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EXPLICIT

TEACHING
Explicit Instruction is a
structured, systematic, and
effective methodology for
teaching academic skills.
WHAT IS EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION?
It is called explicit because it is
unambiguous and direct
approach to teaching that
includes both instructional and
delivery procedures.
WHAT IS EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION?
It is characterized by a
series of supports or
scaffolds – clear
statements, clear
explanations.
WHAT IS EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION?
The teacher constantly monitors
understanding to make sure
students are deriving meaning
from instruction.
WHAT IS EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION?
Students are cognitively engaged
throughout the learning
encounter. They have
opportunities throughout the
lessonWto self-monitor and
HAT IS EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION?
direct their own learning and
participation.
ELEMENTS OF
EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION
ELEMENTS OF EXPLICIT
INSTRUCTION
 Focus instruction on critical content.
 Sequence skills logically.
 Break down complex skills and
strategies into smaller instructional
units.
 Design organized and focused lessons.
 Begin lesson with a clear statement of
the lesson’s goals and your
expectations.
ELEMENTS OF EXPLICIT
INSTRUCTION
 Review prior skills and knowledge
before beginning instruction.
 Provide step-by-step
demonstrations.
 Use clear and concise language.
 Provide an adequate range of
examples and non-examples.
 Provide guided and supported
practice.
ELEMENTS OF EXPLICIT
INSTRUCTION
 Require frequent responses.
 Monitor student performance
closely.
 Provide immediate affirmative and
corrective feedback.
 Deliver the lesson at a brisk pace.
 Help students organize knowledge.
 Provide distributed and cumulative
practice.
PRINCIPLES OF
EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION
PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE
INSTRUCTION
 Optimize engaged time/time on task.
 Promote high levels of success.
 Increase content coverage.
 Have students spend more time in
instructional groups.
 Scaffold instruction.
 Address different forms of
knowledge.
Engaged Time/Time on Task
It is the amount of time students
are actively engaged in a learning
task
PRINCIPLES OF
The combination of quantity and
EFFECTIVE
quality of instruction is
INSTRUCTION the key to
students success.
 High Levels of Success
In order for high rates of success to
occur during instruction, several
design and delivery factors must be
considered. PRINCIPLES OF
EFFECTIVE
(teaching materials, clear presentations,
dynamic modelingINSTRUCTION
of skills and
strategies,supported practice, active
participation,careful monitoring of student
responses, immediate corrective feedback )
 Content Coverage/ Opportunity to
Learn
Content coverage refers to the amount
of content actually presented (vs. time
allocated) to students.
PRINCIPLES OF
EFFECTIVE
“The more you teach, the more
they learn.” INSTRUCTION
Scaffolding Instruction

Scaffolding is an effective approach


for ensuring success and building
confidence for students while
PRINCIPLES OF they
learn, because EFFECTIVE
it provides the
needed support that helps bridge
INSTRUCTION
the gap between current abilities
and the instructional goal.
(Rosenshine, 1997)
Scaffolding Instruction

The amount of initial support


needed and the rate at which the
support is withdrawn
PRINCIPLES will vary,
OF
depending on students’
EFFECTIVEneeds.
INSTRUCTION
Scaffolding Instruction

As guidance is reduced,
students are required to
perform withPRINCIPLES
increasing OF
independence until they
EFFECTIVE
are able to perform the
INSTRUCTION
skill on their own.
Everything is
learned twice: first
socially (that is, with
the help of other
humanVYGOTSKIAN
beings),CONCEPT
then
privately
(internalized).
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
Learning takes place when there is some
knowledge, understanding or skill, just
beyond the grasp of the learner, which
the learner is “prepared” to learn but
cannot do so by herself.

The learner needs an older or more


knowledgeable or skilled person to
assist her in understanding/doing, the
new concept/skill.

The more knowledgeable person helps


the learner in the process of acquiring
the knowledge until the learner is able
to understand or perform by herself.

The time period in which the two are


working together is what Vygotsky
means by “zone of proximal
development.”
6 COMPONENTS OF
EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION
THE SIX COMPONENTS OF EXPLICIT
TEACHING

• The anticipatory stage


• The teacher states the
standards
Setting
• The teacher specifically
the connects the lesson to :
Stage interest, background
knowledge, big idea,
past lesson
EXAMPLE

The teacher will say:


- Look at me. Great! Let’s begin our lesson.
 At the end of today’s lesson, you will be able to identify what
are nouns and be able to categorize them.
 When we finish our lesson, you will be able to categorize nouns
and give examples.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( SETTING THE STAGE)

• Students respond with


written brainstorming
notes to topics or
prompts on charts
Carousel posted around the
room
10/10/2018
I love to eat________.

