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WASTE MANAGEMENT

BY: REY SOLOMON BALTONADO


WASTE MANAGEMENT
 Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and
actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final
disposal. This includes amongst other things collection, transport,
treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and
regulation. It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework
that relates to waste management encompassing guidance on
recycling.

 Waste can take any form that is solid, liquid, or gas and each have
different methods of disposal and management. Waste
management normally deals with all types of waste whether it was
created in forms that are industrial, biological, household, and
special cases where it may pose a threat to human health. It is
produced due to human activity such as when factories extract and
process raw materials. Waste management is intended to reduce
adverse effects of waste on health, the environment or aesthetics.
 Waste management practices are not uniform among countries
(developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural
areas), and sectors (residential and industrial).
 A large portion of waste management practices deal with
municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the bulk of the waste that is
created by household, industrial, and commercial activity.
PRINCIPLES OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
 WASTE HIEARARCHY
◦ The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and
recycle, which classifies waste management strategies according
to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste
hierarchy is the cornerstone of most waste minimization
strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the
maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the
minimum amount of end waste
◦ Waste hierarchy is a tool used in the evaluation of processes
that protect the environment alongside resource and energy
consumption to most favourable to least favourable actions. The
hierarchy establishes preferred program priorities based on
sustainability.To be sustainable, waste management cannot be
solved only with technical end-of-pipe solutions and an
integrated approach is necessary.
 The waste management hierarchy indicates an order of preference
for action to reduce and manage waste, and is usually presented
diagrammatically in the form of a pyramid.
 LIFE-CYCLE OF A PRODUCT
◦ The life-cycle begins with design, then proceeds through
manufacture, distribution, and primary use and then follows
through the waste hierarchy's stages of reduce, reuse and
recycle. Each stage in the life-cycle offers opportunities for policy
intervention, to rethink the need for the product, to redesign to
minimize waste potential, to extend its use.
 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY
◦ Resource efficiency reflects the understanding that global
economic growth and development cannot be sustained at
current production and consumption patterns. Globally,
humanity extracts more resources to produce goods than the
planet can replenish.
◦ is the maximising of the supply of money, materials, staff, and
other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization in
order to function effectively, with minimum wasted (natural)
resource expenses. It means using the Earth's limited resources
in a sustainable manner while minimising environmental impact.
 Polluter-pays principle
◦ The polluter-pays principle mandates that the polluting party
pays for the impact on the environment. With respect to waste
management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste
generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable
material.
◦ The costs that have to be paid are mandated by the government
of a country or region and can come in variety of forms. Costs
can be both preventative such as a tax or restorative such as
clean-up costs after an accident.
DISPOSAL METHODS
 LANDFILL
◦ A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage
dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site
for the disposal of waste materials by burial. It is the oldest form
of waste treatment (although the burial part is modern;
historically, refuse was just left in piles or thrown into pits).
Historically, landfills have been the most common method of
organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around
the world.
 INCINERATION
◦ Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are
subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and
gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of both
municipal solid waste and solid residue from waste water
treatment. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste by 80 to
95 percent. Incineration and other high temperature waste
treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal
treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas,
steam, and ash.
◦ Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is
more scarce, as the facilities generally do not require as much area
as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are
broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to
generate heat, steam or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is
not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants
in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has
focused on some very persistent organic compounds such as
dioxins, furans, and PAHs, which may be created and which may
have serious environmental consequences.
RECYCLE
 Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the
collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty
beverage containers. The materials from which the items are
made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for
recycling may be collected separately from general waste
using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, a procedure
called kerbside collection. In some communities, the owner
of the waste is required to separate the materials into
different bins (e.g. for paper, plastics, metals) prior to its
collection. In other communities, all recyclable materials are
placed in a single bin for collection, and the sorting is
handled later at a central facility.
RE-USE
 BIOLOGICAL REPROCESSING
◦ Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant
material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recovered
through composting and digestion processes to decompose the
organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as
mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In
addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be
captured and used for generating electricity and heat
(CHP/cogeneration) maximizing efficiencies. The intention of
biological processing in waste management is to control and
accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic
matter.
 ENERGY RECOVERY
◦ Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non-recyclable
waste materials into usable heat, electricity, or fuel through a
variety of processes, including combustion, gasification,
pyrolyzation, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas recovery. This
process is often called waste-to-energy. Energy recovery from
waste is part of the non-hazardous waste management
hierarchy. Using energy recovery to convert non-recyclable
waste materials into electricity and heat, generates a renewable
energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting
the need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce
methane generation from landfills. Globally, waste-to-energy
accounts for 16% of waste management
 PYROLISIS
◦ Pyrolysis is often used to convert many types of domestic and
