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Edinburgh Napier University - International Tourism Policy and Planning

International cooperation on tourism policy by the

“Caribbean Tourism Organisation” (CTO)

compared to the

“Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative” (SDI)

in South Africa.

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1. General Introduction:

Overview of CTO and SDI

Comparison:
•Tourism Policies of CTO and SDI
•Policy Implementation & Adaptation
•Sustainable Tourism Development
•Future Prediction (Challenges & Changes)

Conclusion

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1.1. Overview CTO and the Caribbean Area:
Copyright: Caribbean Direct, 2006

34 countries – approx. 60 million inhabitants – 4 languages


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1.1. Overview CTO and the Caribbean Area:

 Worlds most tourism dependent region

 Cruise Tourism is quickest growing industry

 Umbrella Corporation for public & private sector

organisations to provide a reliable tourism database

 Established 1989 as a merger of CTA & CTRC

 CTA (1951): Marketing Caribbean as a single destination

 CTRC (1974): Undertaking of research for businesses

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1.2. Overview SDI and the South African area:

 Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative

 A tri-nation initiative

 A major element following


the ending of apartheid
 A long haul destination

 Attractiveness lies in
its diversity including:
Copyright: McGowan, 2000
 Wilderness
 Diverse cultures
 Generally hot and sunny climate
 Hunting and hiking
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2.1. CTO Tourism Policy:
Main aim of the CTO is to provide critical data which is
necessary to make predictions for the future.
TOURIST (STOP-OVER) ARRIVALS AND CRUISE PASSENGER VISITS IN 2009
Tourist Arrivals Cruise Passenger Visits
% %
Destination Tourists Change Cruise
Period Period Change
Passengers
2009/08 2009/08
Anguilla Jan-Feb 10,447 -21.4 - - -
Antigua & Barbuda * Jan-Aug 166,177 -13.4 Jan-Aug 482,887 18.7
Aruba P Jan-Jun 400,005 -4.8 Jan-May 356,210 4.3
Bahamas Jan-May 602,445 -14.1 Jan-May 1,436,165 9.8
Barbados P Jan-Aug 350,929 -11.1 Jan-Aug 415,989 -0.5
Belize Jan-Jun 131,650 -8.3 Jan-Jun 365,557 8.4
Bermuda Jan-Jun 107,214 -17.0 Jan-Jun 124,553 -5.7
British Virgin Is. Jan-Mar 85,964 -25.0 Jan-Mar 265,370 -10.3
Cancun (Mexico) ** Jan-Jul 1,177,943 -17.0 - - -
Cayman Island Jan-Jul 180,415 -13.4 Jan-Jul 955,846 -5.4

Source: CTO, 2009a


• Non-Resident Air Arrivals **Non-Resident Hotel registrations only
• - No Cruise Figures are Reported P Preliminary figures
N.B: Figures are subject to revision by reporting countries
SOURCE - Data supplied by member countries and available as at September 18, 2009
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2.1. CTO Tourism Policy:

Organisation of Conferences and Workshops to raise


awareness on multiple tourism related topics/issues

Regional and Interregional Marketing


▪ Promotion of the areas through Television campaigns
and the creation of the website www.onecaribbean.org

Institution of important sub-divisions:


• Sustainable Tourism Development Division
• Finance and Resource Management Division
• The Human Resource Division
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2.2. Spatial Development Initiative (SDI) – Tourism Policy:

 Attract high spending visitors

 Promote sustainable ecotourism

 Funding programmes

 Directorate of Nature and Environmental Conservation

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2.3. CTO - Policy Implementation & Adaptation:

 CTO Foundation providing 35 scholarships per year

 Ecotourism & Environmental awareness conferences

 International Hotel Classification Systems

Copyright: AA Copyright: Michelin Copyright: AAA


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2.3. CTO - Policy Implementation & Adaptation:

Copyright: QTC, 2006 Copyright: QTC, 2006 10


2.4. SDI – Policy Implementation & Adaptation:

 Introduction of a passenger train service

 Construction of a major tourist road from


St Lucia to Maputo

 Measures to ‘soften’ border formalities for tourists


movements between countries

 Application for World Heritage status for the Greater St


Lucia Wetland Park

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2.5. Sustainable Tourism Development in the Caribbean:

Sustainability: “Meeting the needs of the present without


compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs” (United Nations, 1987)

Issues on Sustainable Tourism Development:


• Economic growth through environmental destruction
(pollution of rivers, deforestation, illegal waste dumping)

• Ownership & control of hotel sector by foreign investors

• Lack of common vision & visible intellectual leadership

• Dependency on the North American main visitor markets

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2.5. Sustainable Tourism Development in the Caribbean:

Visions for Sustainable Caribbean Development:

• Identification & minimisation of discrepancy between


Sustainable Tourism Policy and Practice

• Education on Environmental Conservation

• Increase European, South American & Intra-Regional arrivals

• Involvement of local communities + domestic tourism

• Limitation of access to natural tourist attractions


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2.6. Sustainable Tourism Development in South Africa:

 Support initiatives that use tourism for delivering skills


while protecting natural assets

 Discourage of exploitive arrangements which work


against the principles of sustainable development

 Developing methods of assessing tourism impacts

 Improved controlling to supervise organisations’


performances

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2.7. Prediction of Challenges & Changes for the Caribbean:

• Segmentation & niche marketing (Eco, Agro, Community-based)

• External Influences can have a major impact on the area:

Arrivals by Main Market - 2009 (Extract)


United States Canada Europe Other Total
Destination Period % ch. Tourists % ch. Tourists % ch. Tourists % ch. Tourists % ch. Tourists

Anguilla Jan-Feb 6,771 -21.8 513 -4.3 1,301 -20.4 1,862 -24.2 10,447 -21.4
Aruba Jan-Jun 277,252 -6.3 18,672 -3.2 35,949 8.4 68,132 -5.2 400,005 -4.8
Bahamas Jan-May 480,998 -14.9 58,155 -11.2 34,689 -9.6 28,603 -11.9 602,445 -14.1
Barbados P Jan-Aug 78,747 -16.8 43,396 11.9 150,416 -12.5 78,370 -12.5 350,929 -11.1
Belize P Jan-Jun 83,613 -8.1 11,179 -3.9 15,833 -8.0 21,025 -11.6 131,650 -8.3
Bermuda Jan-Jun 78,312 -16.8 12,297 -12.6 12,066 -20.4 4,539 -22.5 107,214 -17.0
Cuba Jan-Jul - - 659,583 14.3 522,411 -8.6 390,939 3.8 1,572,933 3.1

* Non-Resident Air Arrivals **Non-Resident Hotel registrations only


N.B U.S.V.I reported figures in this tables are Hotel Registrations whereas they reported Stay Over totals are Air Arrivals
N.B: Figures are subject to revision by reporting countries 1 USA total included in Other

SOURCE - Data supplied by member countries and available as at September 17, 2009
Source: CTO, 2009b
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2.7. Prediction of Challenges & Changes for the Caribbean:

● Rise of crime/tourist harassment caused by

lack of community involvement

 Importance on creation of new employment


 at the cost of environmental protection

 Lack of political power to face multinational corporations

 Growth of mass tourism, Visiting Friends/Relatives,


Special Interests (e.g. Sports) & Cruise Ship Travel

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2.8. Prediction of Challenges & Changes for South Africa:

 Poverty

 Lack of participation in education

 Lack of marketable skills,

insecurity and vulnerability

 Crime Levels

 Diseases (HIV / AIDS)

● 2010 FIFA World Cup


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3. Conclusion:

 International partnership to develop and manage


tourism resources has become increasingly significant

 Balancing local and national priorities

 Similarities

 High spending visitors with long stay

 Promote sustainability as a focus

 Balance economic and environmental objectives

 Crime levels as a challenge

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