Yesterday, I went to __________.

My bestfriend's name is __________.


ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( SETTING THE STAGE)

• In teams, students quickly


generate ideas on think
pad slips announcing them
Think to teammates and placing
them in the center of the
Pad table. After brainstorming,
ideas can be sorted with
graphic organizers like
mind-maps or Venn
diagrams.
NAME AS MANY OBJECTS THAT YOU CAN
FIND IN THE PICTURE.

10/10/2018
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES

• This is great for brainstorming.


Write problems, sentences, ideas
to brainstorm on pieces of large
chart paper around the room.
Students move from chart to
Graffiti
chart in a small group. Each group
works on a different question and
ultimately post the charts and
have students react to the
statements and predict…
10/10/2018
EXAMPLE
Goal: Draw your idea of an ideal
classroom.
Group Tasks:
Round 1: Each group draws two objects that should be
found in an ideal classroom. (Post on a designated
corner. )
Round 2: Look at the drawing of another group's
drawing. Draw 2 more objects. ..etc.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES

• Students ask
questions about an
Question only upcoming topic of
study
THE SIX COMPONENTS OF EXPLICIT
TEACHING

• Learners need explicit


details about the lesson
• The teacher re-explains
Explaining what the task is, why it is
to students important, and adds to
what to do how it is done
• Divide the task into a few
steps that are logically
ordered
EXAMPLES

Today we are going to learn about nouns.

This is important to know because….

We can use this skill when…

We will know we have learned this when…


EXAMPLE

 The teacher can introduce the topic


of nouns by asking the students the
following questions:
Do you know what a noun is?
Do you know what a person is?
Do you know what a place is?
Do you know what a thing is?
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
(EXPLAINING T0 STUDENTS WHAT TO DO)
• Teacher says, “What did I just say?” _____ When the class all says it together, it
keeps kids engaged and thinking. Hold your hand up to provide a cue as to when
to respond together. Drop your hand when ready for class to respond.
• Non-verbal choral responses work also – “touch the word…put your finger
Choral
Response
under…”
• Thumbs up/down
• Heads Together – students in groups or 3 or 4, students set time limit for
conversation around a question/topic, students discuss answer and teacher
randomly selects one to share answer of group

Random • Use playing cards


Call o • Use popsicle sticks to call on students
Students
• Use 3 X 5 cards

42
• Writing a quick response to a question frame or discussion
item before sharing with a neighbor or partner increases
Written thinking, accountability, focus, it provides the teacher with
Response concrete feedback, and connects written language to oral
language
THE SIX COMPONENTS OF EXPLICIT
TEACHING

• Modeling offers learners


the opportunity to watch
the process unfold
Modeling before their eyes.
for • The teacher engages in
whatever is involved in
Students the learning task
EXACTLY as the students
will be expected to
perform it.
Modeling is the process
through which one person
demonstrates certain skills
and behaviors for other
persons.
In many cases, neither the
person who models nor the
persons who observe the
modeling are aware of the
learning process.
However, once understood,
M
the process can be employed
ODELING
consciously by teachers and
others involved in the
education of children (e.g., the
Story Track).
WAYS TO KEEP CHILDREN ACTIVELY
ENGAGED

 Asking students to underline a portion of text on board or


overhead
 Use the mini white boards
 Repeat to a partner
 Ask students to read the completed response aloud with
you to make sure it sounds good and makes sense.
 Ask for possible revisions.
WAYS TO KEEP CHILDREN ACTIVELY
ENGAGED

 Teacher makes good strategies conspicuous for kids


 Ask lots of questions – use Bloom’s Taxonomy
 Delve and probe into questions – trying to elicit deeper
responses from kids
 Appropriate instructional pacing
 Adequate processing time (Think Time)
 Constant check for understanding
EXAMPLES OF MODELING

 Physically performing the task while verbally guided oneself


 Describe each individual step and its importance
 Make predictions
 Verbalize confusing points
 Demonstrate “fix up strategies”
EXAMPLE OF “FIX UP” STRATEGIES

 When I get stuck I can . . .


re-read
read aloud
find out what unknown words mean
create a picture in my mind
ask questions
EXAMPLE OF “FIX UP” STRATEGIES

When I get stuck I can . . .