industrial residues into a recovered fuel. Different types of waste
input (such as plant waste, food waste, tyres) placed in the pyrolysis
process potentially yield an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis is a
process of thermo-chemical decomposition of organic materials by
heat in the absence of stoichiometric quantities of oxygen; the
decomposition produces various hydrocarbon gases. During
pyrolysis, the molecules of object vibrate at high frequencies to an
extent that molecules start breaking down. The rate of pyrolysis
increases with temperature. In industrial applications, temperatures
are above 430 °C (800 °F).Slow pyrolysis produces gases and solid
charcoal. Pyrolysis hold promise for conversion of waste biomass
into useful liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of waste wood and plastics can
potentially produce fuel. The solids left from pyrolysis contain
metals, glass, sand and pyrolysis coke which does not convert to gas.
Compared to the process of incineration, certain types of pyrolysis
processes release less harmful by-products that contain alkali
metals, sulphur, and chlorine. However, pyrolysis of some waste
yields gasses which impact the environment such as HCl and SO2.
 RESOURCE RECOVERY
◦ Resource recovery is the systematic diversion of waste, which
was intended for disposal, for a specific next use. It is the
processing of recyclables to extract or recover materials and
resources, or convert to energy. These activities are performed
at a resource recovery facility. Resource recovery is not only
environmentally important, but it is also cost-effective. It
decreases the amount of waste for disposal, saves space in
landfills, and conserves natural resources.
◦ As an example of how resource recycling can be beneficial, many
items thrown away contain metals which can be recycled to
create a profit, such as the components in circuit boards. Wood
chippings in pallets and other packaging materials can be
recycled to useful products for horticultural. The recycled chips
can cover paths, walkways, or arena surfaces.
 SUSTAINABILITY
◦ The management of waste is a key component in a business'
ability to maintain ISO14001 accreditation. The standard
encourages companies to improve their environmental
efficiencies each year by eliminating waste through resource
recovery practices. One way to do this is by adopting resource
recovery practices like recycling materials such as glass, food
scraps, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles and metal. Recycled
materials can often be sold to the construction industry. Many
inorganic waste streams can be used to produce materials for
construction. Concrete and bricks can be recycled as artificial
gravel.
WASTE HANDLING AND TRANSPORT
 Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries
and regions. Domestic waste collection services are often provided
by local government authorities, or by private companies for
industrial and commercial waste. Some areas, especially those in
less developed countries, do not have formal waste-collection
systems.
WASTE HANDLING IN SOME COUNTRIES
 TRADING TRASH FOR HEALTHCARE IN INDONESIA
◦ Dr. Gamala Albinsaid saw a connection between general health
and the fact that less than half of the 55,000 tons of garbage
gets collected in Malang City, Indonesia. Using trash as currency,
he created the Garbage Clinical Insurance, which trades garbage
for medical services and medicines. The trash cash he collects is
converted into money which is then pumped back into his
healthcare network.
 CONVERTING GARABAGE INTO USEABLE ENERGY IN SWEDEN
◦ Sweden is well-known for its progressive environmental strides -
the Scandinavian country's waste-to-energy system efficiently
provides direct heating to 950,000 Swedish households and
electricity to 260,000 homes. Sweden recycles and sorts its trash
so effectively that less than 1% ends up in landfills. Seeing
garbage as a commodity, Sweden imports trash from other
European countries to fuel its power needs, with 700 kg (1543
lbs) of rubbish translating into up to 250 kg (551 lbs) of energy
and fuel.
 PAVING THE STREETS WITH PLASTIC IN INDIA
◦ Chemistry professor Rajagopalan Vasudevan devised a way to
transform common plastic litter into a substitute for bitumen —
the main ingredient in asphalt used for road construction. By
looking at increased levels of plastic waste due to India's rapid
economic development as a blessing in disguise, the eternal
optimist views trash as a treasure trove of untapped resources.
His method both solves environmental issues and saves money -
as the cheaper plastic substitute replaces as much as 15 percent
of the more expensive bitumen usually used.
 AN AMUSEMENT PARK MADE FROM RUBBISH IN UGANDA
◦ Artist and environmentalist Ruganzu Bruno is bringing ecological
art to the slums of Kampala. Eco Art Uganda is a collective of
artists dedicated to promoting environmental awareness, and
the group created an amusement park for children from
discarded materials. Recycled swings and life-size board games
made from plastic bottles are just some of the attractions at the
Eco Art amusement park. The creative initiative works on many
levels - beautifying the community, empowering and educating
kids and effectively recycling trash and managing waste.
 A FORMER LANDFILL TURNED ECO-PARK IN HONG KONG
◦ The Sai Tso Wan landfill used to hold up to 1.6 million tonnes of
waste, stacking up to be 65 meters or 213 feet high! After being
closed and sealed off with soil in 1981, a multi-purpose
playground was created in 2004 powered by wind turbines, solar
cells and energy derived from methane generated from the
decomposed trash.
 SEMAKAU, SINGAPORE’S LANDFILL
◦ Semakau Landfill is filled mainly with ash produced by
Singapore's four incineration plants, which incinerate the
country's waste, shipped there in a covered barge (to prevent
the ash from getting blown into the air) every night. Contrary to
popular belief that Semakau Landfill would be another dirty and
smelly landfill, the care put into the design and operational work
at the landfill has ensured that the site is clean, free of smell and
scenic.
 HOW TAIWAN CHANGED THEIR WASTE HANDLING
◦ Between 1997 and 2011, Taipei’s recycling rate shot from less
than 6% to 67%, making it a world leader in recycling with a
thriving recycling industry.3 In 2014, according to the Taiwanese
Institute for Sustainable Energy, the average Taiwanese citizen
produced less than half of the kilos of trash per day as the
average American.
WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES
 Section 59 of Republic Act No. 9003 , known as the "Philippine
Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000,”
◦ AN ACT PROVIDING FOR AN ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT PROGRAM, CREATING THE NECESSARY
INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS AND INCENTIVES, DECLARING
CERTAIN ACTS PROHIBITED AND PROVIDING PENALTIES,
APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
◦ RA 9003 describes solid waste management as a discipline
associated with the control of generation, storage, collection,
transfer and transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes. The
manner by which these activities are conducted shall be in accord
with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering,
conservation, aesthetics, other environmental considerations, and
public attitudes. The Act provides for a comprehensive ecological
solid waste management program by creating the necessary
institutional mechanisms and incentives, appropriating funds,
declaring certain acts prohibited, and providing penalties.
WASTE HANDLING IN SOME PLACES OF THE PHILIPPINES

