 Introduction to Safety
Engineering and its scope
Safety engineering is an engineering discipline
which assures that engineered systems provide
acceptable levels of safety.

It is strongly related to industrial engineering/systems


engineering, and the subset system
safety engineering.

Safety engineering assures that a life-critical


system behaves as needed, even when components
fail.
4 9/19/2018
Scope of Safety Engineering
 The scope of a safety engineer is to perform their professional
functions.

 Safety engineering professionals must have education,


training and experience in a common body of knowledge.

 They need to have a fundamental knowledge


of physics, chemistry, biology, physiology, statistics, mathem
atics, computer science, engineering mechanics, industrial
processes, business, communication and psychology.

5
Scope of Safety Engineering
 Professional safety studies include
 industrial hygiene and toxicology,
 design of engineering hazard controls,
 fire protection,
 Ergonomics,
 system and process safety,
 system safety,
 safety and health program management,
 accident investigation and analysis,
 product safety,
 construction safety,
 education and training methods,
 measurement of safety performance,
 human behavior,
 environmental safety and health,
 safety, health and environmental laws,
 regulations and standards.
6 9/19/2018
Scope of Safety Engineering
Many safety engineers have backgrounds or advanced
study in other disciplines, such as management and
business administration, engineering, system
engineering / industrial engineering, requirements
engineering, reliability engineering, maintenance, human
factors, operations, education, physical and social
sciences and other fields. Others have advanced study in
safety.

This extends their expertise beyond the basics of the


safety engineering profession.

7 9/19/2018
Scope of Safety Engineering
Functions of a Safety Engineer
 The major areas relating to the protection of people, property and
the environment are:
 Anticipate, identify and evaluate hazardous conditions and
practices.
 Develop hazard control designs, methods, procedures and
programs.
 Implement, administer and advise others on hazard control
programs.
 Measure, audit and evaluate the effectiveness of hazard control
programs.
 Draft a future safety plan and statement based on real time
experiences and facts.

8 9/19/2018
1.2 Interrelationships between
human/machinery / environmental elements

9 9/19/2018
1.2 Interrelationships between
human/machinery / environmental elements
 The relationship between humans and machines is being redefined
through emerging technologies, narrowing the divide between
humans and machines.
 The term human-factors engineering is used to designate equally a
body of knowledge, a process, and a profession. As a body of
knowledge, human-factors engineering is a collection of data and
principles about human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations
in relation to machines, jobs, and environments.
 As a process, it refers to the design of machines, machine systems,
work methods, and environments to take into account the safety,
comfort, and productiveness of human users and operators.
 As a profession, human-factors engineering includes a range of
scientists and engineers from several disciplines that are concerned
10 with individuals and small groups at work 9/19/2018
1.2 Interrelationships between
human/machinery / environmental elements
 Ergonomics is the science of designing machines, products
and systems to maximize the safety, comfort and efficiency of
the people who use them.

 It is the means by which people and machines work together


as one unit. Ergonomics focuses on highlighting the strengths
and compensating for the weaknesses of each component
within the system, both human and mechanical.

 Designing a work area with ergonomics in mind may help


reduce workplace accidents and injuries.
11 9/19/2018
1.2 Interrelationships between
human/machinery / environmental elements
 Driving an automobile is a familiar example of a simple man-
machine system. In driving, the operator receives inputs from
outside the vehicle (sounds and visual cues from traffic,
obstructions, and signals) and from displays inside the vehicle
(such as the speedometer, fuel indicator, and temperature gauge).
The driver continually evaluates this information, decides on
courses of action, and translates those decisions into actions upon
the vehicle’s controls—principally the accelerator, steering wheel,
and brake. Finally, the driver is influenced by such environmental
factors as noise, fumes, and temperature.

12 9/19/2018
1.3 Impact of human and machine
characteristics on safety
 Machine can perform any job most efficiently and accurately than
the individuals but the ways I n which a person may be adopted to
a variety of tasks and the necessity for providing works is
satisfying.
 The system has to be responsive to the needs of person as well as
to company’s mission.
 18% injuries are due to mechanical factor
 19% injuries are due to the personal factors
 63% injuries are due to the combination of both
 There is great debate in either work performed by a person or by
the machine is safer.

13 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control
devices; Signs,
Signals,
Instructions and
Safety Codes
Prohibitory signs
Intrinsic features:
(a) round shape;
(b) (b) black pictogram on
white background, red
edging and diagonal line
(the red part to take up at
least 35% of the area of the
sign).

14 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control
devices; Signs,
Signals,
Instructions and
Safety Codes
Warning signs
Intrinsic features:
(a) triangular shape;
(b) (b) black pictogram on a
yellow background with black
edging (the yellow part to take
up at least 50% of the area of
the sign).

15 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control
devices; Signs,
Signals,
Instructions and
Safety Codes
Warning signs
Intrinsic features:
(a) triangular shape;
(b) (b) black pictogram on a
yellow background with black
edging (the yellow part to take
up at least 50% of the area of
the sign).

16 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control
devices; Signs,
Signals,
Instructions and
Safety Codes
Mandatory signs
Intrinsic features:
(a) round shape;
(b) (b) white pictogram on a blue
background (the blue part to
take up at least 50% of the
area of the sign).

17 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control
devices; Signs,
Signals,
Instructions and
Safety Codes
Emergency escape or first-aid
signs
Intrinsic features:
(a) rectangular or square shape;
(b) (b) white pictogram on a green
background (the green part to
take up at least 50% of the area
of the sign).
Emergency exit/escape
route signs

18 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control
devices; Signs,
Signals,
Instructions and
Safety Codes
Emergency escape or first-aid
signs
Intrinsic features:
(a) rectangular or square shape;
(b) (b) white pictogram on a
green background (the green
part to take up at least 50% of
the area of the sign).

19 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control
devices; Signs,
Signals,
Instructions and
Safety Codes
Firefighting signs
Intrinsic features:
(a) rectangular or square shape;
(b) (b) white pictogram on a red
background (the red part to
take up at least 50% of the
area of the sign).

20 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control
devices; Signs,
Signals,
Instructions and
Safety Codes

21 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control
devices; Signs,
Signals,
Instructions and
Safety Codes

22 9/19/2018
1.4 Safety control devices; Signs, Signals,
Instructions and Safety Codes
 Government prepares acts, regulations and code of practices for
different purposes.
 Acts and regulations are intended to regulate the work to save life
and property, job guarantee and security.
 The code of practice gives the instructions to the practitioner about
the work
 What to do
 How to do

The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA,1970)


The Health and Safety at work Act, 1974 UK
ILO Convention and Recommendation 1981
Labour Act 1992 Nepal
23 9/19/2018
24 Result Analysis of Students 9/19/2018