 Make connections (text to self, text to text, text to world)


 Look at pictures, illustrations, charts and graphs
 Look at pictures, illustrations, charts and graphs

Ask for help.


ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( MODELING FOR STUDENTS)
• So you are saying that…
Paraphras • In other words, you think….
ing • What I hear you saying is…

• Examples of good kinds of comparisons –


Kinds of
• The purpose is to compare student work with criteria, or
Comparison with his/her past performance, or, sometimes with the work
Used in of others
Feedback

• Maybe we could…
Offering a • What if we…
Suggestion
• Here’s something we might try.
THE SIX COMPONENTS OF EXPLICIT
TEACHING

• Provide scaffolding as a
temporary
support/guidance in the
form of steps, tasks,
Guided materials, and personal
Practice support
• Provide examples/non-
examples, and graphic
54
organizers, study guides,
starter stems
THE SIX COMPONENTS OF EXPLICIT
TEACHING

• Check for
understanding
through ongoing
assessment and
Guided constant feedback
Practice
• Students summarize
in their own words,
turn to a neighbor and
tell them….
OTHER EXAMPLES

 Silly Sentences
 The person brought the thing to the place.
 The farmer brought the floor to the airport.
SENTENCE FRAMES

Compare and Contrast

1. __________ and _____________ are ___________.

2. Both _____ and _______ have _____________.

3. ___and ___ are both similar because they both _____.

4. There are several major differences between ____


and ____. The most notable is ____________.
PICTURE THIS
 The teacher shows an interesting visual and makes a statement about
the visual. Students repeat the teacher’s example
 The teacher solicits different statements from a few students,
checking for accuracy and fluency .
 Students pair s or small groups create a new variation of the
statement using other visuals that are representative of a similar topic.

Sample questions:
What is going on in the picture? or
What do you see in the picture?
What makes you say that?
Does everyone agree?
What do you feel ?

The discussion goes on until students have shared all they can about the
picture. The teacher summarizes what the students said.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( GUIDED PRACTICE)
• Students can self-select another student with
whom to process or think-pair-share. It is to
Learning Buddies or provide time for a focus question or discussion.
Partners

• The teacher posts questions, quotations, photos,


etc., in each of the corners of the room. The
teachers assigns each student to a corner or
students choose. Once in the corner, the students
discuss the focus of the lesson in relation to the
question, quote, etc.
• At this time, students may report out or move to
another corner and repeat the process.
Four Corners
• After students have moved, as a writing response,
they should be encouraged to reflect on changes in
opinion or new learning.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( GUIDED PRACTICE)

• DR-TA guides students through


actively reading the text coaching
them to make and support
predictions before reading, examine
Direct Reading and their predictions, conclusion.
Thinking Activity Students are taught how to use
prediction and monitoring to revise,
extend, and elaborate initial hunches
60 based on textual information.
Students actively compare, contrast,
evaluate.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( GUIDED PRACTICE)

•Reciprocal
questioning was
designed to teach
students to ask and
ReQuest answer questions as
61 they read
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( GUIDED PRACTICE)

• Students number off in teams, one


through four.
• Teacher asks a question
• Students discuss possible answers to the
question, for a set amount of time. Group
works to agree on best answer with all
kids ready to represent team.
• Teacher calls a number 1-4 and all
students with that number raise their
Numbered hand, ready to respond.
• Teacher randomly calls on students with
Heads
62 the specified number to answer on behalf
of their team.
• Teacher continues asking questions until
the brainstorming or review session is
finished.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( GUIDED PRACTICE)

• Divide students into groups


of two. Partner A reads a
paragraph and Partner B
Partner summarizes it.
• The roles switch back and
Reading forth with each paragraph
63
until the assigned reading
is completed.
THE SIX COMPONENTS OF EXPLICIT
TEACHING

• Students practice the


SAME kinds of problems as
during the guided practice
time.
• During this time, teacher
Independent should be moving about
the room, watching,
Practice guiding, and moving
students along.
• Be sure students are able
64 to accurately complete
task independently.
EXAMPLES

 Skill-based : worksheets, flash cards, games, drills


 Application: journal entry, essay diorama, dramatization
OTHER EXAMPLES

 Differentiated instruction

• Have students write down words they


find that fit the desired patterns in
journals or on charts.
• Ask student to form small groups and
read the words they find aloud.
• Have students check to see what new
words they can add to their journals or
charts.
• Ask students to find words that they can
group together in categories.
• Record the words on chart paper for a
WORD HUNT

How to use a word hunt?

