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LTE Handover Fault

Diagnosis

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Copyright © 2014 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.


Objectives
 Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
 Understand the details of handover procedure

 Solve the typical handover fault

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Contents
1. Handover Procedure Overview

2. Handover KPI Introduction

3. Handover Fault Analysis

4. Case Study

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The Basic Procedure of LTE Handover

Measurement Report Handover execution

• eNodeB sends • UE report • eNodeB sends


measurement measurement handover
control to UE. results to eNodeB command to UE if
• UE measures based on the handover condition
source cell and parameters in is fulfilled.
target cells. measurement • After UE receives
control. handover
• The report mode of command, it
HUAWEI eNodeB handovers to
is event-triggered. target cell.
After the event
report, UE will
report the result
periodically.

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The Events Related to LTE Handover
Intra-frequency Inter-frequency
Inter-RAT handover
handover handover
• A3 event is used • A2 event is used • A2 event is used
to trigger intra- to trigger to trigger
frequency coverage-based coverage-based
handover. inter-frequency inter-RAT
measurement. measurement.
• A1 event is used • A1 event is used
to stop coverage- to stop coverage-
based inter- based inter-RAT
frequency measurement.
measurement. • B1/B2 event can
• A3/A4/A5 event be used to trigger
can be used to coverage-based
trigger coverage- inter-RAT
based inter- handover.
frequency
handover.

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The Events Related to LTE Handover(cont.)

A1 entering condition • Ms – Hys > Thresh

A2 entering condition • Ms + Hys < Thresh

A3 entering condition • Mn + Ofn + Ocn – Hys > Ms + Ofs + Ocs + Off

A4 entering condition • Mn + Ofn + Ocn – Hys > Thresh

A5 entering condition • Ms + Hys < Thresh1 and Mn + Ofn + Ocn – Hys > Thresh2

B1 entering condition • Mn + Ofn – Hys > Thresh

B2 entering condition • Ms + Hys < Thresh1 anb Mn + Ofn + Ocn – Hys > Thresh2

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Analysis of Intra-frequency Handover Parameters

• Measurement quantity can be


RSRP or RSRQ. RSRP is the default
configuration.
•"Time to Trigger" is the trigger delay
time. If the event entry condition is
fulfilled during the trigger delay time.
•Ofn and Ofs is 0 for intra-frequency
handover.
•Ocs and Ocn is the cell specific offset
of the serving cell and the
neighboring cell. They can be
adjusted to control how difficult to
trigger the handover.
•The report interval of measurement
result

A3 entering condition: Mn + Ofn + Ocn – Hys > Ms + Ofs + Ocs + Off

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Handover Signaling(Intra-eNodeB)

UE eNodeB Measurement control including


parameters such as target cells, target
RRC Connection Reconfiguration frequency, measurement quantity and
(Measurement Control)
... related events parameters.

Measurement report
including measurement
Measurement Report
result

RRC Connection Reconfiguration Handover command


(Mobility Control)

Handover complete message


RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete

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Handover Signaling (X2-based Handover)
UE soure eNodeB Target eNodeB MME

1. Measurement
Report 2. Handover
Request
3. Handover
4. RRC Connection Request ACK
Reconfiguration
(Mobility Control) 5. SN Status
Transfer
6. Random access to target cell(non-
contention based

7. RRC Connection Reconfiguration


Complete
8. Path Switch
Request
9. Path Switch
Request ACK
10. UE Context
Release

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Confirmation of Some Signaling during
Handover
 During handover, measurement control and handover command
are contained by RRC Connection Reconfiguration message.

 In RRC Connection Reconfiguration message, if the element is


measConfig, it is measurement control. If the element is
mobilityControInfo, it is handover command.

Measurement Handover
control command

RRC Connection Reconfiguration message

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Measurement Control: Measurement Object
Measurement object ID

Measurement frequency

Frequency offset

PCI of cell

Cell CIO

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Measurement Control: Measurement Report
Configuration
Report configuration ID

Report mode

A3 offset

A3 hysteresis

A3 trigger delay

Measurement quantity(RSRP
in this example)

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Measurement Control: Measurement ID

Measurement ID to distinguish
different measurements

Measurement object ID
and report configuration
ID for this measurement

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Measurement Report
ID of the corresponding
measurement

Measurement result of
serving cell

PCI of neighboring
cell

Measurement result of
neighboring cell

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Handover Command
PCI of target cell

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Contents
1. Handover Procedure Overview

2. Handover KPI Introduction

3. Handover Fault Analysis

4. Case Study

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Basic Handover KPI Analysis Procedure

Network-level handover KPI analysis


• Network-level or cluster-level KPI analysis
indicates the network performance.