 MARIKINA TURNS FOOD WASTE INTO TREASURE


◦ Marikina's food waste truck program began 4 years ago in
November 2014. They began courting food establishments in
the city after discovering that restaurants, markets and groceries
are a major generator of kitchen waste, said City Environmental
Management Office (CEMO) chief Gloria Buenaventura.
◦ Today, they collect food waste from 95 food establishments –
not even 10% of the 1,500 food establishments in the city. But
it's a small step that has already made a big impact.
◦ The waste is then poured batch by batch into a one-ton-capacity
bioreactor. CEMO employees add animal manure from a nearby
horse ranch, saw dust and a special bacteria. The bioreactor
churns the mixture for 3 to 6 hours then out comes compost
used as fertilizer for plants.
 Metro Manila landfills full
◦ Metro Manila is generating too much trash, the Metropolitan
Manila Development Authority (MMDA). According to the
report, the waste generated by the National Capital Region
increased by about 450,000 cubic meters, equivalent to some
75,000 truckloads of trash. The MMDA had to haul 10.72 million
cubic meters of trash in 2016 compared to just 10.27 million
cubic meters in 2015.
PROBLEMS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE COUNTRY

 Apparently, the Philippines is reportedly the only country in the


world that bans incineration for the disposal of wastes. Other
countries such as The Netherlands and Singapore have incinerators
to process wastes.
 an existing law—the 1999 Clean Air Act—prohibited incineration
for municipal waste disposal. The 2000 law, it can be recalled,
solely prescribed engineered sanitary landfills as the acceptable
method of final waste disposal.
 the investment costs and management burden of a comprehensive
municipal solid waste management system are proving to be too
burdensome for many cities.
 landfills without methane capture are much worse, because
the escaping methane is 34 times more harmful to the
environment than carbon dioxide.
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