 Introduce the book or topic to be read and


provide students with written material (i.e.,
newspapers, magazines, dictionaries, books,
and/or news articles on the Internet).
 Model word hunting by using a portion of text
copied onto chart paper, overhead
transparencies, or a familiar book
 Ask the students to read and reread a text to
find words that fit a particular pattern.
READER’S THEATER

How to use reader's theater?

 Choose a story that can be divided into


parts, or characters.
 Assign reading parts to each child.
 Ask students to read their scripts orally
for practice.
 Have students read assigned parts to the
audience.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( INDEPENDENT PRACTICE)

•Students brainstorm as
many words as they can
on a given subject and
List-Group- then organize the words
into meaningful groups
Label with labels.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( INDEPENDENT PRACTICE)

• For Inside/Outside Circles, the class


is divided in half. Half the class
becomes the inside circle, and the
other half the outside circle for two
large concentric circles. Students in
the inside circle face the students in
the outside circle. The teacher
announces a topic, asks a question,
Inside- or students ask each other questions
on sheets or flashcards. After
outside Circle
70 partners from the inside and outside
circle have shared or answered each
other’s questions, one circle is
rotated so students face new
partners for a new question or topic.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( INDEPENDENT PRACTICE)

• A strategy to use before and


after reading a selection.

• Student marks whether they


agree or disagree with
Anticipation statements about the
Reaction Guide selection before and then
71 after they read. Discussion is
rich and deep about the
topic.
THE SIX COMPONENTS OF EXPLICIT
TEACHING

• The assessment portion can be


informal - using Fist-to-Five, 12
Word Summary, Brain Bark, Exit
Cards, Idea Wave, Thumbs Up,
Thumbs Down, etc.
Closure/ • The assessment portion can be
formal – a method to measure
Assessment student understanding or
proficiency of the learning
objective in test or quiz format or
72
essay writing, project, report,
etc.
• It is a time to collect student
learning evidence of
standards/objectives.
EXAMPLES

 Signaled Response
 Individual Private Response ( Think-Pair-Share)
 Quick Pencil Activity ( Exit Cards/ Response Cards)
 Statement from students of what they learned in the lesson
EXIT CARD
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( CLOSURE/ ASSESSMENT)

•Provides an interactive opportunity


for kids to show their learning.
•Students each receive a card with
information and find a match with a
peer. So, half the kids receive
questions and half receive
Q and A answers. After all the students have
found their match, move them into a
Match large circle, facing one another.
Each pair then shares their
question and answer.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( CLOSURE/ ASSESSMENT)
• Ask or do the following as closure or
assessment at end of a lesson:

• Who can tell me what we learned today?


• Choral or partner restate of what we
learned today

• Journal quick write: students write


Restate the reflection, key learning of the day
Standard or
Objective
• Dismissal/line up: students must state
76
one key learning as they leave the class

• 3.2.1 – 3 – Things I learned today, 2 –


comment, 1 – Question I still have
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( CLOSURE/ ASSESSMENT)

• Students revisit information,


Word analyze it, summarize it in a
single word and provide an
Journals explanation for the selection
77
of the word.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( CLOSURE/ ASSESSMENT)

•After reading or studying a


topic, students identify
words and phrases they
Found believe capture the key
ideas in the content and
Poems arrange them to form a
78
poem.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( CLOSURE/ ASSESSMENT)

• New accounts or adaptations


of a text that allow students
to consider information and
then summarize, orally, what
Retellings they understand about this
information.
79
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( CLOSURE/ ASSESSMENT)

• Requires students to
represent knowledge in a
nonlinguistic fashion,
typically using images or
movement to do so. Four
Visual Displays types are mentioned; graphic
of Information organizers, inspiration,
80 foldables, dioramas.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( CLOSURE/ ASSESSMENT)
•Students work in small groups to
make Team Chants related to the
content. First, students come up with
the words and phrases related to the
content.
•Then they come up with a rhythmic
chant that highlights the important
words or phrases.
Team Chant •Finally, they add rhythm to their
81
chant, usually in the form of
stomping, clapping, or snapping.
Movements may be integrated also.
ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES
( CLOSURE/ ASSESSMENT)

• Students create a visual map


of their ideas. Teacher give
topic.
• Students write the word of
draw picture of it in center.
Mind • Radiating from main idea are
Mapping related ideas, icons, arrows,
82 symbols, and codes used to
represent main idea and
interrelation of related ideas.
AS A WAY TO SUMMARIZE

What is explicit? Why?