Cell handover KPI analysis


• Analyze handover KPI and related counters in
top_N cells, try to find the reasons of handover
problem.

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Typical Handover KPI
 Handover successful ratio = (times of successful handover / times of
attempted handover) * 100%

 Intra-frequency handover out successful ratio =


(L.HHO.IntraeNB.IntraFreq.ExecSuccOut +
L.HHO.IntereNB.IntraFreq.ExecSuccOut /
(L.HHO.IntraeNB.IntraFreq.ExecAttOut +
L.HHO.IntereNB.IntraFreq.ExecAttOut) * 100%

 Inter-frequency handover out successful ratio =


(L.HHO.IntraeNB.InterFreq.ExecSuccOut +
L.HHO.IntereNB.InterFreq.ExecSuccOut) /
(L.HHO.IntraeNB.InterFreq.ExecAttOut +
L.HHO.IntereNB.InterFreq.ExecAttOut) * 100%

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The Related Counters: Intra-eNodeB Handover

UE eNodeB Handover attempt count point:


If intra-frequency handover, the counter
Measurement Report L.HHO.IntraeNB.IntraFreq.ExecAttOut is increased by 1;
Handover If inter-frequency handover, the counter
decision L.HHO.IntraeNB.InterFreq.ExecAttOut is increased by 1
RRC Connection
Reconfiguration (Mobility
Control) Successful handover count point:
If intra-frequency handover, the counter
RRC Connection L.HHO.IntraeNB.IntraFreq.ExecSuccOut is increased by 1;
Reconfiguration Complete If inter-frequency handover, the counter
L.HHO.IntraeNB.InterFreq.ExecSuccOut is increased by 1

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The Related Counters: Inter-eNodeB Handover

 X2-based inter-eNodeB handover:

Source Target
UE
eNodeB eNodeB
Measurement Report Handover attempt count point:
Handover If intra-frequency handover, the counter
decision
L.HHO.IntereNB.IntraFreq.ExecAttOut is increased by 1;
Handover Request
If inter-frequency, the counter L.HHO.IntereNB.InterFreq.ExecAttOut
Handover Request is increased by 1
RRC Connection ACK
Reconfiguration
(Mobility Control)
Successful handover count point:
Other signaling
If intra-frequency handover, the counter
UE Context Release L.HHO.IntereNB.IntraFreq.ExecSuccOut is increased by 1;
If inter-frequency handover, the counter
L.HHO.IntereNB.InterFreq.ExecSuccOut is increased by 1

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An Example of Handover KPI
Intra- Inter- Intra-frequency Inter-frequency
time frequency_Hand frequency_Hand handover-out handover-out
over_ExecAttOut over_ExecAttOut successful ratio successful ratio
Day 1 1042189 3 97.8612 100
Day 2 1080588 117 97.6294 100
Day 3 926925 1 97.1825 100
Day 4 1366968 1 98.0242 100
Day 5 1053958 3 98.2656 100
Day 6 883153 1 98.4423 100
Day 7 987675 0 98.3745 100
Day 8 699014 0 98.8012 100
Day 9 750262 2 98.9768 100
Day 10 1424001 0 97.9917 100
Day 11 938753 2 98.481 100
Day 12 796400 0 98.3757 100
Day 13 811231 4 98.9822 100

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Contents
1. Handover Procedure Overview

2. Handover KPI Introduction

3. Handover Fault Analysis

4. Case Study

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Contents
3. Handover Fault Analysis
3.1 Handover Failure Scenarios

3.2 Handover Problem Analysis

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Scenario 1: Handover Triggered too
Early
UE Source NodeB Target eNodeB

Measurement Report
Handover Request
Handover fails because of the
Handover Request bad signal in target cell, or
RRC Connection ACK downlink synchronization fails
Reconfiguration after handover to the target cell,
(Mobility Control) then UE triggers RRC
connection reestablishment in
source cell.
RRC Connection
Reestablishment
Request
...

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Typical Signaling of Handover Triggered
too Early
UE fails to handover to the
target cell, triggers RRC
connection reestablishment
in the source cell.

