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Theory and Practice of ELL

Nadine, Katherine and Nicole

Students will be able to:

● identify the main parts of Cummins’ Theory of Second

Language Acquisition.
● compare the effectiveness of rapid and gradual-exit
● apply the 50/50 Model in their own lives and observe its
● draw conclusions about the benefits of Two-Way Bilingual
One day, Mother Mouse was crossing the street with her
three little children. She got about halfway across the road
when she spotted a cat, crouched and ready to pounce upon
them. The cat and Mother Mouse eyeballed each other for
two to three minutes. Finally, Mother Mouse opened her
mouth and let out an enormous “Woof.” The cat quickly
scurried away to avoid this “unseen” dog. Mother Mouse
turned to her three little ones and said, “Now, do you see the
advantage of a second language?” (Author Unknown)
Vocabulary Time!!!
KAHOOT TIME!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Cummins’ Theory of Second Language
● Additive/ Subtractive Bilingualism
○ Additive Bilingualism: student continues to develop first language/ native culture WHILE learning
new, second language/ become familiar with new culture
i. Both languages/ cultures are in tact
○ Subtractive Bilingualism: second language/ culture replaces first language/ culture
i. Second language/ culture only remains
● Task Difficulty
○ Cummins created four types of tasks for ELL students to help them progress
Cummins’ Theory of Second Language
● Common Underlying Proficiency: first language skills transferable to second
○ For example: transferable reading skill ~ using context clues
○ BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills~ “playground language”
■ Student may appear to have proficient language skills while in social situations, but they are
using social cues. ~3-5 years
○ CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency~ “classroom language”
■ Student is more likely to struggle with CALP because it requires them to use academic
language.~ 5-7 years
Gradual-Exit Model
● Kindergarten to 4th grade
● Students receive ESL instruction
● Students still learn other subjects in the native language, through sheltered
English instruction, or in mainstream classrooms.
● No rush to move students to all English instruction.
○ Teachers are trained to resist societal pressures to move students as quickly as possible.
● Once higher level academic skills are developed, they will easily transfer from the
child’s native language to English.
Gradual-Exit Model
● “...we were cutting off [native language instruction] before they developed the
thinking process, even the reading comprehension skills, at about 1st grade.
○ Bonnie Rubio (principal of Eastman Avenue School)
● “Most of our 3rd and 4th graders now [make the] transition [into regular
classrooms] just about at grade level. Whereas before, when we were moving them
across earlier, we found that there would be a year to a year and a half deficiency.
And that would increase as they [rose] through the grades, being frustrated and
probably failing.”
○ Roque Berlanga (principal of Fergeson Elementary)
Gradual-Exit Model
Video 1

Video 2


Which sound clip did you have a better understanding of?

How does this illustrate the differences between rapid and gradual exit models?
Two-Way Bilingual Education
● English-speaking children learn a second language (target
language) while LEP children learn English
● Students receive instruction in English and another language in a
classroom that is usually composed of one half native English
speakers and one half native speakers of the target language
● Most common target language → Spanish
Presentation of the Two Languages
● Content
○ Social studies and math are taught all in Spanish, science and ELA
taught all in English
● Teacher
○ One teacher only speaks Spanish and one teacher only speaks English
● Day
○ Instruction is given in a certain language on alternate days
Advantages of Two-Way Bilingual Education
● Students develop proficiency in both languages
● LEP students benefit from learning in their native languages and in
● Native English-speaking students acquire a second language as
they are taught academic content in an immersion environment
● Goal → create fully bilingual individuals
Research Findings
● Student achievement on standardized tests demonstrated
academic progress and fluency in both languages
● Hispanic students in five urban districts with two-way bilingual
education programs had more long term educational gains than
students in other bilingual or ESL programs
● Two-Way Bilingual Education programs enhance the acquisition of
a second language and builds mutual respect among students
90/10 Model
★ First language is taught for 90% of the day while second language is used 10% of
★ By time get to 5th grade using 50/50 Model
★ Case Study: San Diego School District 1982
○ Emphasis on Spanish language~ would make sure the Spanish speaking students got translations if
needed in English speaking classes (which were not many)
○ Results: English speaking and Spanish speaking students did well, although this success was not
typically seen until later on in the program ( usually 6th grade to score in 50th percentile for reading
and math).
50/50 Model

★ Native language and English have balanced instruction

from the beginning
○ Lessons provided in English for half day and native
language for half the day
★ Popular among Latino communities
★ The subjects taught in Spanish/English are decided by
★ Highly successful in developing language proficiency
Case Study With 50/50 Model
★ Key School in Arlington, VA~ Spanish community
○ The students in the 50/50 school outperformed their peers who went
the English only school
■ Even did better when tested in English on topics they learned
with Spanish instruction than English only school i.e. science,
math, social studies
○ Students who received Spanish and English instruction= bilingual
★ Holland Public School
Venn Diagram!
90/10 Model 50/50 Model

Gradual-Exit Two-Way
Model Bilingual
Learning Styles
➢ Auditory: During Center 1, students have the opportunity to use their auditory
learning style as they listen to two recordings and delineate differences between
the two.
➢ Visual: During Centers 2 and 3, students are able to watch videos that embellish
and present visuals to accompany the topics they discussed at that center.
➢ Applied: During the closure activity, students will be able to apply their new
knowledge and decide which of the four practices they would want to use in their
classroom and defend why they would choose this one.
➢ Social: Students are given the opportunity to share their ideas with their peers at
each center.
➢ Independent: Students are able to work on their own while completing the Venn
Diagram, the Kahoot, and at various time in the centers.
Works Cited
● http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/cummin.htm
● https://www.santillanausa.com/spanish-classroom/total-immersion-and-partial-immersion-programs-different-models-resources-for-your-

● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fyfxUZpRTGo
● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nUFO92j81ck

● https://www.idra.org/resource-center/two-way-bilingual-education/