The teacher knows precisely what Unclear learning objectives result


she wants students to learn (be able in vague teaching and learning.
to do) at the end of the lesson.

The teacher tells students what they Students are given a sense of
will be learning. predictability and control. They
are joined with the teacher in the
instructional encounter.
83

The teacher focuses her attention and Students know where to direct
students’ attention on the task at their attention so that learning is
hand. maximized.
AS A WAY TO SUMMARIZE

What is explicit? Why?


The teacher explains, models, gives Knowledge that is usually covert is
examples and non-examples, made overt and explicit; students
restates when necessary, and helps are “let in” on the secret of how
students to state and restate goals independent learners learn.
and strategies.

The curriculum is arranged so that Students are set up for success!


students are taught prerequisite
skills ahead of time.
The learning is meaningful and Students are not taught useless
purposeful. facts and concepts; what students
are taught now they use now and in
the future; explicit connections are
made between prior and current
learning.
AS A WAY TO SUMMARIZE

What is explicit? Why?


The instructional transaction The e.i. framework combines
follows a structured framework. elements that maximize
achievement for many students.

The teacher provides Particularly in the acquisition


corrective feedback. stage, the teacher corrects all
errors. Otherwise, students
will practice errors and have
difficulty learning more
complex skills later on.
EXAMPLE

10/10/2018
Setting the Stage:
Look at this picture class.
What do you see in the picture?
Do you know how these are called?
We call them nouns. Today, you will learn about
nouns.
At the end of today’s lesson, you will be able to
categorize nouns as people, places and things.
EXPLAINING TO THE STUDENTS WHAT TO DO:

10/10/2018
Today, we are going to learn about nouns.
You will also categorize them later as persons,
places, or things.
Knowing this is important because everything that
we see around is a noun.
Knowing their categories will help you compose a
sensible sentence.
TEACHING/ MODELING

10/10/2018
Listen as I name these pictures.

policeman teacher nurse etc.

They are persons. What are they again, class?


They are___________.
TEACHING/ MODELING

10/10/2018
Listen as I name these pictures.

market school church etc.

These are places. What are they again, class?


They are___________.
TEACHING/ MODELING

10/10/2018
Listen as I name these pictures.

book pencil computer etc.

These are things. What are they again, class?


They are___________.
GUIDED PRACTICE

10/10/2018
We are going to play “ Is it a person, place or
thing?” activity. I will put the picture in correct
box. GRADE 1
GUIDED PRACTICE

10/10/2018
GRADE 2
We are going to have an activity called “ Silly
Sentences.”
-The teacher will first write a sentence with three
blanks (one for a person, one for a place, and one
for a thing) on the board. Some sample sentences
are:
The person brought the thing to the place.
GUIDED PRACTICE

10/10/2018
GRADE 3

-We are going to have a activity called “ List-Group-


Label”
-We are going to list examples of nouns and
organize them
-We are going to label each group.
INDEPENDENT PRACTICE

10/10/2018
Categorize the following nouns as persons,
places, or things.
CLOSURE

10/10/2018
Who can tell me what we learned today?
ACTIVITY 2 - "LET'S WORK TOGETHER"

10/10/2018
* Using Vygotsky's ZPD, think of how you
can lead/guide a learner to develop his/her
full potential.

* Answer a worksheet in your small group.


Lesson:
________________________________________

Where the students are/ What the students


are able to do now:
________________________________________
______________________________________
ACTIVITY 2 - "LET'S WORK TOGETHER"

10/10/2018
Where you want to lead the students/ What you
want the students to be able to do:
________________________________________

Key Activities:
_______________________________________________
_____________________________________________
________________________
* Demonstrate how the activity/activities is/are
done.
10/10/2018
"I do, you watch;
I do you help;
You do together, I help;
You do independently, I watch."

"Show me, help me, let me."