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Scenario 2: Handover Triggered too Late

UE Source eNodeB Target eNodeB

The signal from the source cell Measurement Report


drops too fast, so UE has no time Handover Request
to report measurement result or
can not receive handover Handover Request
command in time. Then UE loses RRC Connection ACK
downlink synchronization and Reconfiguration
triggers RRC connection (Mobility Control)
reestablishment in the target cell.
RRC Connection Reestablishment Request

...

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Typical Signaling of Handover Triggered
too Late
UE triggers RRC
reestablishment in
the target cell.

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Scenario 3: Ping-Pong Handover
 Ping-Pong handover means frequent handover between
different cells in short time.

 From the signaling trace result, if the time between


handover into a cell and handover out of the same cell is too
short, it is ping-pong handover.

 The main reason of ping-pong handover is no dominant cell.


Several cells have signals with similar level.

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Contents
3. Handover Fault Analysis
3.1 Handover Failure Scenarios

3.2 Handover Problem Analysis

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Identifying the Causes of Handover
Failure
 A handover failure results in the failure in signaling
interaction.

 Signaling failures can be in Uu interface or X2/S1 interface.

Abnormal Uu signaling:
Most popular in real
network
Handover signaling
failure
Abnormal X2/S1
signaling: Maybe caused
by transmission
problems, not so popular
in real network

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Abnormal Signaling over Uu Interface
 During handover Three signaling may be abnormal over Uu
interface, as the follow:
UE Source eNodeB Target eNodeB Loss of
measurement
1. Measurement report
Report 2. Handover
Request
3. Handover Loss of handover
4. RRC Connection Request ACK command
Reconfiguration message
(Mobility Control)
...

Loss of handover
7. RRC Connection Reconfiguration complete message
Complete

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Possible Reason of Abnormal Uu Signaling
Loss of measurement Loss of handover Loss of handover
report command message complete message
• UE can not receive • eNodeB doesn't • Target eNodeB can
the uplink grant for send handover not receive the
sending command because preamble duing
measurement report. of internal random access. It
It means PDCCH is abnormality (such as means PRACH is
limited. missing neighboring limited.
• UE sends cells, no enough • UE fails to receive
measurement report, resource). random access
but eNodeB can not • UE fails to decode reponse in target
receive it. It means PDCCH. It means cell. It means
PUSCH is limited. PDCCH is limited. PDSCH is limited.
• UE fails to decode • UE sends handover
PDSCH. It means complete message
PDSCH is limited. but eNodeB can not
receive it. It means
PUSCH is limited.

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Typical Parameters for Uu Channel
Quality Analysis

RSRP SINR

Uu Channel
Quality

PDCCH DL/UL_Grant
IBLER (the times that UE is
scheduled in one second)

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Uu Channel Quality Problems
 Uplink channel quality and downlink channel quality are
related. Poor uplink channel quality may cause loss of
downlink signaling. Poor downlink channel quality may
cause loss of uplink signaling.

 Poor channel quality is generally caused by weak coverage


or interference.

Missing
Bad Delayed
interference neighboring
coverage handover
cell
Possible Uu interface problems

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Solutions of Typical Uu Interface
Problems

Problems Possible solutions


Weak coverage Adjust antenna or power, add sites
Cross-cell coverage Adjust antenna or power to control the
coverage
Interference If it is internal interference, some algorithms
such as ICIC and frequency-selective
scheduling can be switched on.
Missing neighboring Configure neighboring relationship
cell
Handover delayed Adjust related parameters such as
threshold, hysteresis, trigger delay time or
CIO to control handover trigger

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Abnormal Signaling over X2 Interface
UE Source eNodeB Target eNodeB MME
Loss of handover request, maybe
1. Measurement caused by missing neighboring
Report 2. Handover cell or X2 transmission problem
Request
Loss of handover request ACK.
3. Handover maybe caused by preparation failure
4. RRC Connection Request ACK
Reconfiguration in target cell or X2 transmission
(Mobility Control) 5. SN Status problem
Transfer
6. random access to target cell (non-contention Loss of SN status transfer, maybe
based) caused by internal problem in source
7. RRC Connection Reconfiguration cell or X2 transmission problems
Complete
8. Path Switch
Request Loss of UE context release, maybe
caused by S1 path switch failure or X2
9. Path Switch
transmission problem
Request ACK
10. UE Context
Release

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Contents
1. Handover Procedure Overview

2. Handover KPI Introduction

3. Handover Fault Analysis

4. Case Study

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Case 1: Loss of Handover Command
 Phenomenon: UE moves from cell(PCI 148) to cell(PCI 150) but
can not receive handover command. The following is the RSRP
result RSRP in PCI 148

RSRP in PCI 150

In handover area, neighboring


-80 cell signal increase sharply while
source cell signal drop sharply

-90

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Case 1: Analysis and Processing
 The following figure shows that, the neighboring cell signal
increases sharply and cause much interference to UE. SINR is
very low So UE can not demodulate the handover command.

