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4.

5 Quadratic Equations
Zero of the Function- a value where f(x) = 0 and
the graph of the function intersects the x-axis

Zero Product Property- for all numbers a and b, if


ab = 0, then a = 0, b = 0, or both
a = 0 and b = 0
4.5 Quadratic Equations
4.5 Quadratic Equations
4.6 Completing the Square
2
𝑏 𝑏 2
𝑥2 + 𝑏𝑥 + = (𝑥 + )
2 2

-By Completing the Square: 4𝑥 2 − 20𝑥 + 17 = 0

−17
1. Set up ax2 + bx = c (divide by a if needed) 𝑥2 − 5𝑥 = y a if
4

5 2 −17 5 2
2. Add (b/2)2 to both sides 𝑥2 − 5𝑥 + = +( )
2 4 2

5 5
3. Factor the left side ( 𝑥 − )2 = 2 → 𝑥− = ± 2
2 2
4.7 Quadratic Formula
-
4.8 Complex Numbers
-Complex Number — any number that can be written
in form a + bi; 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑖 = 𝑎2 + 𝑏 2
4.8 Complex Numbers

Addition: (a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d)i

Subtraction: (a + bi) - (c + di) = (a - c) + (b - d)i

Multiplication:(a + bi)(c + di) = ac + adi + bci + bdi2


= (ac - bd) + (ad + bc)i

Multiplying Conjugates: (a + bi)(a - bi) = a2 + b2

a + b𝑖 a + b𝑖 c − d𝑖 ac + bd
Division: = ∙ = +
c + d𝑖 c + d𝑖 c− d𝑖 𝑐 2+ 𝑑2
bc − ad
𝑖
𝑐 2 +𝑑 2
5.1 Polynomial Functions
Monomial- a real number, a variable, or a product of a real
number and one or more variables with whole number
exponents

Degree of a Monomial- in one variable is the exponent of


the variable

Polynomial- monomial or a sum of monomials

Degree of a Polynomial- in one variable is the greatest


degree among the its monomial terms
5.1 Polynomial Functions

-Standard Form of a Polynomial Function:


n 1
f ( x)  an x  an1 x
n
...a2 x  a1 x  a0
2

1. Coefficients (a) must be real #’s


2. Exponents must be positive integers
3. Domain = All Real #’s
4. Degree of a polynomial function is the highest
degree of x (n)
5.1 Polynomial Functions

1. Graphs of polynomials are smooth & continuous ; a


turning point is where the graph changes directions

2. Leading Term Test for End Behavior:


lim f ( x )  ; lim f ( x )  
a) if n is odd and an > 0  x  x 

if n is odd and an < 0  lim f ( x )  ; lim f ( x )  


x  x 

lim f ( x )  ; lim f ( x )  
b) if n is even and an > 0  x  x 

if n is even and an < 0  lim f ( x )  ; lim f ( x )  


x  x 

3. The graph can have at most n – 1 turning points


5.2 Polynomials, Linear Factors, and Zeros

-Real Zeros of Polynomial Functions:

x = a is a zero of function f means 


x = a is a solution of the equation f(x) = 0 means 
(x – a) is a factor of f(x) means 
(a,0) is an x-intercept of the graph of f

-A function f can have at most n real zeros

-Multiplicity of a zero—the # of times (x – a) occurs as a factor of f(x)

“Even Multiplicity”  Graph touches the x-axis


“Odd Multiplicity”  Graph crosses the x-axis
5.2 Polynomials, Linear Factors,
and Zeros
-always measured on the x-axis
-always named from Left to Right
-always open brackets ( )
-Functions ONLY

Local and Absolute Extrema:


-local (relative) Maximum —the value of f(x) at the
turning point when a graph goes from increasing to
decreasing
-local (relative) Minimum—the value of f(x) at the turning
point when a graph goes from decreasing to increasing
5.3 Solving Polynomial
Equations
Factored Polynomial- a polynomial is factored
when it is expressed as a the product of
monomials and polynomials

Factoring by Grouping- when the terms and


factors of a polynomial are grouped separately so
that the remaining polynomial factors of each
group are the same
5.3 Solving Polynomial
Equations
Factoring by Grouping-

Sum or Difference of Cubes-


5.4 Dividing Polynomials
-Synthetic Division:
Given: ax3 + bx2 + cx + d divided by x – k

Synthetic division method:

1.Add columns k a b c d
2.Multiply by k ka
a

remainder
5.4 Dividing Polynomials

-Remainder Theorem:

If a polynomial f(x) is divided by (x – k) then


the remainder is r = f(k)

-Factor Theorem:

1. If f(c) = 0, then (x – c) is a factor of f(x)


2. If (x – c) is a factor of f(x), then f(c) = 0
5.5 Theorems About Roots of
Polynomial Equations
-Rational Zero Theorem:
n 1
f ( x)  an x  an1 x
n
...a2 x  a1 x  a0
2

Given: integer coefficients and a 𝑎𝑛 ≠ 0 and 𝑎0 ≠ 0

Every rational zero of f(x) has the form p/q , where:

1. p and q have no common factors other than 1


2. p is a factor of the constant term (a0)
3. q is a factor of the leading coefficient (an)

Complex Conjugate Theorem: if (a + bi) is a zero of f(x), then (a – bi) is


also a zero
5.6 The Fundamental Theorem of
Algebra
Fundamental Theorem of Algebra- A polynomial of degree n
has exactly n [real and non-real (complex)] zeros (roots).
Some zeros may be repeated.

-A polynomial of degree n has exactly n linear factors of the


form f(x) = a(x – c)(x – d)(x – e)…(x – n)
-A polynomial of degree n ≥ 1 has at least one complex zero

x = a is a zero of function f means 


x = a is a solution of the equation f(x) = 0 means 
(x – a) is a factor of f(x)