Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 47

c  

m 

 
c 

i  ii   i i 
 i ii 
 i  
    
i i i  ii
    

?   
   ?

( DIVIDES GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY AND POLITICAL POWER


BETWEEN TWO SEPARATE AUTHORITIES - NATIONAL
GOVERNMENT AND STATE GOVERNMENTS

( EACH GOVERNMENT ENFORCES ITS OWN LAWS DIRECTLY ON


ITS CITIZENS

( BOTH THE FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS PASS LAWS,


IMPOSE TAXES, SPEND MONEY. AND MAINTAIN THEIR OWN
COURTS

( NEITHER LEVEL CAN DISSOLVE THE UNION OR AMEND THE


CONSTITUTION WITHOUT THE CONSENT OF THE OTHER

( THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTION IS THE ULTIMATE LEGAL


SOURCE OF AUTHORITY (Both governments derive their powers
from the U.S. Constitution)
i i 
· 
  
  
      
·           
       
·        
   
  

      
    

c


· c 
  iii    ii
     
i
·  
    ii    i
i i    i     
 
·  
   i   
    i   ii

  i    i   


i   

 
  
 i   i i   i  
  

M¢ c 


M? i i  i 


ii 

M?     i i  


i 

M i i       


  

iii 
·  i i  ! "
#  i   ii
· ?   ii  i i
#  i   i i
·  i      i 
 "
·       ii

iii 
i m  
m %  i 'ii      i 
 i i    
&  iii 
 

 'i     i    i 


&      
  i     
 

mii (    (    (      


    )  i i
i i i i
 
$
¢  c 

·       ii 
     i
i    i   m i 
 i i    
*ii

·      i +


$
 i  ,
-
  i i  i  i ii i ii ,

        i   
  i   i i  

   

·  i   m  ii  


i     i 
 
·    i  i 
   i i
    

   
   !
·   "
   i  . i  
 i   iii  
    i  ,
i (!    i  @ 

  +
$
 m  ii ,
-
'   i   
 i i  m  ii ,

i  i    i 
 

¢ 
c 



ð  
   




 delegated powers2

3 types of delegated power 


 
  
 
     
 

  
 

 



· ¢ "
  #$
  
 # %   

#   
"
&conduct
foreign relations, make war even in the
absence of a formal declaration, etc.
 
 

· 
  

 

"   
'
      
# $/  ii    m 
· i $  i 0  

m  ii 
· i 
· m i  
· &i    
· i  
"  

·       
   ii ii   ii 

·       


    1 2   

· ¢ necessary and proper   


#  $"   "
 
   
!
 
· ?        
   +3    
   i  
m  ii   iii   
      i   
 
3
·         i 
 
        
  i    
      i     
 i     

  


· i !  i 4    


i    

#  +i     
    
· i !  i $5   
  i   

#  +i i 
i    i 
     
·    i 
 $ .i i i

· i !(.i    i3


i  i3     6

·   .i i
ii i    

    


·
   #!! "

  
 
  
(
  

cc¢)* ¢
    
  

*
   
 
 

%¢ ¢¢ +¢


    i  

,¢¢+%
'   i ii  i i i  i   

-  *%¢ 
 i iii   i i  
 m  ii  ii i    
i   
m  ii * i
·   m 
#    ii  i i    
m  ii   i  
i i  
#      i    
    i  i i
 ii 
·    · i   
     
# !  i    #   i
     i 
# '     # ' i  
   i 
# %  ii  i 
i i    #    
  i ''     
 ii  
¢      
 "c 

·   i    i   
  i   

·  m ii   i 
 ii    i 
iii     

# 
#
! 
#   !
  ./0/12
#  ##!+ ./0342
# 
 !  
./0562
? ?@ $05
·        
ii i   
7 ?   
 ii i
i i 

· ii?  
  