RSRP from serving cell is -81dBm while SINR is only -5.35dB because
RSRP from neighboring cell is -71dBm. neighboring cell RSRP is much higher
than that in serving cell.

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Case 2: UE Can not Receive RAR because
of Bad Downlink Channel Quality
 Phenomenon: UE can not receive RAR.

 The following figure shows that RSRP is good while SINR is poor.

SINR is bad. SINR at most Downlink IBLER is bad.


points is lower than 0. RSRP is good. RSRP at most
IBLER at most points is
points is higher than -100dBm.
higher than 20%.

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Case 2: Analysis
 Check the internal message in UE, and find that UE can not
receive RAR because of bad downlink channel quality.

UE doesn’t receive random access


response

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Case 3: eNodeB Receives Measurement
Report, but doesn't Trigger Handover
 Phenomenon: eNodeB receives measurement report, but doesn’t
trigger handover.

 The following is the signaling result in eNodeB side.


eNodeB sends RRC RECONFIGURATION
to UE. The content is to reconfigure TM. But
UE doesn’t send response.

UE doesn’t receive the


reconfiguration message

UE sends measurement report to


eNodeB but eNodeB doesn’t make
decision to handover.

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Case 3: Phenomenon (cont.)
 The following is the signaling result in UE side:

UE doesn't receive RRC RECONFIGURATION


message before sending measurement report.

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Case 3: Analysis
 The complete failure procedure is as the follows:
 eNodeB sends RRC RECONFIGURATION message to UE to
reconfigure TM(transmission mode).

 UE can not demodulate the RRC RECONFIGURATION message for


TM reconfiguration because of the bad channel quality.

 UE sends measurement report and eNodeB receives the report. But


eNodeB is waiting for the response of TM reconfiguration from UE, it
doesn't process the measurement report.

The final reason is the bad channel quality resulting in UE


can not demodulate the signaling from eNodeB.

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Case 4: Handover Delayed
 Phenomenon: As the following figure, UE moves from PCI 48 to
PCI 50. UE sends measurement report but doesn't receive
handover. command.

UE sends measurement
report, RSRP of PCI 50
is -75dBm.

Handover
failure point

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Case 4: Analysis

RSRP of PCI 48

SINR is 0 during
handover

IBLER is near
20% during
handover.

Source cell signal


drops too fast

RSRP of PCI 50

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Case 4: Processing
 UE can't receive handover command because source cell signal
drops too fast. So handover should be triggered earlier by some
method. The following figures shows the result after adjustment.

IBLER is 11%
during handover

SINR is 3dB
during handover

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Case 5: No Throughput during Handover

 Phenomenon: When the


UE is moving from PCI
216 to PCI 253, there is
no throughput for No throughput

several seconds.

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Case 5: Analysis
 When the UE is
moving, the source
cell signal keeps
decreasing. UE
reports 3A events
but handover is not
triggered
RSRP and
RSRQ of
serving cell
decrease and
UE reports 3A
UE’s moving direction events.

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Case 5: Analysis (cont.)
UE keeps reporting 3A
 The following is the signaling result. events but handover is
not triggered.

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Case 5: Analysis (cont.)
 The following is the signal from serving and neighboring
cells.

PCI 253 and PCI 254 are better than PCI


216. 3A event is reported but handover is
not triggered.

Is it because of missing neighboring cell?

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Case 5: Processing
 Check the neighboring cell configuration and confirm that
the problem is caused by missing neighboring cell.
 The command is LST EUTRANINTRAFREQNCELL.

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Summary
 Handover failure includes Uu interface failure and X2 interface
failure.

 Normally Uu interface failure is caused by bad channel quality. X2


interface failure is caused by transmission problem.

 Sometimes configuration mistakes also can cause handover


failure.

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Thank you
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