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Group 3
Amelia Putri Nariya
Astri Yohana Putri
Gabriellia Oktaviani P.
Muhammad Fauzan
Safina Zahira
Cellular Respiration
Cells harvest energy by breaking bonds and
shifting electrons from one molecule to
– aerobic respiration - final electron acceptor is
– anaerobic respiration - final electron acceptor is
inorganic molecule other than oxygen
– fermentation - final electron acceptor is an
organic molecule
• Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the energy
currency of the cell.
– used to drive movement
– used to drive endergonic reactions
Most of the ATP produced in cells is made by
the enzyme ATP synthase.
– Enzyme is embedded in the membrane and
provides a channel through which protons can
cross the membrane down their concentration
•ATP synthesis is achieved by a rotary motor driven by a
gradient of protons.
• Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD+, is a coenzyme found in all
living cells.

• The compound is a dinucleotide, since it consists of two nucleotides

joined through their phosphate groups: with one nucleotide containing
an adenosine ring, and the other containing nicotinamide.

• In metabolism, NAD+ is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons

from one reaction to another.

• The coenzyme is therefore found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an

oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and
becomes reduced,

• This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent
to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main
function of NAD+.
The Cellular isms
• Metabolism : is the set of chemical reactions that occur in
living organisms in order to maintain life.
– These processes allow organisms to grow and
reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to
their environments.
– Usually divided into two categories.
• Catabolism and Anabolism
- Catabolism – breaking down
- Anabolism – building up
The Cellular isms
• Catabolism: the set of metabolic pathways which break
down molecules into smaller units and release energy.
– Large molecules such as polysaccharides, lipids,
nucleic acids and proteins are broken down into
smaller units such as monosaccharides, fatty acids,
nucleotides and amino acids, respectively.
– These processes produce energy
The Cellular isms
• Anabolism: the set of metabolic pathways that construct
molecules from smaller units.
– These reactions require energy.
– Anabolism is powered by catabolism. Many anabolic
processes are powered by adenosine triphosphate
– Anabolic processes tend toward "building up" organs
and tissues.
– These processes produce growth and differentiation of
cells and increase in body size, a process that involves
synthesis of complex molecules.
Glucose Catabolism
• Cells catabolize organic molecules and produce ATP in two
– substrate-level phosphorylation
– aerobic respiration
•in most organisms, both are combined
– glycolysis
– pyruvate oxidation
– Krebs cycle
– electron transport chain
Aerobic Respiration
Stage One - Glycolysis
• For each molecule of glucose that passes through
glycolysis, the cell nets two ATP molecules.
• Priming
– glucose priming
– cleavage and rearrangement
• Substrate-level phosphorylation
– oxidation
– ATP generation
Priming Reactions
Cleavage Reactions
Energy-Harvesting Reactions
Recycling NADH
• As long as food molecules are available to be
converted into glucose, a cell can produce ATP.
– Continual production creates NADH accumulation
and NAD+ depletion.
•NADH must be recycled into NAD+.
– aerobic respiration
– fermentation
Recycling NADH
Stage Two - Oxidation of Pyruvate
• Within mitochondria, pyruvate is
decarboxylated, yielding acetyl-CoA, NADH,
and CO2.
Entry of Pyruvate into the Mitochondrion
Pyruvate freely diffuses through the outer membrane of mitochon-dria
through the channels formed by transmembrane proteins porins.

Pyruvate translocase, protein embedded into the inner membrane, transports

pyruvate from the intermembrane space into the matrix in symport with H+ and
exchange (antiport) for OH-.
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH complex) is a multienzyme
complex containing 3 enzymes, 5 coenzymes and other proteins.

complex is giant,
with molecular
mass ranging from
4 to 10 million

Electron micrograph of the

pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
from E. coli.
E1 = pyruvate dehydrogenase
E2 = dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase
E3 = dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase
Coenzymes: TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate),
lipoamide, HS-CoA, FAD+, NAD+.

TPP is a prosthetic group of B1;

lipoamide is a prosthetic group of B2; and
FAD is a prosthetic group of B3.

The building block of

TPP is vitamin B1 (thiamin);
NAD – vitamin B5 (nicotinamide);
FAD – vitamin B2 (riboflavin),
HS-CoA – vitamin B3 (pantothenic acid),
lipoamide – lipoic acid
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a classic example of
multienzyme complex

Overall reaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

The oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate catalized by

pyruvate dehydrogenase complex occurs in five steps.
Step 3 – Krebs Cycle
Formation of Acetyl CoA
Krebs Cycle
•Requires Oxygen (Aerobic)
•Cyclical series of oxidation reactions that give
off CO2 and produce one ATP per cycle
•Turns twice per glucose molecule
•Produces two ATP
•Takes place in matrix of mitochondria
Krebs Cycle Summary
•Each turn of the Krebs Cycle also produces
3NADH, 1FADH2, 2CO2, 1 ATP

•Therefore, For each Glucose molecule, the

Krebs Cycle produces 6NADH, 2FADH2,
4CO2, and 2ATP
The Electron Transport Chain

 The Electron Transport Chain is the process of

producing ATP (energy) from NADH and FADH2
resulting from glycolysis, oxidative
decarboxylation, and the krebs cycle.

 The Electron Transport Chain is the last stage of

aerobic respiration.

 The Electron Transport Chain occurs in the inner

mitochondrial membran.
Result of The Electron Transport
10 NADH + 5 O2 10 NAD+ + 10H2O
2 FADH2 + O2 2 FAD+ + 2 H2O

 Each oxidation NADH produces 3 ATP dan 2 ATP for

each oxidation of FADH2
 In The Electron Transport Chain produced 34 ATP .
Coupled with glycolysis (2ATP) and krebs cycle
(2ATP) the total of aerobic respiration is 38 ATP.
Metabolisme Protein
Metabolisme Lemak
Anaerobic Respiration

Or the making of energy with out

• If no oxygen is available, cells can obtain energy
through the process of anaerobic respiration.
• A common anaerobic process is fermentation.
• Fermentation is not an efficient process and results in
the formation of far fewer ATP molecules than aerobic
There are two primary fermentation processes:
1. Lactic Acid Fermentation
2. Alcohol Fermentation
Lactic acid fermentation occurs when oxygen is not
For example, in muscle tissues during rapid and vigorous
exercise, muscle cells may be depleted of oxygen. They
then switch from respiration to fermentation.
The Pyruvic acid formed during Glycolysis each gain a
hydrogen from NADH.
The new hydrogen turn the Pyruvate into lactic acid and
energy is released (which is used to form ATP).

Glucose → Pyruvic acid → Lactic acid + energy

•The process of lactic acid fermentation replaces the
process of aerobic respiration so that the cell can have a
continual source of energy, even in the absence of oxygen.
•However this shift is only temporary and cells need
oxygen for sustained activity.
•When you exercise vigorously Lactic acid builds up in the
tissue causing a burning, painful sensation.

•You must breath in more Oxygen to replenish the O2 in

your muscles.
Alcohol fermentation occurs in yeasts and some
Pyruvic acid formed during glycolysis is broken down
to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide and is released
(which is used to form ATP).
In Fermentation the Pyruvate made during Glycolysis loses
another carbon making carbon dioxide.

The two sets of carbons left each gain a hydrogen from NADH.
This turns the two carbon chains into Ethyl Alcohol.

Glucose → Pyruvic acid → Acetaldehyde  alcohol + carbon

dioxide + energy
• Fermentation is used in food production.
– Yogurt - Soy Sauce

– Cheese - Vinegar

– Bread - Olives/Pickles

– Beer/ Meade - Wine/ Ale

– Sauerkraut - Malt