7 ?i   
? 
i i i
i 

i !!!
 7i i  $/04
· i !!!  m  ii   ii 
i  m 8  ii
i i i 

·  7i i  $/04 


m  ii i i   #
     i i i  
 i i

· mm   m 8 


iii i i "
· ! ?i  i  i i "
m i7 i 7 ? 
· ¢ 

    

7
  (
  
#$  !¢    
    
"  
#   
  


  (
    
   !
·  
     
  8 

/601      !
·  
#
 
      

(   "
 
       
  !¢    
 
  
 

  


  !
?cCulloch v. ?aryland (1819)
· !$/4$ 

   
  ii i 

·   ?i      
*   i i  
9$:555i
7 ? m   
 *i    *   i 
i  
  ?  i 


· ! ;$
# m *   ""
· ! ;-
# m? *   ""
  !
  ./0/12
· ?     i   i i  
m m i7 i 7 ? 
  i  i    
i  

·  m      i 


 i i     


·  m 8  ii     @@ 


   @  @    @  
 i  i i
 

 ##!+ ./0342
·  O @      i  
     m 

· m <       i   


ii   % &i" % &i
     < 
7  

m   i   i  i
 % 

·  i  ii . i iO @  


   m  6 i m  
m 

· !O  m     i 
  i   


 !  
./0562
·  m i  i   
  i  i i  
.    i 
 i     i 
   @

·  m   ?


    


ii   i  i 

·     i i  i 



·    m      
 i  i i i   i
    m  ii 

 c 

¢ /  9
 c 
9/606/0:0

¢ 3  c 


-     /1;<

¢ ; "


 c 
- /1;<9 =
> &i  $4=5  "
> i i # $4=5  "
> i $4=4 "
  /
 9
 c 

1mi 2
$/0/ $0=0

·    i   m  ii     mii
    i      i 
i    i  

·    ii i  i    i 


 3
 c 

· 
   >
 # 
" 
  
 "  
       "  
 

· ¢ # ?  c 




·  c 

# iii +     i i #   
     

  "
   

" 
    i   i i

# 'i 
# >i $458
 ;
"
 c 

· c
 /1;<     
# 
     
 #
    
 
   "!

· ¢ # ? "


 c 


· "
 c 

# iii +     i i "
  
"   

 #    
   


#   
#  ii i 
#    ii

#  ? i 
?    
"
  

    
 8 i 
>  i  
i  i  
 i   i

! &i  
 
· i i 
#    + 
 ii
 ii i
   ,ii 
      
i  8 
i  i  
  

! &i  
 
· i i  i+
#    + i ii i
· m i   +    
   ii  
   i  
#        i
#    + i    
· *   + i   
 i      

·  i   )  


! &i  
 
· i i  i@
#     
· 9A=5ii i 
· i i  i  i  
#  ?*
· ?  1 i 2  
 
·  .i   )
      
 *   
m  
· ?     i 
i . i     

#    .i       i


 i i  i i   
ii i 
#    .i  i iii 
   i i i  
 ii
! &i   

·  
     9  
 i        
 i i#    
m     i
ii     
 i  
m  .    
 
·  i   ii i i
 i ii 
· i i i      i
ii 
·   ii   
· >i   ii.i
· ii  i i    ii 
 i i    
c 
    "


· * $405 $445  i  
  i  i  
  i    i  
  i  

·  m   i


 i i  i  i 

#  +i $404 m   
 i   i  iii    
i   i 

þnited States vs. Lopez (1995)


·   i  m     
ii  m  6 i 

#   ' 7
 i  i 
i  i  

# %  i i i i 4--.  
 B    $445

·   i    i  


i  i i i  
 m  m 

    "
 
·  m  i1?C2 m  m i
| 
#          i  
 
#      i8 
 i
#           

#  i "!   
      
i  
     
· i   i i ii$/0/
    i i

· !ii   i.i 
 i    


· ?i i   
  i  

· %  m   i  


i ii i i  
i